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8th grade vocab


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privilege or right officially granted a person or a group by a government especially constitutional or statutory right to vote; granting of certain rights and powers to a corporation, legal immunity from servitde, certain burdens, or other restrictions
the fact or quality of being diverse; difference; point of respect in which things differ
movement in U.S. History to reduce the amount of alcohol consumed
those who supported the American Revolution in the colonies
religious dissenter
someone who speaks out against the established religion of an area
system or range of economic activity in a country, region, or community
representative government
form of government in which the citizens delegate authority to elected representatives
those who stayed loyal to the British rule in the colonies
capitalist economy
economic system based on private ownership of capital
Separatist Movement
refers to the social movements for a particular group of people to separate from a dominant political institution under which they suffer
science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock
civil disobedience
refusal to obey civil laws in an effort to induce change in governmental policy or legislation, characterized by the use of passive resistance or other nonviolent means
to differ in opinion or feeling; disagree
to form or establish a colony, to migrate and tosettle; occupy as in a colony
act of doing away with or the state of being done away with; annulment
territorial expansion
westward movement of the American people into the western territories
Magna Carta
1215 document that limited powers of the king and gave rights to nobles
adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or exsxamination of the facts; a preconceived preference or idea
to enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native
breaking away from, the withdrawal of 11 Southern states from the Union in 1860-1861, leading to the Civil War
policy in the U.S. in the 19th century, favoring the interests of established inhabitants over those immigrants
to bring or carry in from an outside source, especially to bring in (goods or materials) froma foreign country for trade or sale
ethnic groups
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
protective tariff
tariff designed to secure protection, as opposed to a tariff designed to raise revenue
concerning the topography of a specific region
yield from property or inverstment; income
manufactored good
processed good or product
treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit; partiality or prejudice.
equal protection under the law
when all people in a country have the same rights and are treated the same by the laws
effort to trying to get your message to the people
boundary dispute
territorial dispute along the edge of two neighboring land owners
nominating conventions
meeting where a political party selects its presidential and vice presidential candidates
living together inorganized groups or similar close aggregates
British rule
colonists in America livede under laws handed down to them by the British monarchy up until they gained their independence in the Revolutionary War
multiple-tiered timeline
timeline that has two or more rows of events, each row representing a different set of subjects or topics occuring during the period under study
checks and balances
powers (as judicial review, the presidential veto, and the congressional override) conferred on each of the three branches of government by which each restrains the others from exerting too much power
agrarian society
culture or community in which agriculture is the primary means of subsustence; an economy that relies heavily on agricultural production
authoritarian rule
rule over a people in which there is an expectance of unquestioned obedience
Spoils system
post-election practice of rewarding loyal supporters of the winning candidates and party with appointive public offices
of, relating to, or dealing with the structure or affairs of government, politics, or the state
policy or practice of separating people of different races, classes, or ethnic groups, as in school, housing, and public or commercial facilities, especially as a form of discrimination
National Bank
bank of the U.S. formed in 1863-1864
raw material
unprocessed natural product used in manufactoring
act or instance that may be used as an example in dealing with subsequent similar instances
armed revolution
violent overthrow of a government
act or process of establishing a colony or colonies
groups' refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad work conditions
separation of powers
division of governmental power into distinct areas with different branches of government exercising different powers; prevent one branch from becoming too powerful
social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
concerned with or teaching religion
mound builder
a member of any of the various Native American peoples flourishing from around 5th century B.C. to the 16th century A.D. especially in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys, practicing settled agriculture and known for their often large burial and effigy mounds
nonparticipation in a dispute or war
beliefs and practices characteristic of Puritans, very strict code of conduct
those who didn't support either the colonists or the British
belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability; discrimination or prejudice based on race
French colonization
primarily came to America to trap furs, generally did not create large settlements, got along better with Natives than British
loose construction
interpretation of the Constitution where the federal government can take action the Consitution does not forbid it from taking
indentured servant vs. slavery
colonists who received a free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for certain number of year vs. forced servitude
divided loyalties
when someone doesn't know which side to choose in a disagreement
colony in Massachusetts
location of some of the earliest English colonies in America. Most well-known is Plymouth. Generally people originally came for religious freedom, Puritan.
trading triangle
triangular trade routes during the age of expansion
large estate or farm which crops are raised, often resident workers
theory and system of political economy prevailing in Europe after the decline of feudalism; banning trade; commercialism
to develop industry in a country or society
Federalism Party
US political party founded in 1787 to advocate the establishment of a strong federal government and the adoption by the states of the Constitution. The party gained prominence in the 1790s under the leadership of Alexander Hamilton
economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market
trade balance
difference in value over a period of time of a country's imports and exports of merchandise; a nations balance of trade is favorable when its exports exceed its imports
one of the people who wrote the US Constitution
an often oversimplified or biased mental picture held to characterize the typical individual or a group
limitations of government
limits placed on government so it does not become too powerful
Central, National, Federal
main governmetn at the United States level
due process
established course for judicial proceedings or other government activities designed to safeguard citizens
composed of or based on two legislative chambers or branches
system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and the states
states' rights
all rights not delegated to the federal government by the Constitution nor denied by it to the states
strict construction
interpretation of the Constitution where the federal government can only do what the Constitution states
list or system of duties imposed by a government on imported or exported goods
charter document
written grant from sovereign power of a country conferring certain rights and privileges on a person, a corporation, or the people; (a royal charter exempted the Massachusetts colony from direct interference by the Crown)
labor union
an organization of wage earners formed for the purpose of serving the members' interests with respect to wages and working conditions
relating to farming; agriculture
women's suffrage
right of women to vote
relating to the production, development, and management of material wealth
one of the people who wrote the US Constitution
person following the pursuits of civil life, especially one who is not an active member of the military or police

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