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History Test

Terms

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Treaty of Paris
Was a treaty that put all the fighting in North America to an end. This treaty permitted the French to keep some of its sugar-producing islands in the West Indies, but they were forced to give of Canada and most of its lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain.
George Washington
He was an average 21 year old planter and surveyor sent into Ohio country by Governor Robert Dinwiddie. His mission was to tell the French that they were trespassing on Great Britain territory and demand that they leave. He did what he was told but it didn't do anything because the French were determined to take over Ohio. After some time passed he was sent back up with some troops this time to build a fort (Fort Necessity), but when they got there they discovered that the French were already building a fort (Fort Duquesne) so they went straight to building their fort. During this time they attacked a French scouting party and they were immediately surrounded and forced to surrender and they were taken in as prisoners but later released.
Proclamation of 1763
Was a statement set that the Appalachian Mountains were temporary western boundary for the colonies.
King George III
In the Proclamation of 1763 he declared that the Appalachian Mountains were the temporary western border for the colonies. The proclamation actually angered people especially the people who owned shares in land companies. These investors had already bought land out west of the mountains, and they were furious because the British ignored their land claims.
Subsistence Farming
A type of farming where a farmer only grews enough to support his own family.
Militia
An emergency army that is made up of civilians (men) who are normally inexperienced.
General Edward Braddock
Commander Chief of British and forces in America who led 1500 to Fort Duquesne, but they were ambushed by the French and the Native Americans while passing through the Ohio River valley. When the ambush occurred he was shot in the lung and four days later he died.
Iroquois Confederacy
A powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the United States made up of five nations: The Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida
George Whitefield
He was another very moving preacher during the time of the "Great Awakening". One special thing about him though was that he was a itinerant (moved from colony to colony) preacher.
Tidewater
A region of flat, low-lying plains along the seacoast.
Enlightenment
Was a movement during the 1700s that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society.
Backcountry
Was an area west of Tidewater that has many hills and forests of which was connected to the Appalachian Mountains
Export
To sell goods abroad.
Overseer
Was a white man who supervised field hands and they had the power to whip when someone was to slack.
Benjamin Franklin
Was one of the representatives involved in the Albany meeting in 1754. The reason for this meeting was to find a way for the colonies to defend themselves from the French, and all the representatives adopted his idea which was that they would have an elected legislature who would govern the colonies, collect taxes, raise troops, and regulate trade (this plan was called the Albany Plan of Union)
Speculator
A person who risks money in order to make a large profit.
Slave Codes
The laws passed in the Southern states that controlled and restricted enslaved people.
Alliance
Is a union or a group of states, people, or countries that are all allies.
Jeffery Amherst
Was a British general that led British assault on Louisburg (Nova Scotia) to recapture it in 1758. He later died in 1779 from old age.
Jonathon Edwards
He was a preacher from Massachusetts and was one of the leaders of the "Great Awakening". He was a very moving preacher and everyone was able to make many people to believe him. He was also responsible for the Salem Witch Trials.
Smuggle
Trading illegally with other nations.
Albany Plan of Union
Was an idea originated by Benjamin Franklin that was adopted by many representatives in a very large meeting in Albany, New York. This idea was that the colonies would all have one leader that would collect taxes, raise troops, and regulate trade, but after this idea was sent through the colonies not one thought it was a good idea so it was to not be activated.
Mercantilsm
The theory that a state's or nation's power depended on its wealth and government.
Diversity
Variety or difference.
Literacy
The ability to read and write
John Peter Zenger
A New York Weekly Journal author was faced with charges of label for printing a critical report about the royal governor of New York. Andrew Hamilton argued that free speech was a basic right of English people. He defended Zenger by asking the jury to base their decision on whether his article was true or not. The jury found that he was not guilty. This was important because it was regarded as an important step in the development of a free press in America.
Cash Crop
Is a crop that can be farmed and sold for profit.
Middle Passage
Was the inhuman part of the triangular trade (really quadrilateral), shipping enslaved Africans to the West Indies.
Apprentice
Is someone who follows after someone in a trade and is taught by a master.
Triangular Trade
Was a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa.
The Great Awakening
Is the name of the powerful religious revival that wept over the colonies beginning in the 1720s. Christian ministers such as George Whitefield and Jonathon Edwards preached throughout the colonies, drawing huge crowds. The Great Awakening had a lasting effect on the way in which the colonists viewed themselves, their relationships with one another, and their faith.
Pontiac's War
Was the name of a series of raids by Pontiac and the rest of the Native Americans that killed many people along the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers.
William Pitt
Became secretary of state and then to prime minister for the British. He was a great leader because he knew how to pick skilled commanders and that he oversaw the war effort from London. To avoid having to deal with the constant arguments with the colonies Pitt decided that he'd pay for all the supplies and he later after the war raised the taxes in the colonies. He also was the one who sent Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe to the colonies to help takeover French Canada.
Robert Dinwiddie
Was governor of Virginia when he sent George Washington to the Ohio River valley in 1753. When Washington gets there he sees the French and tells them that they can't be there because they're "trespassing" and the French's reply was a simple "no" and so that's when George Washington built Fort Necessity.
Seven Years' War
Was just another name for the French and Indian war known to the English because for them war didn't actually start 'till 1756 rather than 1754.
Pontiac
Was a Native American chief of an Ottawa village near Detroit and he recognized that the British settlers threatened the Native American way of life. So he joined the Native American groups together and in the spring of 1763 Pontiac put together his alliance. He captured the fort in Detroit while the others captured other outposts. That summer Native Americans attacked and killed settlers along the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers in a series of raids.
Marquis de Montcalm
Was a French commander stationed at Quebec when James Wolfe and his troops (the British) attacked them from the Plains of Abraham. He fought in the battle and was wounded in battle and died the next day.

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