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Science Midterm Review 2


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The bones that make up the backbone of an animal human. Made up of 26 bones.
(spiral column)
A soft connective tissue which spaces in a bone cerain.
Produces blood cells for the body
Red Marrow
Stores fat as an energy reserve.
Yellow Marrow
A connective issue that is more flexible than a bone. Gives shape, support, and some cushins.
A place in the body where two bones come together.
A jont that connects bones in a way that allows little or no movement.
Immovable joint
Example of immovable joint
Bones in skull, ribs to sternum
Allows the body to make a wde range of movements
Movable Joint
A type of joint that allows the greatest range of moton. Give example
Ball and Sockt Joint
Example- Shoulder (top of arm bone fits into a bowl-like shape)
A type of joint that allows one bone to rotate around another. Give example
Pivot joint
Example- Top of neck (lets the head rotate side to side)
A type of joint that allows extensive forward or backward motion. Give example
Hinge Joint
Example-Knee, elbow
A type of joint that allows one bone to slide over another. Give example
Gliding Joint
Example- Wrist, ankle
Strong connective tissue that holds together the bones in a movable joint.
A condiion is which the body's become weak and break easily. As people become older they loose some minerals
To help prevent osteoporosis teens should eat _______diet
All people should do weight _______
Some exmples are :
healthy, exercises
Example s of weight exercises: Walking, hand weighs, push-ups, pull-ups, and running
A muscle that is not nder conscious control. Smooth and cardic muscles, Give examples
Involuntary Muscle
Example- (control breathing & digesting)
A muscle that is under consious control. Skeletal Musles, Give examples
Voluntary muscles
Example- (control running, jumping, turning a page)
What are the 3 types of muscles and where they are found
1.)skeletal muscles- muscle that is attached to the bone
2.) smooth muscles-found in many internal organs of the body.
3.) cardiac muscles- Muscle tissue only found in the heart
A muscle that is attached to the bones of the skeleton. Povides the force that moves your bones. Voluntary Muscle. Give Examples
Skeletal Muscles
Example- biceps, triceps
Involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body They work automatically to control many types of movements inside your body. They are not striated, react more slowly, tire more slowly. Give example
Smooth Muscles
Example- The smooth muscle of your stomach contract, they produce a churning action. The churning mixes the food with chemicals producd by your stomach. This action and these chemicals help to digest food.
Muscle tissue found only in the heart.. Involuntary muscls. Contracts repeatedly, straited, and dosn't get tired.
Cardiac Muscles
The outermost layer of the skin. Thinner than the dermis and contains no nerves or muscles.
Pigament that gives the skin it color, produced deep in the epidermis. The more you get he darker your skin gets.
(exposre to the sun stimulates protection of melanin; helps protects the skin from burning.)
An opening through which sweat reaches the surface of the skin.
(Sweat glands are located at the base of the pore)
A structure in the dermis of the skin from which a strand of hair grows
A disease in which some body cells divide uncontrollably. Grows abnormally and damages healthy tissue.
Often cause by to much sun exposure. protect your skin by using sunscreen and avoiding direct contract with suns rays SPF 15 or greater sunscreen to avoid sun
A bacterial infection of the skin that ccan be difficult to control.
Results in bumps. Related to hygine and lso horomone activity.
The substances in food that provide the raw maerials and enery the body needs to carrry out all the essential processes.
Calorie with a cpital "C" is used to measure energy in ___________
A type of nutrient which are composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and is a major source of energy.
Your daily energy reuiremen depends on a person's ________________. The more active you are, the _________your energy needs.
level of physical activity,
One gram of carboydrates provides your body with _____________Calories of energy.
4 Calories
High energy nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
Nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydroen, and oxygen.
Proteins that are from animal sources such as meat and eggs are call _________
because they contain all the essential amino acids.
complete proteins
Proteins that are from plant sources, such as beans, grans, and nuts, are called ___________ because they are missing one or more essentail amino acids.
incomplete proteins
The process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient moleculs.
The process by which nurient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood.
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
Where is salivary amylase produced in and what is its action?
It is produced in the mouth. It breaks down starches into sugar.
Where is pepsin produced in and what is its action?
it is produced in the stomach. It breaks down proteins into shorter chains of amino acids.
Where is hydrochloric acid produced in and what is its action?
It is produced in the stomach. it provides an acid environment for pepsin; kills bacteria
A flap of tissue, that seals off your windpipe, preventing the food from entering.
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. (foodtube)
A thick, slippery substance produced by the body. In the digestive system it makes food easier to swallow and be moved along.
Involuntary waves f muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
A j-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen that expands to hold all of the food that is swallowed.
The fluid released when your mouth water. Plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestive processes.
Saliva mixes with food, moistening it and making it slippery.
The part of the digestive system where most of the chemical digestion takes place; and all absorption of nutriens (except water takes place)
Small Intestine
Measures 5 cm in diameter and 6 meters long.
Located in the upper portion of the abdomen. It is the largest and heaviest organ inside the body. Produces bile, breaks down medicine and other substances. It also eliminates nitrogen.
A substance that breaks up fat particles.
The organ that stores bile.
A triangular organ that lies between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine.
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of he small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed.
The last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body.
Large Intestine
A short tube at the end of the large intestine. Waste material is compresed into a solid form.
A muscular (shincter) opening at the end of the rectum, throu which waste materials aree eliminated from the body.
The basic units of structure and function in living things.
Protects the cell and regulates what substances enter and leaves the cell.
Cell Membrance
Directs all of the ells activites including reproductiom
Contains a clear, jellylike substance in whch many important cell structures, called organelles are found.
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
What is the four basic types oof tissues
Muscle Tissue, Nerve Tissue, Connective Tissue, Epithelial Tissue.
A type of tissue that can contract or shorten. By doing than it makes parts of your body move.
Muscle Tissue
A type of tissue tat carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of it. The brain has a lot of this tissue. Give example and location
Nerve Tissue
Example: Spinal cord,
Location: inside the vertebral column (backbone)
A type of tissue that provides support for your bdy and connects all its parts. Give example and location, explain a under skin
Connective Tissue
Example: Bone,
Location; rib cage, arms, legs (protects intenal organs)
Fat Under skin: pads and insulates from cold and stores energy.
Covers the surfaces of your body, inside and out. Give example and location
Epithelial Tissue. Some epitheil tissue such as the outermost layer of your skin protects the delicate structures that lie beneath it. Other kinds of epithelial tissue absorb or release substances. The lining of your digestive system consists of epithelial tissue that releases chemicals used in digestion.
Example: otermost layer of skin
Location: covering outside of body, protects delicate structures that lie beneath it.
A structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue. Give example.
Example: lung, stomach, heart, liver, pancreas, brain, skin
A group of organs that work together to perorm a major function. Give Exmples.
Organ system
Example: digestive, skeletal, nervous, muscular, espiratory, circulatory, excretory, immune, endocrine, reprductive.
The process by which an organisms internal environmnt is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.
The reaction of your body and mid to threatening, challenging, or distrbing events.
Some physical responses to stress are:
Sweating Increases
Hearing ability increases
More blood goes to the brain
Muscles Tense
Heart rate increases
Pupils dilate
Digestive system shuts down
A living thing. In the case of human beings, they are a multi-cellular organism made of many organ systems.
An organism could however be as small as one cell
What are 3 types of graphs and what do you use them for?
Bar Graph- comparing
Circle Graph- Percents
Line Graph- Something over time
Something you steup of you decide.
Give Example.
Manipulated Variable
Example- Temperature in radish seeds germination
Only one thing changes in an experiment.
Controlled Experiment
How do you focus on a microscope?
First stat out on low power objective. Put the eyepiece on 4x and then when you get it all controlled you can switch it when you are ready.
If you had a clean slide how would an e look when you look through the microscope.
Upside don and backwards
A complex Carbohydrate found in pkant foods but cnnot be broken down into sugar molecules by your body.
An experiment in which all of the vairables except for one remains the same.
Controlled Experiment
The abiliy to make thing look larger than they are
A thing to small to see with your bear eye
A thing large enough to see with you bear eye.
A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to scientific quest; must be testable
Always in an "If...then..." form
The abiliy to clealy distinguish the individual parts of an object.
The factor that changes as a result of changes to the manipulatedd variable in an experiment; also called the dependent variable.
Responding Variable
The one factor that a scientist changes to test a hypothesis during an experiment; also called the independent variable.
Manipulated Variable
An organism wose cells lack a nucleus and some other cell structures.
An organism with cells that contain nucli and other cell organisms.
A waxy fatlike substance found only in animal products.
A sugar that has a major source of energy for your body cell's
Proteins are made p of small units called_________ which aree linked together chemically to form large proein molecules.
amino acids
Fats, such as butter, that are usually solid at room temperature.
Saturated fats
Fats such as olive oil and canola oil, that are usually liquid at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats
Molecules that act as helpers in a variety of chemical reactions within the body.
Vitamins A, D, E,K
Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12
Nutrients that are not made by living things. Give Examples
Example- Calcium, Chlorine, Fluorine, Iodine, Iron
There are six kinds of nutrients that are necessary for human health. What are they?
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
What does the Food Guid Pyramid help you do?
It helps classify foods into six group. It also indicates how many serving from each group should be eaten every day to maintain a healthy diet.
What did Janssen do?
Janssen made on of the first compund microscopes
What did Hooke do?
Hook saw compartments in CORK and called them cells.
What did Leeuwenhoek do?
Leeuwenhoek was the first one to see bacteria.
What did Schleiden do?
Schleiden concluded that all plants are made of cells.
What did Schwann do?
Schwann concluded first that all animalswere made of cells and then concluded all living things are made from cells.
What did Virchow do?
Virchow concluded all cells come from cells.
How many servings are you supposed to have of grains?
6-11 servings
Who many servings are you supposed to have of vegetables
3-5 servings
How many servings are you supposed to have of fruit?
2-4 servings
How many servings are you supposed to have of protein?
2-3 servings
How many servings are you supposed to have in dairy?
2-3 servings
How many servings are you supposed to have in sweets?
You are supposed to use them sparingly

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