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History 281

Terms

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Mito School
Japanese school teaching...something...
Chinese Communist Party
Founded initially in cooperation with the GMP, the Chinese Communist party
Manchukuo
Military takeover of Manchuria by the Japanese. Was not supported by the civilian government, which fell apart in response. Condemned by the newly formed League of Nations,
Great Leap Forward
a radical program begun by Mao in 1958 existing collective farms were combined into vast communes with more than 30,000 people who lived and worked cooperatively Mao hoped his program would allow china to reach the final stage of communism-a classless society-before the end of the 20th century official slogen: "hard work for a few years, happiness for 1,000"
Dutch Learning
Dutch was really popular...
U.S.-Japan Security Treaty
Japan would not have a military, the US would protect them.
Economic "dual structure"
The zaibatsu controlled much of the business interactions, and the smaller businesses supplied them with labor for things for the factories cheaply.
MITI
Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Architects of trade in Japan. Part of international-nationalism: strengthened Japan's economy while protecting agrarian interests.
Battle of Midway
June 1942. Japan planning another Pearl Harbor attack. Americans stop Japs at Midway. Sink 4 Jap aircraft carriers. Turning point of Pacific war
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Russo Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage on land. At sea Japan had a clear advantage, destroying the entire Russian navy. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so. Japan gained recognition of its supremacy in Korea, the transfer of Russian interests in Manchuria, and cessions of the southern half of Sakhalin Island, north of Hokkaido.
Hundred Flowers movement
don't know
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. (p. 687)
First Five-Year Plan
try to make china communist
"reverse course"
Change in US policy towards Japan after WWII. Changed strategy to encourage Japanese growth.
examination system
Very difficult tiered testing system that required essays on the Confucian classics.
Li Hongzhang
a Han Chinese in charge of modernizing the navy, wanted to adopt Western technology to use against Westerners. Opposed inner-asian wars during the self-strengthening period, and encouraged a maritime focus.
Seiyukai
The dominant political party of 1900-1950. Founded by Ito Hirobumi to obtain assured support in the Diet. It had a stake in economic developeent because it won regional support and built local power through projects for railway and harbor development.
Chen Duxiu
Founder of the New Youth journal, first leader of the chinese communist party.
"floating world"
Pleasure district where people went for tea, etc. Cf. Yoshi wara.
Canton system
A trade system designed to restrict and control foreign influence on the Chinese during the Qing period. Traders were required to only deal with the cohong merchants specifically designed to act as middlemen.
Yuan Shikai
Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic (1912-1916). He stood in the way of the democratic movement led by Sun Yat-sen. (p. 768)
Charter Oath
a document issued in the emperor's name, calling for democracy, equality of class, rejection of outdated customs, and aceptance of foreign knowledge
Yenan (Yan'an) Period
where mao "ruled" from after the long march
seclusion policy
The shogun had a monopoly on Western contact. Suppressed Christianity and consolidated power for the Tokugawa period.
Deng Xiaoping
Led the Anti-Rightist movement of 1957-1958. Later became one of Mao's biggest enemies within the higher ranks of government. Was struggled against, exiled, and sent to a remote village. He came back under Guofeng's rule and led the movement to exonerate people who had been attacked during the Cultural Revolution. Approved of Democracy Wall, which helped him replace Guofeng in 1978 as "the most powerful man" in China. When Democracy Wall started to criticize KMT, ordered it taken down. Established Household Responsibility System. Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang helped him to reform the economy. Made Hong Kong "one country with two systems," in an agreement with Prime Minister Thatcher. Supported Hu Yaobang's attempt for political change in 1986.
Nationalists (KMT/GMD)
controlled china during and before wwII
Meiji Constitution
Set forth the principle all citizens were equal, the emperor had autocratic power, but still a diet or one elected house and one house appointed by the emperor; voting rights were limited; ended distinction between classes, set up schools, literacy increased, womens position went up; what were all these a part of in Japan?
Natsume Soseki
Writer of Kokoro. Educated in Europe, he returned to Japan and taught at Tokyo U before devoting himself wholly to writing. He tended to write on themes of human isolation.
Sakuma Shozan
"Eastern ethics and western science." Chemistry, glass, guns.
Tanaka Giichi
Prim minister from 1927-1929. Attempted to take more control of Manchuria, ended when military unilaterally executed Zhang Zhoulin and the emperor did not approve.
Diet
1889. Bicameral legislative system modeled after the german system. Originally only voted in by land holding men, eventually adopted male suffrage in 1925, and female after the occupation.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
1600-1650. Founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Tripartite Pact
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
Iwakura Mission
Leaders of Japan toured Western nations to learn about everything.
"speak bitterness" meetings
talking against people strengthened communists
zaibatsu
To get industries started, the government would build them and sell them to whom?
Sun Yat-sen
The first great revolutionary leader in 20th century China who founded the ALliance League in 1905. The League aimed to overthrow the Qing to make china a republic, get rid of foreign powers and distribute land to peasants. He created the three principles of the people, Nationalism, Socialism and Democracy. After the Revolution, he returned from overseas to lead china, however failed to leaed successfully. He handed power to Yuan Shikai.
Quianlong emperor
1736-1795. Second emperor of the Qing dynasty. Required the manchu hairstyle. Rode through the country conquering. "Solidified the frontier". Closed Manchu to Chinese. Brought Tibet under China's rule.
Washington Conference
was a military conference called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia.
Tojo Hideki
Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II
daimyo
Powerful samurai who seized control of old feudal estates during the time in Japanese history known as the Sengoku period. These warrior-chieftains became lords in a new kind of Japanese feudalism Under this system, security came from this group of powerful warlords.
Lin Biao
Minister of Defense. In 1964, published "Little Red Book," with quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong. Appointed as Mao's successor, but died in a plane crash in 1971 (scholars unsure if it was an accident or planned). Lin and Mao had grown apart. Lin was accused of betraying Mao, and some claimed he had planned a coup d'etat.
Mao Zedong
first communist leader/ brought in communism/ wanted to get rid of four olds/ estalished red guard (red brigade)/ died in 1976/ had the red book/ came to power in 1949/ started great leap forward/ started cultural revolution (got rid of Red Guards)/ established People's republic of china/ got rid of binding feet
Occupation
Short period that sucked for Japan....
New Youth
Magazine which expounded Western thought in China. Influential in bringing about revolution among the youth of china.
Liberal Democratic Party
Leading party of the conservative voice, led by Yoshida Shigeru. Still in power in Japan. Created by the union of the liberal party with the democratic party in 1955.
Four modernizations
don't remeber
Opium War
After a blockade designed to halt opium flow, conflict broke out. Eventually the superieror British technology led to victory for the British, and a series of concessions were made. Led to "Unequal Treaty", extra-territoriality, end of the Canton system, and most favoured nation status.
samurai
feudal Japanese military aristocracy
Peace Preservation LAw
Gave Tokyo police the authority to arrest anyone suspected of being a threat to the state
1947 Constitution
New constitution inspired by US. Included the demilitarization of Japan and universal suffrage. Also included a Japanese Bill of Rights that removed restrictions on freedom of speech, etc. Sovereignty finally vested in the people, where the emperor represents the people. The cabinet is responsible to the Diet.
Northern Expedition
a campaign to unite China and defeat the warlords. in 6 months, the KMT and CCP defeated 34 warlords. Received food from peasants. KMT and CCP co-operated, together defeating northern warlords and imperialists. The solders on the Northern Expedition asked peasants not to pay rent / debts
Cultural Revolution
a radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out largely by the Red Guard
Yoshida Shigeru
1957-. Veteran bureaucrat, Prime minister 1946-1954. Japan occupied by foreign power for first time ever. New ethics of peace and democracy. Diet elections had 200 parties participating. Single-minded pursuit of economic growth. Passive role in international politics.
Ito Hirobumi
The first prime minister of Japan; later assassinated by a Korean nationalist
Kang Youwei
Chinese scholar and nationalist who argued in favor of constitutional monarchy. Sentenced to death by the Dowager Empress, he fled to Japan.
Chiang Kai-shek
leader of china during WWII
First United Front
don't remember
Nanjing Decade
Chaing Kai-shek ruling from Nanjing during wwII
Hara Kei
1856-1921. The real organizing force within the Seiyukai. Ex-bureaucrat who became the leading party politician of his generation. Hara greatly strengthened the party by building support within the bureaucracy during his first term as home minister (1906-1908), and used his power to appoint energetic party-men as prefectural governors. He linked the party to the provinces and freely resorted to pork barreling to build up the constituencies among the local men of means who formed the limited electorate.
Long March
communists march north away from the nationalists
Self-strengthening
The period after the Taiping Rebellion where China accepted modernization and re-organization from the West, especially militarily.
extraterritoriality
Foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/Early 20th Centuries: European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right. (682)
Chinese Soviet Republic (aka Kiangsi/Jiangxi Soviet)
where mao ruled from before the long march
Second United Front
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Kuomintang (KMT) and Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the Second Sino-Japanese War that suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1946. Followed Xian Incident.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
an appeal to Asians who wanted to rid their land of European rule
Zhou Enlai
Attempted to save the life of Liu Shao-Qi when he was condemned to death by Jiang Qing. Unsuccessfully ordered Rebels and Red Guards to stop fighting. Mao and the Gang of Four orchestrated a campaign against him. Died. Death marked the first time people spoke out (indirectly) against Mao.
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. (See also Yamagata Aritomo.) (p. 694)
Boxer Uprising
an antiwestern uprising, the Boxers lay seige to the foreign quarters in Pekking, they murdered foreigners and Christian Chinese, Cixi sided with the Boxers and declaired war on the eight nations that oposed it, the eight nations put down the uprising
21 Demands
1915 japanese demanded increased influence on china
county magistrate
Watched over popultions as large as 50K. Small staff, three year term. Not from same county as ruling.
Zhang Xueliang
don't know.

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