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Reconstruction

For Reconstruction test

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civil rights bill
gave blacks rights and privlages and citizenship
Radical republicans
critized Johnson's plan of Reconstruction for ignoring the rights of former slaves
emansipation proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 freed African Americans in rebel states, and after the Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment emancipated all U.S. slaves wherever they were. As a result, the mass of Southern blacks now faced the difficulty Northern blacks had confronted--that of a free people surrounded by many hostile whites. One freedman, Houston Hartsfield Holloway, wrote, "For we colored people did not know how to be free and the white people did not know how to have a free colored person about them."
Black Codes
attempted to regulate the lives of former slaves. Granted blacks certain rights such as legallized marrage and ownership of property. They denied them to testify against whites and to vote. Required blacks to sign yearly labor contracts.
failure of land reform
Johnson ordered nearly all land in federal hands returned to its former owners. Land was essential to the meaning of freedom
Johnson's plan
Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson, at first pleased the radicals by publicly attacking the planter aristocracy and insisting that the rebellion must be punished. His amnesty proclamation (May 29, 1865) was more severe than Lincoln's; it disenfranchised all former military and civil officers of the Confederacy and all those who owned property worth $20,000 or more and made their estates liable to confiscation. The obvious intent was to shift political control in the South from the old planter aristocracy to the small farmers and artisans, and it promised to accomplish a revolution in Southern society.
Lincoln's plan
Even before the war ended, President Lincoln began the task of restoration. Motivated by a desire to build a strong Republican party in the South and to end the bitterness engendered by war, he issued (Dec. 8, 1863) a proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction for those areas of the Confederacy occupied by Union armies. It offered pardon, with certain exceptions, to any Confederate who would swear to support the Constitution and the Union. Once a group in any conquered state equal in number to one tenth of that state's total vote in the presidential election of 1860 took the prescribed oath and organized a government that abolished slavery, he would grant that government executive recognition.
Reconstruction acts
temporallary divided the south into 5 military districts and called for the creation of new state governments with black men given the right to vote. On Mar. 2, 1867, Congress enacted the Reconstruction Act, which, supplemented later by three related acts, divided the South (except Tennessee) into five military districts in which the authority of the army commander was supreme. Johnson continued to oppose congressional policy, and when he insisted on the removal of the radical Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, in defiance of the Tenure of Office Act, the House impeached him (Feb., 1868). The radicals in the Senate fell one vote short of convicting him (May), but by this time Johnson's program had been effectively scuttled.
Freedman's Bureau
establish a working free labor system. Assist free slaves with food, medical care, resettlement and establishing schools. Responsible for distrubiting land. "40 acres and a mule."
end of reconstruction
By 1876 only Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana remained under Republican domination. The Republican presidential candidate that year, Rutherford B. Hayes, promised to alleviate conditions in the South, but the feeling there had already led to the formation of the "solid South" in support of his Democratic opponent, Samuel J. Tilden. In those three states the presidential contest was the occasion for a determined effort to throw off Republican rule, and on their electoral votes (and on one disputed electoral vote in Oregon) hung the fate of the famous disputed election of 1876. It is practically certain that at least one of the three gave a majority, and thus the presidency, to Tilden, but two sets of returns were sent in from each of the three states. A specially constituted electoral commission (composed of eight Republicans and seven Democrats) accepted the Republican returns, and Hayes was given the presidency.
Jim crow laws
After the American Civil War most states in the South passed anti-African American legislation. These became known as Jim Crow laws. This included laws that discriminated against African Americans with concern to attendance in public schools and the use of facilities such as restaurants, theaters, hotels, cinemas and public baths. Trains and buses were also segregated and in many states marriage between whites and African American people.
Radical replicans
The radical Republican governments in the South attempted to deal constructively with the problems left by the Civil War and the abolition of slavery. Led by so-called carpetbaggers (Northerners who settled in the South) and scalawags (Southern whites in the Republican party) and freedmen, they began to rebuild the Southern economy and society. Agricultural production was restored, roads rebuilt, a more equitable tax system adopted, and schooling extended to blacks and poor whites. The freedmen's civil and political rights were guaranteed, and blacks were able to participate in the political and economic life of the South as full citizens for the first time.
14 Amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment, one of the post-Civil War Reconstruction Amendments, was created to protect the rights of newly freed slaves in the South, limit the participation of ex-Confederate leaders in government, and guarantee the payment of debt. This page includes the text, history, and interpretation of the amendment.
15th amendment
prohibited the denial of citizens the right to vote because of race. Resulted in the use of literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses.
radical reconstruction
congress provides that southern stated not be readmitted to the union till they radified the 14th amendment. All the states are divided into 5 military disricts. In December 1865, when Congress finally reconvened for the first time since the Civil War, chaos erupted. More than sixty former Confederates returned to Congress, but their presence remained unrecognized during roll call and they were denied their elected seats. The chaos reflected the spilt on what to do about the South. Northern Democrats sided with Johnson's desire for the South to govern themselves independently without interference from the federal government. Democrats considered themselves the party of the "white man" and wanted to protect the rights of whites. When moderate Republicans realized that Johnson had no intent on protecting freemen from the increased violence in the South, they joined with the Radicals instead of northern Democrats.
Andrew Johnson's Presidential Reconstruction
To make matters worse for newly freed slaves, Abraham Lincoln's successor, Democratic President Andrew Johnson, had reneged on his promise to implement Lincoln's reconstruction plan. Not only was he unsupportive of the Freedmen's Bureau but he supported southern white rule over local governments.

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