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Chapter 13

Terms

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Papal States
the states solely governed by the Church that suffered impoverishment as all the popes were in Avignon
Jan Hus
one of the few Czechs to view Wyvlif's ideas and interesting and academically endeavoring; after years in exile, he was killed for his acceptance of Wyclif
Holy Roman Empire
area of German-speaking regions that were connected by their beliefs of Christianity; universities
To what extent did the 100 Years' War serve as a catalyst for political, economic, and social changes?
nationalism/patriotism increased; England lost 5 million pounds; political councils stepped up as the fundamental to governments (Parliament was established); commoners began to nurture their interests and assemble away from their lords
Charles VIII
the Dauphin; uncrowned king until Joan of Arc
concilarists
believe reform of the Church could be done through councils representing the Christians
Defensor Pacis
The Defender of the Peace: the Church has no inherent jurisdiction and shouldn't own property; this was severely condemned by the pope
Babylonian Captivity
popes were living in Avignon (southeastern France) but Philip the Fair wanted Clement V to settle so he could control the Church as well
Statue of Kilkenny
legislation preventing intermarriage and protected 'racial purity'
balance of power
Naples, Venice, Milan, Florence, Papal States; competed over smaller states: a state would gain power in Italy and the 5 would ally to establish a balance of power
Pope Alexander VI
ruled the Papal States militarily and politically during the Renaissance
What effect did the 100 Years' War have on the population of belligerent nations?
both England and France faced dramatic population decrease because of the war, but also the Black Death and battles wiping out agricultural land
In which way was outlook on life of the Renaissance different from that of the Middle Ages?
1. humanism: not from Bible, but ideas are from history and 2. secularism: though still religious, the Church wasn't always right and 3. individualism: one could celebrate their work and be improved
oligarchy
the rule of merchant aristocracies
"new monarchs"
National Monarchs who invested kingship with a sense of royal authority and purpose
the Medici family
wealthy and noble banking family which ruled Florence behind the scenes during the Renaissance
How did the 100 Years' War go?
fought mostly in France; England advanced in Crecy using longbows (3 to 1 Frenchmen bow) and continued winning; Joan of Arc, influenced by saints' voices, goes to the Dauphin (Charles VIII) to lead him to victory at the battle at Orleans; Charles is crowned and Joan is kidnapped
the crusades
holy war between Muslims and Christians to reclaim Jerusalem for the Catholic Church; this war introduces the crossbow, gunpowder, and innovative siege tactics
Pope Clement V
ill with cancer during the Babylonian Captivity, so he reluctantly accepted Philip the Fair's request
War of Roses
England's civil war between who should have power (York vs. Lancaster); this war breaks down the feudal system in England
commune
sworn associations of free men seeking independence from nobles (mainly merchants)
What were the themes of Renaissance art and in which ways did this reflect the new attitude?
the added detail and depth to clothing and facial features exemplified the worth of the individual, the Greek mythological subjects demonstrated usage of humanism, and the lack of religious dominance illustrated secularism
Joan of Arc
fought in the battle at Orleans at merely 17 yrs.-old; Burgundians sold her captivity to England and she was condemned as a heretic to be burned at the stake; Charles VIII didn't do anything to help her after he gained power
humanism
study of cultural and historic facts from Ancient Greece to learn lessons from history
What was the Renaissance? Why'd it begin in Italy?
"rebirth"; the celebration of Greek/Roman culture and knowledge begin in Italy because: 1. center of trade, so ideas flowed in constantly & it was the middle-man for the rest of Europe's economic boom and 2. money from the Medici banks helped finance as people began to compete in wealth
Burgundy
right of France; region that kidnapped Joan of Arc for England
popolo
a group of people who were excluded from power and rights by the communes
antipope (AKA Pope Clement VII)
to justify the "legally elected Urban VI", Clement VII was elected in Avignon
How did inventions reinforce the ideals of the Renaissance?
movable type made books more accessible, therefore learning and self-expansion available and the clock created precision and all-season trade (which motorized the Renaissance)
Great Schism
a period of division in Western Christendom between Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII of Avignon
Why did the 100 Years' War begin?
Edward III held the throne of England and a nephew of Philip the Fair, Philip VI took the French throne; Edward III was the Fair's grandson, but was denied the French throne; Edward demands to be given the duchy Aquitaine (citing the Treat of Paris) but is also denied that
What were the social/psychological effects of repeated attacks of plaque and disease?
intermarriage as the only method to repopulate; men became possessive and brutal; funerals no longer recite the Death Rites; universities
Pope Urban VI
sought to reform the Church of the luxurious priesthood and being neglected; pressured to elect and Italian pope
Cesare Borgia
mentioned in Machiavelli's "The Prince" because of his cruel governing and assistance to his father (Pope Alexander VI) in conquering the Papal States
How did the literatures reflect political/social changes?
literacy became more common which demanded the establishment of schools; government official positions were more desirable
How did the Renaissance spread to France, Germany, and England?
end of 15th century, students flocked north to spread the ideas; though, those countries remained more Christian and biblical
secularism
decreased reliance on the Church for (political) knowledge; people can think for themselves
individualism
emphasis of the individual achievements and the idea that the individual can improve
manumission
the act of freeing from slavery
Salic Law
a long & obsolete law stating that the crown of France may not be passed through a woman heir
Jacquerie
to revive the economy, France dramatically increased taxes that ultimately weakened the poor dramatically; the Jacquerie is the massive revolt that resulted from the taxation
English Peasant Revolt
a mere five-week revolt rebelling against the long-time suffering and exploitation
What provoked a schism in the Church? What effect did this have on commoners?
major countries split off to ally with the pope they supported; commoners were confused as to which pope was legitimate, and their religious faith ultimately weakened

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