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US History Final

Modern US History in a nutshell.

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
majoritarian foreign policy
includes those decisions that are perceived to confer widely distributed benefits and impose widely distributed costs
Magellan
Sails for Spain, circumnavigates globe
Front-loading
Because early primaries have grown increasingly important in recent years, many states have pushed forward the date of their primary elections.
Rudyard Kipling
British author of "White Man's Burden"
Gubernatorial
pertaining to a governor
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
State death penalties (as then applied) are arbitrary and violate equal protection of 14th Amendment.
House majority leader
prominent position in the majority party, second only to the Speaker of the House in party authority. Like the Senate majority leader, the House majority leader helps promote the legislative agenda of the party in the House.
De Lôme Letter
Secret correspondence sent by French diplomat to Spanish insulting President McKinley, helping galvanize the American public towards war
Andrew Carnegie
Industrialist and Philanthropist responsible for U,S, Steel
Council of Economic Advisors
established by the Employment Act of 1946. It analyzes the national economy in order to advise the President on economic policy. The Council consists of three members, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate, one of whom the President designates as Chairperson.
Affirmative action
Government-mandated programs that seek to create special employment opportunities for blacks, women and other victims of past discrimination.
Spanish American War
U.S. helped Cuba gain freedom from Spain -> Causes: de Lome letter is intercepted and published, it insults McKinley; U.S.S. Maine explodes in Cuban port, killing 260
blacklist
a list of suspected communists and "unfriendly" wittnesses
Crop-lien system
Name of system that utilized share-cropping
Libel
use of print or pictures to harm someone's reputation. Until 1964, a person could prove that they had been libeled simply by showing that the statements in question were incorrect. In 1964, the Supreme Court decided that public officials had to prove that the statements in question were made with "actual malice"-for the purpose of harming the person's reputation. As a result of the Supreme Court case, Time, Inc. v. Firestone (1976); private individuals only have to prove negligence, rather than "actual malice," on the part of the press.
The Shame of the Cities
Book by Lincoln Steffens which documented political corruption
Iron Curtain
Churchill's term for separation between communism and capitalism in Europe
Public Service
time, effort and energy given to local, state or national communities, generally through opportunities in appointed or elected office.
black power
a call to African Americans to unite, to recognize thier heritage, build a sense of community, define own goals, etc
John Lewis
Leader of CIO, helps incite United Mine Workers to strike in 43
Morill Tariff
Fundraising technique for the North involving increased tariffs
elite public opinion
more liberal and internationalist outlook
V-E Day
"Victory in Europe Day" when Germany surrendered (May 8, 1945)
Death Wall
where firing squad executions took place
Babe Ruth
Famous baseball player for the Yankees
Good Neighbor policy
Reversal of Roosevelt Corallory by Hoover
McNary-Haughen Act
Farmer aid act vetoed twice by Coolidge
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Increased silver purchase quotas previously set by Bland-Allison Act, but leads to gold-running on the US Treasury
Wisconsin Idea
Package of reform ideas advocated by LaFollette that included Initiative, Recall, Referendum
Hudson
Sails for Dutch, explores Hudson Bay/River and Manhattan
John Hay
Ambassador who called for expansion
Immigration Act
1924 Act that stipulates only 2% of 1890 immigrants
Dollar Diplomacy
Foreign policy adopted by Taft
Civil Division
a division of the Department of Justice. The Civil Division deals with most of the civil cases in which the United States is a party, i.e., all civil cases which are not under the jurisdiction of any other division of the Department of Justice.
FHA
Acronym: Administration established by NHA that gives money for housing mortgages
John Pershing
Leader of the American Expeditionary Force
Incumbent
a candidate who holds the office for which he or she is running in an election. It is usually difficult for an incumbent candidate to be defeated in an election, unless he or she has had a very poor term in office. Incumbents have the benefit of having
cloture rule and Rule 22
the closing or limitation of debate in a legislative body especially by calling for a vote; governs cloture, the procedure used to end a filibuster. Cloture takes 60 votes. If it wins, up to 30 hours of debate may still be held, although this is rarely utilized. Instead, debate usually ends shortly after a cloture vote, followed by an immediate vote on final passage
Appeal
formal request that a higher court hear a case that has been decided in a lower court. State Supreme Courts are the highest courts which can hear appeals for cases involving state law, while the US Supreme Court is the highest court which can hear appeals for cases involving federal or constitutional law. An court appeal to a state appellate court are generally made on procedural grounds, i.e., on the basis that some aspect of proper legal procedure was not observed in the original trial. Anyone can petition the US Supreme Court to take a case under advisement. However, the Court is only likely to accept a case if it involves issues related to the constitutionality of the lower court's decision, or state versus federal powers.
Haymarket Riot
A planned strike by the Knights of Labor results in police confrontation and a bomb
Volunteers
Union has a lot of these at the start, and then need draft. South needs draft from start.
Extradition
Process by which governments return fugitives to the jurisdiction from which they have fled.
Lincoln Steffens
Author of The Shame of the Cities
Revenue Act
1935 act that shifts tax responsibility to wealthy
US at end of WWII
Big commie scare. US was most affluent and lest war ravaged
Resettlement Administration
Administration that helps move farmers away from Dust Bowl stricken areas
Great White Fleet
Navy force that circumnavigated the globe to show off US naval prowess
Constitutional Courts
federal courts formed by Congress under the authority of Article III of the Constitution, to exercise "the judicial power of the United States." They include the US Supreme Court, the Courts of Appeals, the District Courts, and the Court of International Trade.
Miler v. California
1973 ruling that determined the obscenity clause to related to works that lack literary, artisitic, political or scientific value. (LAPS test)
Eisenhower Prosidency
'52-'60
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
Treaty signed with the new Panamanian government (not Panamanian) that authorized the construction of the Panama canal
Roosevelt Corallory
Asserts the right of the US to forcible intervene in the affairs of Central American countries to keep Europeans out
Lame Duck
person holding office after his or her replacement has been elected to the office, but before the current term has ended. In the American presidency, the period after election day in November and the swearing-in of the new President in January is known as the lame duck period.
Nuremberg laws
1935 laws defining the staus of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood
Five Power Treaty
Treaty that establishes 5:3:1 battleship ratio between US, Japan and France
Whiskey ring
Treasury officials collaborate with distillers to get around excise tax
Washington Naval Arms Conference
Conference held 1921-1922, instance of active isolationism
Freedom of the press
the right to publish or print without interference from the government, guaranteed in the First Amendment to the US Constitution. This extent of this freedom has been debate by the public, in the legislatures, and in the courts, especially as regard to prior restraint, libel, obscenity and national security.
Freedom of expression
right to express oneself and one's views in spoken words, actions, printed materials, assemblies or gatherings and petitions submitted to the government. It refers to the collective rights guaranteed in the First Amendment to the US Constitution: religion, speech, press, assembly and petition.
Gramn-Rudman (Balanced Budget Act)
The Gramm-Rudman Act required that each year form 1986-1991 the budget would automatically be cut until the federal deficit had disappeared
Nuclear family
household made up of a mother, father, and children
Confirmation
power given to the Senate to approve or disapprove presidential nominees to executive or judicial positions. The Senate needs a simple majority to confirm or reject a nominee, according to Article II, Section 2, clause 2 of the Constitution. The Senate has refused to confirm only about nine Cabinet nominees, although many more nominees have been withdrawn because they were likely to be rejected by the Senate.
J.P. Morgan
Banker and Philanthropist who dominated finance, helping create General Electric and U.S. Steel
Calvin Coolidge
30th president from 1923 - 1929
Tax Loopholes
All manner of special interests can get some special benefit from the tax law that the rest of us must pay for but, given the complexity of the law, rarely notice. Loopholes are client politics par excellence.
filibuster
a prolong speech or series of speeches made to delay action in a legislative assembly
Edwin Stanton
Popular Secretary of War who is fired by Johnson and leads to Johnson's impeachment
Charles Forbes
Director of Veteran's Bureau, scandal from stealing money
Ku Klux Klan
Grew to 4.5 million in the early 1920's. a group against African Americans. Burned crosses, killed influential blacks, and whites supporting the blacks.
TVA
Acronym: Experimental administration that used government to create jobs and land
Closed primary
you must declare in advanced (sometime several weeks in advance) that you are a registered member of the political party in whose primary you wish to vote
malapportionment
Characterized by an inappropriate or unfair proportional distribution of representatives to a legislative body
Logrolling
exchanging political support for political favors, especially by members of Congress and other legislatures
nativism
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Venezuela
Site of a boundary dispute with Britain, US steps in and mediates, reinforcing the Monroe Doctrine
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee (SNCC) 1960
student led organization which sought immediate change in the civil right movement
CEA
It is an impartial group of experts, composed of 3 professional economists plus a small staff (1946), who are responsible for forecasting economic trends, analyzing economic issues and helping prepare the economic report that the president submits to Congress each year.
Teddy Roosevelt
26th President (1901-1909) Republican, Harvard Grad, youngest to be president (after McKinley died), filed anti-trust suits
Alabama
High-tech ship the confederates purchased from Britain
Hatch Act
Prevents civil servants from misappropriating public funds for campaign purposes
Free Exercise Clause
section of the First Amendment to the US Constitution which forbids the government to make any laws to prohibit the free exercise of religion. This is the basis of the Constitution's protection of the freedom of religion.
red tape
complex rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done
Andrew Mellon
Secretary of Treasury under Harding
Tax Reform Act (1986)
Instead of high rates with big deductions, we got low rates with much smaller deductions. The big gainers were individuals; the big losers were businesses.
Korean War/Vietnam War/ Congress
Both undeclared wars.
Oklahoma Land Rush
Land run in 1889, after government opens up the territory
March on Rome
Event in 1922 that displaces King Victor Emmaneul and establishes Mussolini as leader of Italy
Nixon/Soviet Union and China
Attempted to play both sides against one another
Rough Riders
volunteer cavalry led by Wood and Roosevelt
Shield law
Law guaranteeing news reporters the right to protect the annonymity of their sources. States have passed this--not the federal government.
H-Bomb
Hydrogen Bomg 67X stronger than the atomic bomb detonated in Hiroshima
President
Chief Executive of the United States, Head of State and Commander and Chief of the US Armed Forces. The President of the United States is elected every 4 years, by the Electoral College.
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
Enumerated Powers
powers specifically listed in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution as being granted to the Congress.
Constituency
group of residents represented by a public official or any elected officer.
Watergate Break-In
1972. Nixon's team tried to plant bugs in opponent's quarters, Nixon recorder conversation confirming his knowledge of this; then tampered with evidence during trial; ONLY PRESIDENT TO RESEIGN
Dollar Diplomacy
Taft's idea of using economic influence rather than force to protect US
interest group or client polics
Congress plays a much larger role in foreign policy with this group
Democracy
rule by the people. In the United States, democracy refers to a system of government which derives its power from the consent of the majority and governs according to the will of the majority.
Matthew Perry
Commodore of the US Navy who opened up Japan with the Treaty of Kanagawa
Entitlements
payments made to a person or government which meets the requirements enumerated in the law. Social Security benefits, military pensions, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) are all entitlements
Wesberry v. Sanders (1963)
Ordered House districts to be as near equal in population as possible (extension of Baker v. Carr to Congressional districts).
Concurring Opinion
written explanation of the opinion of one or more judges in a court who support the decision of the majority of the court, but do not agree on the basis for the majority decision.
National Banking System
Money system for the Union that would last until 1913
atom bomb
powerful weapon created from the splitting of atoms. It was used by Harrry S. Truman on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end WWII
Thomas Edison
Perfected the incandescent light bulb
accommodation
the policy under which certain African Americans accepted the results of white racism in order to achieve economic success
Freedom of religion
the right to worship according to one's own beliefs. This freedom is guaranteed in the First Amendment to the US Constitution, although the Supreme Court has ruled that this freedom is not absolute.
Escobedo v. Illinois
1964--Ruled that a defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police.
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
May 8, 1945
Date of V-E Day
Crime
a public wrong. There are two kinds of crimes: felonies and misdemeanors. A felony is the most serious type of crime (e.g., murder), which is punishable by a large fine, imprisonment, or death. A misdemeanor is a relatively less serious crime (e.g., speeding), which is punishable by a small fine or a short jail term.
1932
Election year, Roosevelt v. Hoover
Writ of Habeas Corpus
court order which requires that individuals who have been arrested or detained be physically brought before the court to determine whether they are being held on legal grounds. This helps protect people from being arbitrary arrested and/or held in custody for excessive periods unnecessarily. "Habeas corpus" means "you must have the body."
Political Party
organized group of people who want to control or influence government by winning elections, holding public office, and having the government's laws and policies reflect their political beliefs. In the United States, there are two major parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.
position issue
one in which the rival candidates have opposing views on a question that also divides the voters
Quorum
minimum number of people needed a meeting for the business at hand to take place.
Established religion
official religion, sponsored by the government. The First Amendment to the US Constitution forbids the government of the United States from establishing a state-sponsored religion.
Georgia
Buffer state with Spanish Florida, "charity colony" with many shady people
Common good
the interests of a society as a whole, also called "public good" and "general welfare."
Speaker of the House
leading member of the house of Representatives. Third in line to the presidency.
Electoral college
a body of individuals which elect the President and Vice President of the United States. The Constitution created this body, which consists of gatherings of state electors in each state to formally cast their ballots for a candidate for whom they have pledged to vote. Today, the Electoral College is basically a formality. In the past, however, on at least two occasions, a president was elected based on the electoral college, even though he lost the popular vote.
Trustee vs Delegate approach
trustee--do what is best regardless of voter opinion; delegate--do what the voters want
Circuit Court
part of the federal court system. There are 13 federal circuit courts: one for the District of Columbia, one for patent and trademark cases, and 11 for the rest of the country. Circuit courts, also called "courts of appeal," deal with all appeals of decisions made in district courts, for both civil and criminal cases. In addition, circuits courts may review decisions of independent regulatory agencies and departments, such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
d-day
invasion of Normandy, France, by the Allies (June 6, 1944)
industrialists
people who deal with the commercial production and sale of goods and services
Serbia
Site where Archduke Francis Ferdinand is assassinated
Stalwarts
"Traditional" faction of Republican party lead by Conkling who supported patronage and a third term for Grant
Ratification
process by which people or legislatures express their official approval of a proposed document or plan. Amendments to the US Constitution cannot become part of the Constitution until they have been ratified either by two-thirds of the state legislatures or by conventions in two-thirds of the states.
Appomattox Courthouse
Lee's forces cornered, surrender of Confederacy
socialism
an economic theory advocating collective ownership of factories, mines and other businesses
Equal Rights Amendment
proposed amendment which states that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." This amendment was passed by Congress and was proposed to the states in 1972. It failed to be ratified by enough states in time for its 1982 deadline.
industrial productivity
the amount of goods produced by one hour of labor
Carter/Human Rights
Would restrict financial aid to countries who had human rights he disagreed with.
PUHCA
Acronym: Administration that regulates public utility monopolies
relocation camps
special camps in the US where Japanese Americans were detained after the bombing of Pearl Harbor
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
ruled that separate but equal facilities are constitutional
19th Amendment
Amendment that provides women's suffrage
North Carolina
Outcasts from SC and VA, hospitable to pirates
Candidate
person who declares that he or she wants to be elected to a position, such as President, Senator, Governor, or Mayor. Candidates use campaigns to let voters know that they are running for office, and to convince people to vote for them.
The Gulf of Tonkin
1964. Pair of attacks by naval forces of North Vietnam against two US destroyers. Stepped up US involvement. Gave more power to US president
William Jennings Bryan
Resigns due to Lusitania Notes
Frederick Taylor
Pioneered scientific management efficiency
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
black nationalism
a belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community
Executive Branch
section of the government which is responsible for executing laws. In the federal government, the executive branch consists of: the President, the Vice President, the Cabinet, all the executive departments, and several administrative agencies.
Palko v Connecticut (1937
Ruled a harsher sentence as a result of a new trial won on appeal does not violate double jeopardy.
Senate Minority Leader
the head of the minority party in the Senate. The minority leader represents the interests of the minority party senators by meeting with the majority leader to schedule bills and rules for floor action.
Big Stick Policy
Roosevelt's corollary to Monroe Doctrine. Claimed the US had the right to interfere with other countries in the western hemisphere
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Established exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court; Warren Court's judicial activism.
The Central Powers
Germany, A-H, the Ottoman Empire
Nine Power Treaty
Treaty that establishes open door in China (signed by Western Powers)
U.S. v. Lopez (1995)
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Class system
manner of organizing society so that people are given certain rights and privileges according to their social class, and people in one class are prevented from moving into other classes.
Office of War Information
Manages WWII propaganda to censor bad accounts and make war look good
Representative Democracy
system of government which derives its authority from the people and governs according to the will of the majority, but in which the people elect individuals to represent their will.
Budget deficit
Condition that arise when federal expenditures exceed revenues.
Hopkins Ickes Wallace Farley
Brain Trust members, order HIWF
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
corporations
groups of individuals authorized by law to act as a single entity; a business owned by many investors
Civil case
a lawsuit brought against one person or group to enforce or protect a private right; prevent a private wrong (tort); or obtain compensation for a private wrong (tort). This is different from a criminal case, which involves the committing of a crime, or public wrong.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
cloture
a 3/5 vote to limit debate and call for a vote in Congress
Legislature
a group of elected people who create the laws. The national legislature is the Congress, while states and local governments also have legislatures.
Blanket primaries
in the voting booth you mark a ballot that lists the candidates of all the parties, and thus you can help select the Democratic candidate for one office and the Republican candidate for another
Hernando de Soto
Sails for Spain, explores Mississippi
Battle of Guadacanal
August 7, 1942 battle with MacArthur, close to Australia
imperialism
- the tendency of agencies to grow without regard to the benefits that their programs confer or the costs that they entail
Treaty Ratification
power given to the Senate to accept or reject treaties made by the President. A two-thirds majority is needed to ratify a treaty, as stated by the Constitution in Article II, Section 2, clause 2.
Unfunded mandates
actions imposed by the federal or state government on lower levels of government which are not accompanied by the money needed to fund the action required.
Isolationism
Elite opinion opposed getting involved in European wars; adopted after WWI
1936
Election year, Roosevelt v. Landon
Atlantic Charter
Joint agreement between FDR and Churchill that defines war aims
Otis
Inventor of the elevator and a safety device for the elevator's hoisting cables
Connecticut
Est by Reverend Thomas Hooker, self-governing, creates Fundamental Orders
Jim Crow laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Carpetbagger
Northerner who traveled south to make money off of the Reconstruction
Dawes Plan
American plan to restructure German debt
V-J Day
"Victory in Japan Day" when Japan surrendered (September 2, 1945)
Battle of Little Bighorn
Armed conflict against Indians that ends in Indian victory, annihiliating the entire US cavalry. Also referred to as Custer's Last Stand
Populist Party
Political party that opposed the gold standard and pushed for democratization of economic and financial systems. Largely supported by farmers, and failed to leave any direct impact, although its policies where adopted by other parties (use party in answer)
Battle of Iwo Jima
March 1945, Pacific battle that, along with the Bulge, assure allied victory
Political Culture
basic beliefs, customs and assumptions about government which are shared by the people in a group or nation.
NAACP
Civil rights organization lead by W.E.B. DuBois
Carig v. Boren
1976 ruling that classification of individuals based on gender must be related to an important government objective; replaced minimum rationality standard.
Herbert Hoover
Leads Food and Fuel Administration
valance issue
whether a candidate fully supports the public's view on a matter about which nearly everyone agrees
Federalist Papers
a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison to convince readers to ratify the Constitution in New York State. The essays were later used to promote the ratification of the Constitution in other states. The Federalist Papers stand as a primary on what the writers of the Constitution had in mind when they were creating the document.
Battle of the Bulge
December 1, 1944 last ditch effort by Germans to get back to the North sea, Allies defend Antwerp
Money Industry Spirit People
Mobilization needs, order MISP, one word spaced
Dust Bowl
Result of 1920s mismanagement of land
Criminal law
set of laws which deal with actions which are considered dangerous to the public welfare or morals, or to the interests of the state. Laws which are not criminal laws are civil laws.
arbitration
a settlement imposed by an outside party
Savanna
A dry grassland dotted with trees and bushes
President Lyndon Johnson, March 31, 1968, announcing that he would not seek re-election
"Yet, I believe that we must always be mindful of this one thing, whatever the trials and the tests ahead. The ultimate strength of our country and our cause will lie not in powerful weapons or infinite resources or boundless wealth, but will lie in the unity of our people."
Big Stick Diplomacy
Foreign policy adopted by Roosevelt
Nixon's "Vietnamization"
Encouraged South Vietnamese to take more responsibility for war; enabled US to slowly withdraw all troops
Herbert Hoover
President during the Great Depression. Not well liked. Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes.
mass public opinion
generally believes in Americans first
Hawaii
>Kalakaua is king in 1886 & tries to minimize US influence >400 Americans organize to overthrow him and force him to sign Bayonet Constitution (giving US the rights to Pearl Harbor) >1891 his sister succeeds him & tries to return power to the people >Annexation of Hawaii
Prohibition
the ban of alcohol. In the 1920's however, smuggling was made into a job. Speakeasies arose. (underground clubs)
Jurisdiction
authority of a court to hear a case. A case cannot be tried in a court which does not have jurisdiction over it.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
1922 high tariff supported by Mellon
Horizontal integration
Practice where a single entity controls an entire aspect of production, ensuring that everyone must go through you
Hate Speech
type of speech which is used to deliberately offend an individual; or racial, ethnic, religious or other group. Such speech generally seeks to condemn or dehumanize the individual or group; or express anger, hatred, violence or contempt toward them.
Unenumerated rights
rights not listed in the Constitution or constitutional amendments; but either implied or, for some other reason, recognized and protected by the Supreme Court.
Kinship
the quality or state of being family
Roosevelt Recession
1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes
Carter/Camp David Accords
1978 Israeli-Egyptian peace agreement. Height of success for US foreign policy. Height of Carter's presidency
Budget Enforcement Act (1990)
It imposed a cap on discretionary (that is, non-entitlement) spending. As long as the president and Congress stay under that cap, they can change the amount of money they spend
Parker v. Gladden
Right to an impartial jury
de jure segregation
racial separation created by law
Legitimacy
the belief among citizens that their government has the right to pass and enforce laws.
William McKinley
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
Wade-Davis Bill
Radical republican bill that would have made it practically impossible for South to rejoin, was vetoed by Lincoln
UNIA
Group by Marcus Garvey that seeks immigration back to Africa
Treaty of Versailles
Terms: Germany's colonies and Turkey were divided among the Allied Nations, The mandate system which required new colonial leaders to report their administration to the League of Nations, Created new nations of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, France reclaimed Alsace-Corraine and Germany lost its colonies
Jury
a group of people chosen according to the law, who listen to a case in court and reach a decision on the case. In Article III, Section 2, clause 3, the Constitution guarantees a person's right to a trial by jury. Thus, people have their cases decided by a group of people, and not just one individual. Impeachment cases, cases brought before the Supreme Court, and very minor cases are not brought before a jury.
Isolationism
Elite opinion opposed getting involved in European wars; adopted after WWI
Public policy
actions which the government takes to address problems and issues raised in society and introduced through the political system.
Party Identification
belief that one belongs to a certain party, and the extent to which that belief affects one's political views and actions.
National Labor Union
The original national labor federation that, after its decline, paved the way for othe runions
Bloody Shirt
Term given to persistent reference to "Party who saved the Union"
Joint Chiefs of Staff
a group of high-ranking military officers who represent the Navy, Army, Air Force and Marines. They assist the civilian leaders of the Department of Defense in integrating policies and programs, and advise the President and National Security Council when asked. The Joint Chiefs of Staff is headed by a Chairman.
NIRA
Acronym: Act that establishes National Recovery Administration and Public Works Administration
Chester Arthur
21st president, Republican, taking office after assassination of Garfield, revitalized the US Navy and ironically lead the charge of civil service reform
New Jersey
Duke of York gives parts to Berkely and Carteret, which goes to Quakers
WLB
Acronym: Regulates workers hours, conditions and wages, prevents inflation
Ombudsman
person in a government agency to whom people can go to make complaints or explain problems with the programs or policies of the agency
Line-Item Veto
power given to the president allowing him or her to veto specific provisions of appropriations and tax bills. Congress passed a limited line-item veto in 1995, but a federal judge struck it down in 1997. The Supreme Court recently refused to rule on the law claiming that those suing( a group of Congressmen) had not been harmed by the law and thus did not have standing to sue.
Interstate Commerce
trade that takes places across state lines. This is distinct from intrastate commerce, which takes place within a state, and foreign trade, which takes place between countries. Article I, Section 8, clause 3 of the Constitution gives the Congress the authority to regulate interstate trade, as well as foreign trade.
Impeachment
formal charges of "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors" brought against the President, the Vice President, a Supreme Court justice, or any executive and judicial official. Members of Congress and military officers are not subject to impeachment. The House Judiciary Committee investigates the situation and makes a recommendation to the rest of the House on whether the official should be impeached. The rest of the House votes on the issue and, if the official is impeached, the Senate tries the case. If the official is convicted, he or she is removed from office. Since the ratification of the Constitution, the House of Representatives has impeached 16 federal officials, including 13 federal judges, of whom 7 were convicted by the Senate.
Labor Union
Organization of workers for the purpose of increased lobbying power for benefits and wages
New Frontier/Great Society
FDR influence. Government should address social needs as their duty. Eliminate poverty and racial injustice.Kennedy: New Frontier. Johnson: Great Society
Douglas MacArthur
US General on Pacific front who moved from south to north after retreating from the Phillipines
Treaty of Washington
British-American treaty addressing grievances from the civil war: the British reimburses the US for damages done by their warship the Alabama
Protests of Vietnam
Draft Resistance, Violence in colleges, student activists
Kellog-Briand Pact
1928 pact that outlaws war but allows self-defense
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter
War Powers Act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
status symbol
a possession thought to reflect a person's wealth, prestige, or superior position in society
House minority leader
the head of the minority party in the House of Representatives. The minority leader represents the interests of the minority party by meeting with the majority leader and, in the case of the House, the House Speaker to schedule bills and rules for floor action.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
an independent organization established by interest groups, political candidates, and people who hold office. PACs serve to raise and contribute money to the political campaigns of individuals whose platforms agree with the aims of the PAC. These organizations were founded because federal laws prohibit most interest groups from contributing money directly to political campaigns.
Veto
power given the President to refuse to sign a bill that has been passed by Congress, thus blocking its becoming a law. Congress can override a veto with a two-thirds vote in both the House and the Senate. American presidents have vetoed about 2500 acts of Congress, of which Congress has overridden about 100. "Veto" means "I forbid" in Latin.
Charles Guiteau
Disappointed job-seeker who assassinated James Garfield
Excise taxes
taxes on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of items made within the country which is imposing the tax.
Railroads
Made of steel. Made local transit reliable and westward expansion possible for business and people. Before the civil war there was only about 30,000 miles of laid track, by 1890 the figure was nearly 6 times that.
Four Power Treaty
Treaty that maintained status quo in Pacific between Japan, US, France and UK
Proportional representation
system of electing members of the legislature, in which the number of seats given to a particular party is determined by the percentage of the popular vote which goes to that party. This system is used in many countries, including most European nations.
Amicus curiae
a written brief which is submitted to the Supreme Court by a third party, either an individual or organization. An amicus curiae allows the opinions of the third party, with regards to the case at hand, to be considered by the court. "Amicus curiae" means "friend of the court" in Latin.
Nagasaki
Site of second atom bomb "Fat Man" by Bockscar drop on Japan
radicals
advocating political and social revolution
Pullman Strike
4000 railcar workers strike in response to 28% pay cut, bringing a halt to Chicago traffic. Cleveland deploys the United States Marshalls to break up the strike, and Eugene V. Debs gets sent to jail to become a Socialist
Civil Disobedience
the refusal to obey certain laws, in order to influence those with power to have them changed. Civil disobedience is characterized by the use of nonviolent techniques, such as boycotting, picketing, and the refusal to pay taxes. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was one of the most famous American proponents of civil disobedience as a way to make laws more just.
Partisan
partial to a particular party or person, often political in nature. One criticism of federal politics, especially regarding Congress, is that some politicians spend more time and effort trying to promote their party's platform than trying to develop laws and policies which serve the American people.
Budget Deficit vs Surplus
A situation in which the government spends more money than it takes in from taxes and fees. vs A situation in which the government takes in more money than it spends.
interracial
both African Americans and whites are involved
Zoot Suit Riots
Californian riots as farmer migrations displace Hispanics
Sussex
Passenger-liner sunk in March 1916
Prohibition
1920 - 1933; the ban of alcohol for any purpose other than medical
H.L. Mencken
Directs American Mercury magazine ridiculing small-town values (initials for first two words)
Entitlements
A claim for government funds that cannot be abridged without violating the rights of the claimant; for example, social security benefits or payments on a contract.
Settlement Houses
community centers providing help to mostly foreign immigrants in slum neighborhoods
AFL
Labor group that supports war effort (use initials)
September 1, 1939
Date WWII began with German invasion of Poland
Monetary Policy
government policies which try to influence the economy by changing the amount of money circulating in the economy (money supply) and the interest rate (rate at which people, companies, or the government can borrow money).
United Nations
international organization established in 1945. The U.N. supports cooperation among nations and the peaceful settlement of debates. The United States is one of the U.N.'s 183 member states.
Hierarchy
organized according to rank
Mandate
Level of support for an elected official as perceived through election results.
Duncan v. Louisiana
1968 guarantees the right to a trial by jury where a sentence of at least two years is involved.
OMB
(1921)Its chief function is to prepare estimates of the amount that will be spent by federal agencies, to negotiate with other departments over the size of their budget, and to make certain (insofar as it can) that the legislative proposals of these other departments are in accord with the president's program.
Hatch Act
formally known as the "Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities," called the "Hatch Act" after Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico, who was its major sponsor. The purpose of the law was to calm fears that federal civil service employees might be able to wield extraordinary influence on the election of the President and members of Congress. As a result of the Hatch Act, federal employees may vote, but may not take an active part in partisan politics.
League of Nations
Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Consisted of a permanent administrative staff,an assembly, and a council. The council was intended to have five members; France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and the US. Member nations were to try to resolve disputes peacefully. If negotiations failed, they were to observe a waiting period before they went to war. It was established in 1920 without the US.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president from 1912 - 1920
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819--New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Social Contract
agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.
Ulysses Grant
President and former general whose presidency was racked by Scandal.
Josiah Strong
Author of Our Country, on Anglo-Saxon superiority
Campaign
effort to get a person elected to an office, usually a political office. Candidates running for office use commercials and advertisements, as well as personal appearances and speeches to help get themselves elected. Often, candidates will choose a campaign manager to coordinate their campaign.
welfare capitalism
programs adopted by employers in order to convince workers that they didn't need unions
general elections
used to fill an elective office
Munn v. Illinois
Court decision that allows states to regulate railroads within their borders, a victory for the Grange
coattails
any effort to obtain straight-ticket voting
New Hampshire
Fishing and trading overgrowth of MA
Baker v. Carr (1962)
"One man, one vote." Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Thomas Edison
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
Pizzaro
Spanish conquistador Peru and Incas
Balboa
Sails for Spain, Pacific Ocean
Potsdam Conference
Conference where Truman, Atlee and Stalin complete post-war agreements. Trinity test is successful during this time
International Law
laws that govern the interactions and relations between nations, resulting from officials rules, treaties, agreements and customs.
foreign policy
actions that a nation takes in relation to other nations
Radical Republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
Farmers
The Dust Bowl destroyed most Western farms. Much of the land was taken over for machine manufactured farming. Many farmers and families moved farther west to California during the 1930's.
fiscal Year
The period from Oct. 1 to Sept. 30 for which government appropriations are made and federal books are kept.
Sinclair Lewis
Author of Main Street and Babbit, lampoons mid-west and conformity
Booker T. Washington
African American educator who believed that education could give blacks civil rights
Dual federalism
view of federalism that considers the national and state governments equal, but independent partners, with distinct responsibilities. According to this view, the two levels of government should not interfere with the work of the other. The dual federalism approach emerged after the Civil War and until the turn of the century.
disarmament
the act or policy of reducing or destroying military weapons
Tet Offensive
South Vietnamese went into North Vietnam and took over a US embassy. Turning point of Vietnam. Was seemingly in US control until this point... shook US confidence in military
Unitary government
system of government in which all authority is placed in a central government. Countries with unitary governments, such as Great Britain and France, have regional and local governments which derive their power from the central government.
Maryland
Founded by Lord Baltimore, safe haven for Catholics, Act of Toleration
Valandingham
Ringleader of the copperheads, claimed North did not need south
Caucus
meeting of members of a political party to determine the party's official position on issues, and to choose party leadership. In legislative caucuses, or conferences, members of a party in a chamber of legislature meet to choose the party leadership in that chamber and to agree on a party position on upcoming legislation. In local party caucuses, party members in a ward or town meet to choose party officials and candidates for public office, as well as determine the party platform on local issues.
Russian Revolution
Two revolutions of 1917 took Russia out of WW1
Keating-Owen Act
Law enacted to protect against child labor by prohibiting the interstate shipping of goods in which someone under 14 worked to make
Johnson Borah
Leaders of the irreconciliables, order JB
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. April 3, 1968, "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech
"Men, for years now, have been talking about war and peace. But now, no longer can they just talk about it. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; it's nonviolence or nonexistence. That is where we are today."
ghetto
neighborhood where people of the same race, religion or country live
Lusitania
Passenger-liner sunk off Ireland in May 1915
Dealignment
the weakening partisan preferences that points to a weakening of the two party system and a rise of independents in politics.
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Potsdam Declaration
Warning to Japan of "prompt and utter" destruction
Judiciary Act
set up the federal court system
Federalism
system for national government in which some powers are delegated to either national or state government, and other powers are shared between the two levels. This system presented a compromise at the 1787 Constitutional Convention between delegates fighting for a strong central government and delegates concerned about states' rights.
James Garfield
20th president, Republican, assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau after a few months in office due to lack of patronage
ghetto
section of city inhabited only by Jews
oligopoly
the control of an entire industry, such as meat packing, by a few major producers
1928
Election year, Hoover against Smith (democrat), booming economy makes it a handy victory
Containment
Main component of foreign policy during the post WWII era. Keep communism from spreading outside of where is already is
Boxer Rebellion
1900 - Chinese gang rebels against foreigners in China
Aryan
in Nazi terminology, the Master Race
San Juan Hill
Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where Theodore Roosevelt successfully leads the Rough Riders in a charge against the Spanish trenches
Langston Hughes
Poet Laureate of the Weary Blues
Supremacy Clause
Article VI, Section 2 of the Constitution, which states that the "Constitution, and the laws of the United States made in pursuance thereof ... shall be the supreme law of the land." Thus, if any state laws come into conflict with the Constitution , then the Constitution must win out.
Acquisition of colonies after the Spanish-American War/Controversy
Heavily debated. What should be done with new countries? Should the US be imperialistic or give them self-determination and US values?
Trench warfare
fighting in ditches dug in the ground. It was how each side in WW1 fought
Battle of Marianas Islands
August 4, 1944 battle, taking them was essential to getting Guam, from where Allied forces could bomb Japan
Reagan's political objectives as president
Believed in a balanced budged; increase in military spending; cut aid to impoverished society. Big conservative
AAA
Acronym: Administration run by President that subsidises farmers, managed by Wallace, levies food processor tax
Buffalo
Slaughtered by railroads
LaSalle
French explorer who explored the Great Lakes, Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico
Tariffs
taxes on goods, often placed on goods being brought into the United States from foreign nations (import tariffs).
white-collar worker
a professional or office worker
Stimson doctrine
US response to 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria
Julag
concentration camp with only Jewish inmates
dictator
a person who has complete power and authority over a country
Battle of Chancellorsville
Wilderness, Confederate win by Lee uses Stonewall Jackson to friendly fire
14th Amendment
Amendment that grants full civil rights to Blacks and threatens to reduce voting proportions if right to vote is abridged
de facto segregation
separation caused by social conditions such as poverty
Liberty Bonds
A special type of war bond to help support the Allied forces
Franking privilege
power of members of Congress to send out mail free, without paying postal charges. This is one of the benefits or perquisites of being a House Representative or Senator, since members of Congress can use mailings to cultivate a positive popular image among their constituents.
Truman Doctrine
Truman decided that the US would support Turkey and Greece so that they could avoid soviet influence
Slander
the use of spoken words to harm someone's reputation.
integration
the bringing together of different races
Jacob Riis
Author of How The Other Half Lives
Special Courts
federal courts which were created by Congress to hear specific types of cases. Sometimes called "legislative courts," they include: the Court of Military Appeals, the Claims Court, the Tax Court, territorial courts, and the courts of the District of Columbia.
Separation of Powers
division of governmental authority among the three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial branch. The US Constitution uses this principle in setting up the presidency, the Congress, and the courts.
Income Tax
Fundraising measure by north that entailed 3% for anyone making over $100
Ponce de Leon
Sails for Spain, explores Florida for gold
Credit-Mobilier
Rail-road company overcharges for rail-laying, bribes Washington to keep quiet
Concurrent Committee
made up of representatives and senators appointed to resolve differences in the senate and house versions of the same piece of legislation before final passage
Huerta
Military dictator who usurped throne, and was kicked out by Wilson
urbanization
the growth of cities
Grants-in-aid programs
federal funding given to states and local governments to fund policies and programs. The Morrill Act (1862) was the first grant-in-aid program.
Equal Protection Clause
provision in the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution which prohibits states from discriminating against people arbitrarily. All Americans are, thus, guaranteed "equal protection of the laws." This amendment was passed in 1868, mainly to protect African-Americans, many of whom had previously lived under slavery, from discrimination on the basis of race.
Conservative
A political ideology that tends to favor defense spending and school prayer and disapprove of social programs, abortion, affirmative actions and a large, active government.
Margaret Sanger
Birth-control activist
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
29th president from 1921 - 1945
Mass transit
moved larger amounts of people at a time. Created more job opportunities for suburbs. Used street cars, etc.
regulatory commission
a group whose responsibilities it is to see that a company/companies is in compliance with existing laws
Equality of opportunity
everyone is given the same chance (i.e. job opportunities)
national debt
total amount of money that a government owes to others
Executive Office of the President
name for the group of agencies, councils, and staff members which advise the president and help run the federal bureaucracy. The EOP was established by an executive order from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1939, and the number and type of agencies included is determined by each president.
Primaries
used to select a party's candidate for and elective office, though in fact those who vote in a primary election may not consider themselves party members
U. S. v. Richard Nixon
1974--The court rejected Richard Nixon's claim to an absolutely unqualified privilege against any judicial process.
Fletcher v. Peck
The decision stems from the Yazoo land cases, 1803, and upholds the sanctity of contracts.
tariff
a tax on foreign goods
Seattle General Strike
Strike of entire city to gain back conditions lost at end of war
Muscle Shoals Bill
Bills that would allocate funds to dam the Tennessee River and provide employment, is vetoed by Hoover
Malcolm X
leading minister of the Nation of Islam until 1964, then he organized the Muslim Mosque, Inc; he fought for black nationalism
Henry Ford
created the 8 hour work day, and raised wages to 5$/day. Made his cars affordable for almost every family at the time
Virginia
Southern colony with Jamestown, main crop tobacco
National Environmental Policy Act
before undertaking any major action affecting the environment, an agency must issue an environmental impact statement
McCarthyism
techniques following McCarthy's technique of calling out innocent people to save your own ass
final solution
name given to the German goal of killing all European Jews
Zyklon-B
Hydrogen cyanide crystals used to gas prisoners
John Jay
1st Chief Justice (appointed by Washington)
Spark of WW1
When the Serbians assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir the the Austria-Hungary throne
Knights of Labor
Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes
Division of labor
the breakdown of labor into its components and their distribution among different persons, groups, or machines to increase productive efficiency
Share-cropping
New mthod for blacks to find work, involved farming land and then paying back a portion of profits Likened to slavery
Checks and Balances
principle used in the Constitution and developed through precedent that allows the three branches of government to share some responsibilities, and allows each branch some authority over the activities of the other branches. Some examples of checks are: the President's veto power, which is a check on Congress; Congress' power to override a veto; which is a check on the President's power and the Supreme Court's right of judicial review, which is a check on Congress.
Shaw v. Reno (1993)
NO racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
Orthodox
People who believe that morality is as important as, or more important than, self-expression and that moral rules derive from the commands of God or the laws of nature.
Free trade
buying, selling and other financial transactions which are conducted tariffs or other trade barriers.
Suffrage-the right to vote
The Fifteenth Amendment to the US Constitution guarantees suffrage for all Americans, regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." The Nineteenth Amendment guaranteed suffrage for all Americans, regardless of gender.
Fiscal Policy
An attempt to use taxes and expenditures to affect the economy.
Popular sovereignity
idea that government should reflect the general will of the people, or the interests that all citizens have in common. Political theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) described this concept in Du contrat social (The Social Contract), published in 1762.
fascism racism
Things Double V minority group wanted to combat (order fr)
Smith-Connally Act
Act in response to UMW strike that authorizes government to seize industries that are vital to National Defense (has an a)
Indian Reorganization Act
Act that partially repeals Dawes Act, "New Deal" for the Indians
Pentagon Papers
President tried to prevent the Times from publishing articles about his conduct of the Vietnam War. Congress ruled the President would be in violation of the 1st Amendment
Federal Reserve System
independent agency in the federal executive branch. Established under the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve System ("Fed") is the central bank of the United States. One of the most powerful agencies in the government, it makes and administers policy for national credit and monetary policies. The Fed supervises and regulates bank functions across the country, thus maintaining a sound and stable banking industry, able to deal with a wide range of domestic and international financial demands
Hiroshima
Japanese city on which the first atomic bomb was dropped (August 6, 1945)
Liliuokalani
Queen of Hawaii who is overthrown by Dole
Operation Overlord
Code name for D-Day
Office of Strategic Services
Office that organizes intelligence agencies, father of the CIA
Kristallnacht
Night of the Broken Glass; November 9, 1938, when mobs thoughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorised Jews
Articles of Confederation
pre-Constitution document, ratified in 1781, creating the first government of the United States. The Confederation, established by the Articles, was a loose union of states with a weak Congress and no executive or judicial branch.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Anarchist calling for overthrow of the government. Established precedent of federalizing Bill of Rights (applying them to States); States cannot deny freedom of speech - protected through due process clause of Amendment 14
Executive Power
power of the President of the United States, delegated or implied by the Constitution, to implement and enforce laws.
Rule of Men
doctrine that an individual or government may stand above the law, and rule according to personal whim or choice. The doctrine reflects the belief that standards of justice, equality and impartiality are subjective, not universal. This is the opposite of the rule of law.
John Hay
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal
Keynesianism
Assumes that the market will not automatically operate at a full-employment, low-inflation level. Suggests that the government should intervene to create the right level of demand by pumping more money into the economy (when demand is low) and taking it out (when demand is too great).
Wilson Clemenceau Lloyd George Orlando
Big Four at Versaille, initials WCLGO separated by spaces
Open primary
you can decide when you enter the voting both which party's primary you wish to participate in
Grounds
rational or factual basis for arguing something. In order to appeal a case, the attorneys must have grounds for appeal. They cannot simply appeal because they are not happy with the decision.
James Byrnes
"Domestic President' who heads Office of War Mobilization
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
1866 - large labor union headed by Samuel Gompers, used strikes to raise wages
Governor
chief executive of a state
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 ruling that separate but equal facilities for different races were not unconstitutional.
Shtetl
small Jewish communities in Poland
Citizenship
status that requires the individual to pledge allegiance to the government and entitles that individual to the rights and protections provided by the government.
Port Huron Statement
Student activist movement who condemned racism, poverty, and cold war. Wanted to restrict power to corporations, military, and politicians
Original jurisdiction
authority held by a court to be the first court to hear a particular case.
holding company
bought controlling interests in the stock of other companies instead of purchasing them outright
Shared Powers
powers granted to the national government by the Constitution, but not denied to the states. One example is the right to lay and collect taxes.
ration
to allow only certain amounts of food, gasoline, and other goods to each person
recall
gave citizens a chance to remove an elected official from office before the person's term ended
Voting Rights Act of 1965
eliminated literacy test as a voting requirement
Double jeopardy
The act of trying an individual a second time after he has been acquitted on the same charges.
Freedom of speech
the right to express oneself, with words or actions (verbally or symbolically). This freedom is guaranteed in the First Amendment to the US Constitution; although the Supreme Court has ruled that this freedom is not absolute: it should not be applied when it endangers or harms the lives, liberty or property of others.
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties
Robert Kennedy
US Attorney General
Conscription Act
June 5, 1917: Act that drafts people with two lotteries
tenement
apartment building found in many cities around the nation
Necessary and Proper Clause
clause 18 of Article I, Section 8 of the US Constitution. This clause establishes the "implied powers," by which Congress has authority to pass legislation in areas not specifically listed in the Constitution.
Johnson's Plan
Reconstruction plan that was the 10% plan plus pardons for Confederate officers and repudiated debts. It is passed while Congress is out of session
Muckrakers
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
YMCA
Spiritual organization meant to provide healthy activities for young workers in the cities
James Earl Ray
convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail
Senatorial courtesy
A check placed on the presidency whereby candidates for the federal bureaucracy must first be approved by the Senate.
38th Parallel
the line dividing n/s korea post war.
nativism
a feeling of citizens who are against immigrants
Majority Leader
in the Senate, this is the first-ranking party position, held by a distinguished senior member of the majority party in the Senate. The Senate majority leader schedules floor actions on bills, and helps guide the majority party's legislative program through the Senate. In the House, the majority leader stands second to the Speaker of the House in party authority. Like the Senate majority leader, the House majority leader helps promote the legislative agenda of the party in the House.
Iron triangle (subgovernment)
The close working relationship between interest grousp, congressional committees and executive agencies.
Causes of WWII
Alliances; nationalism; militarism; building of arms;
April 25, 1945
Date United Nations is established, in san Francisco
Cairo Conference
November 1943 conference between US, UK and Jiang Jieshi about unconditional surrender of Japan
progressives
reformers who dominated the political landscape of the early 1900s
Judicial Branch
section of the government that interprets the laws and administers justice. In the federal government, the judicial branch consists of: the Supreme Court, the Circuit Courts of Appeal, District Courts, and several special courts.
Holocaust
mass murder of European Jews by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis
Glass-Steagall Act
Act that sets up FDIC, insurance of bank money
Individual Rights
rights claimed by the individual, as opposed to rights claimed by a group.
Freedom of petition
the right to present requests to the government without punishment or reprisal. This right is guaranteed in the First Amendment to the US Constitution.
Albert Fall
Secretary of Interior under Harding responsible for Teapot Dome scandal
Military Reconstruction
Involved 5 military districts ruled by generals
Covenant
agreement between two or more individual people or groups, to which all parties are bound.
Vespucci
Sails for Spain and Portugal, explores east coast of North and South America
Congressional Budget Act of 1974
After the president submits his budget, two budget committees study his overall package and obtain an analysis of it form the Congressional Budget Office
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
Guaranteed a student's right to protest (wearing armbands).
Adversary system
A system of law where the court is seen as a nuetral area where disputants can argue the merits of their cases.
Bakke v. Regents of the University of California
1978--Ambiguous ruling by a badly divided court that dealt with affirmative action programs that used race as a basis of selecting participants. The court general upheld affirmative action, but with a 4/4/1 split, it was a very weak decision.
Unicameral
"one room." The term refers to a legislature that has only one body, such as the Israeli Knesset or the German Bundestag.
Warren Court's decisions in the 1960s
More rights for suspects. Full extension of protection through the Bill of Rights
Natural Rights
rights, freedoms and privileges which are such a basic part of human nature that they cannot be taken away. These are different from rights which are given to people by the law. According to the Declaration of Independence, these rights include "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
immigrants
people from other countries coming to America to look for jobs
Politics
an area of activity aimed at influencing or controlling the government in order to formulate or guide public policy.
Popular vote
vote of the people of a nation or group. In the United States, this contrasts with an electoral vote, which is done by a small group of electors, rather than the general public.
Monitor v. Merrimac
Battle between two ironclad ships, lasts five days and has no winner but changes the paradigm of naval warfare
Rough Riders
Nickname of the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War
Olmec
an ancient people of the southern east coast of Mexico who flourished about 1200 to 400
Exclusionary Rule
principle that evidence cannot be used against a person if it was obtained illegally. This principle was established by the Supreme Court in the 1967 case, Mapp v. Ohio. In Nix v. Williams (1984), the Supreme Court ruled that evidence that had been illegally obtained could be used against someone in court if the prosecution could prove that the evidence "ultimately or inevitably would have been discovered by lawful means." In the same year, in United States v. Leon, the Court again restricted the exclusionary rule. The Court decided that, "when an officer acting with objective good faith has obtained a search warrant," the evidence obtained should be admissible in court, even if the warrant later proves to be faulty.
Beer and Wine Act
Permits production of alcoholic beverages with 3.2%
Charles Lindbergh
Pilot, First to fly nonstop solo from New York to Paris (had a Ticker-tape parade)
Patriotic
showing love and suppport for one's own country
Search warrant
a court order that allows the person holding the order, generally a law enforcement officer, to search areas specified in the order for items specified in the order.
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
Provided test for determining which parts of Bill of Rights should be federalized - those which are implicitly or explicitly necessary for liberty to exist.
"Juda Verrecke!"
a favorite Nazi slogan that meant Death to Juadaism
Natural Law
set of principles which govern human interactions, which are built into the structure of the universe, as opposed to being imposed by human beings.
London Conference
July 1942 conference, results in second front in Africa
Dwight D. Eisenhower
US President 1953-1961
Henry Cabot Lodge
Massachusetts senator who called for expansion
Breadlines
Many men had to stand in breadlines, similar to soup kitchens, in order to provide food to their family.
Bill
a form or draft of a proposed law presented to a legislature. In the federal government, if a bill is passed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate, it is presented to the President. If the president signs it or does nothing for ten days, it becomes a law. If the bill is vetoed, then it cannot become a law unless the Congress overrides the veto.
How The Other Half Lives
Book written by Jacob Riis documenting poverty (has photographs)
WPB
Acronym: Manages resources, conservation and production during WWII
Monetarism
An economic philosophy that assumes inflation occurs when there is too much money chasing too few goods. Suggests that the proper thing for government to do is to have a steady, predictably increase in the money supply at a rate about equal to the growth in the economy's productivity
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of 1st Amendment's establishment clause and the 14th Amendment's due process clause; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Budget resolution
Set of budget guidelines that must pass both houses of Congress in identical form by April 15.
Tenements
multi-family urban dwelling - crowded, unsanitary
Grandfather Clause
clause included in the state constitutions of several southern states after the Civil War placing high literacy and property requirements for voters whose ancestors did not vote before 1867. These clauses were designed to interfere with African-American citizens' right to vote. In 1915, the Supreme Court ruled grandfather clauses unconstitutional.
Truth-in-Securities Act
Reform act that cleans up Wall Street, forerunner to SEC
Battle of Midway
June 3-6, 1942 battle, Nimitz wins due to superior intelligence, turning point
Triple-entent
Alliance between UK, Russia and France established 1894, 1904, 1907
Citizen
person who is a member of a political society and, thus, owes allegiance to the society's government and is entitled to the rights and protections available from that government. A person who is born in the United States is automatically an American citizen, and eligible people from other countries can apply to become citizens through a process called naturalization.
Caucus
an association of members of congress created to advocate a political ideology or regional economic interest
Battle of Fredericksburg
Major union loss under the hands of Burnside
Interstate Commerce Commission
Regulatory body created by Grover Cleveland for purpose of regulating railroads
mass media
the methods by which information and entertainmetn are transmitted to large numbers of people; includes newspapers, television, and radio
Poll tax
a tax a person is required to pay before he or she is allowed to vote. Poll taxes were used in many southern states after the Reconstruction period to restrict African-American citizens' right to vote.
NATO
NORTH ATLANTIC TRADE ORGANIZATION European alliance
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria
internationalism
a policy of cooperation and involvement among nations
Rosa Parks
refused to give up her seat on a bus and was arrested in 1955
Emergency Banking Act
Act that closes banks, and then reopens only good banks
Marshall Plan
The American Plan to aid European Countries to make them support the US over the Su
James Dole
Industrialist who established the pineapple industry in Hawaii and was responsible for overthrowing Queen Liluokalani
Due Process of Law
proper legal procedure. The Constitution guarantees that every American citizen be protected from arbitrary actions by the government buy requiring the government to follow specific procedures, defined by law, in situations like investigating criminal actions and arresting suspects.
Francisco Franco
Spanish dictator who rises into power after Spanish Civil War in 1936
Open Meeting Law
every part of every agency meeting must be open to the public unless certain matters are being discussed
Goals of Progressivism
(1) protect social welfare (2) create economic reform (3) promote moral improvement (4) fostering efficiency
George Dewey
Commodore who won the Battle of Manila bay
William Taft
27th president, known for: Admittance of New Mexico and Arizona, trust-busting, strengthening of Interstate Commerce Commission, belief in world peace. Wanted to be supreme justice, got distant from TR
Census
A recount of the population every ten years for purposes of reapportionment of the Congress
Stock Market Crash
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
Unitary system
a system of government in which constitutional authority lies in the hands of the national government. In such a system, political subdivisions created by the central government take responsibility for much of the everyday administration of the government. Great Britain is an example of a country with a unitary system of government.
House of Representatives
one of the two houses of the Congress, created in Article I, Section 1 of the US Constitution. The House of Representatives has 435 members, called Representatives, who serve for 2-year terms. The number of Representatives from each state is determined by the state's population, so that states with large populations have more Representatives in Congress than states with small populations.
Hollywood Ten
actors, producers who were blacklisted for being communists although most were innocent
Tampico Affair
Results in a breakdown of diplomatic relations between the US and Mexico, caused by misunderstandings between American and Mexican sailors, and the refusal of Mexico to give a 21-gun salute
Typewriter
Developed in the late 19th century, it revolutionized the transcription of documents but was largely supplanted by the computer
sit-in
staying seated at a segregated public place when refused service
PWA
Acronym: Administration lead by Ickes about big jobs: tunnels, bridges, big buildings
Containment
Post WWII built a network of defensive alliances in Europe and Asia during the late 1940s and 50s
Civil War
Armed conflict over the issue of slavery
Civil War Amendments
constitutional amendments passed after the Civil War to free African Americans living under slavery, give them citizenship, and guarantee their rights as citizens. The Thirteenth Amendment was passed in 1865; the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868; and the Fifteenth Amendment was passed in 1870.
NRA AAA
Acts overturned by New Deal (order NA, acronyms)
Battle of Okinawa
April-June 1945 Pacfic battle, bloody for Japanese, Nimitz and MacArthur meet up
Reserved Powers
powers given to the states that are not enumerated in the US Constitution. According to the Tenth Amendment, "powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
Laissez faire economics
Non interference with the affairs of others
Bland-Allison Act
Proposes a 16:1 silver to gold purchase to increase circulation of silver, but in practice is not very successful
Freedmen's Bureau
Welfare agency set up to help newly freed blacks with aid and education. Viciously attacked by the South
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino who was lead both the Phillipine revolution against Spain and then the United States
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Charles Coughlin
Hyper-liberal radio messiah, anti-semitic, wants nationalization of Banking System
Interlocking directorate
Practice where a single person is part of the boards of multiple companies
Legislation
laws
Everson v Board of Education (1942)
A New Jersey law allowing reimbursements of money to parents who sent their children to school (public and private) on buses operated by the public transportation system did not violate the establishment clause or the 1st and 14th Amendments.
Panic of 1893
Economic panic resulting from a series of bank failures and gold-running on the US Treasury
Senate
independent federal agency in the executive branch. Selective Service works to register all males in the United States, between the ages of 18 1/2 to 26,to make sure that the Armed Forces can be adequately supplied with people in case of a crisis in national security.
AFDC
Acronym: Act that gives aid to families with dependent children, paid for with a withholding tax
Black codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Precinct
smallest, most local unit in the typical structure of political parties at the local level. Precincts act as voting districts, and cover an area of several blocks.
Progressive
People who think that personal freedom is as important as, or more important than, certain traditional moral rules and that those rules must be evaluated in light of the circumstances of modern life.
Pork Barrel legislation
laws that directs funds to local projects in an area which a member of Congress represents.
Objective good faith
Exception to the exclusionary rule that allows the use of illegally obtained evidence at a t trial if the court determines that the police beelived they were within the limits of the law when they obtained the evidence.
Petit Jury
a trial jury, which weighs the evidence against someone accused of a crime, and determines his or her guilt or lack of guilt under the law. Trial or petit juries traditionally have 12 people, although several states have juries with only 6 people. In most states, all the members of the jury must make their decision on the person's guilt or lack of guilt (verdict) unanimously. Some states, however, only require a majority which is greater than a simple majority. If a jury cannot agree on verdict, it is declared a "hung jury," and the matter is either dropped or brought to another trial with a new jury.
Battle of Vicksburg
Union gains control of Mississippi, Grant takes lead, total war begins
Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and later the US
Wall of separation
term for the separation of church and state, coined by Thomas Jefferson. According to Jefferson, the freedom of religion articulated in the First Amendment to the Constitution could best be articulated with the image of a "wall of separation" between the state and the church. This view of the First Amendment has been criticized by some.
Reconstruction Acts
Acts that instated military reconstruction
Huey Long
Governor of Louisiana, "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families
Montgomery bus boycott
plan for African Americans to refuse to use the bus system until companies agreed to change segregation policies
duplication
occurs when two government agencies seem to be doing the same thing
Judicial Restraint
belief that the Supreme Court should not exercise judicial review often. People who support this view feel that justices, who are appointed, should not use much power to overturn the decisions of Congress, which is elected.
South Carolina
Supply station for indies, rice plantations
mass public opinion
generally believes in Americans first
Charles de Montisquieu
French political theorist who analyzed different government constitutions and developed the theory upon which the separation of powers is based. His most famous work was De l'esprit des lois (The Spirit of the Laws), published in 1748.
American Legion
Patriotic organization of veterans
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Supreme Court that overturns minimum wage for women
Roe v. Wade
1973 ruling that decriminalized abortion.
Concurrent powers
powers granted to the national government by the Constitution, but not denied to the states. One example is the right to lay and collect taxes.
Confederate system
system of government in which nations or states agree to join together under a central government, to which the nations or states grant certain powers. The United States had a confederate system of government under the Articles of Confederation, from 1781 to 1789.
Jay Gould
Investor who corners the gold market by convincing Grant to issue bad financial proclamations
Framers
term used to refer to the people who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 as delegates, or were involved in the writing of the Bill of Rights.
National Security
the condition of the nation, in terms of threats, especially threats from outside. One of the major jobs of the federal government is to ensure the security of the nation.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of telephone
Manila Bay
Site of famous naval battle where Commodore Dewey decimates the Spanish navy
Causes of Discomfort among youth during the 60s
Nationalism; what did Johnson address, and where were they mad?
Criminal Division
a division of the Department of Justice. The Criminal Division handles most of the criminal cases in which the United States is a party, i.e., all criminal cases which are not under the jurisdiction of any other division of the Department of Justice.
executive privilege
the privilege to have secrecy between them and their advisors
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Highest ranking officer of navy and army, George Marshall
Judenfrei
slogan meaning "cleasened of Jews", used by Nazis after every Jew was either dead or removed from an area
National Labor Relations Act
1935 Act that guarantees the right to Unionize
anarchism
opposition to any form of government; the theory that all governments should be abolished
Monetary Policy
An attempt to alter the amount of money in circulation and the price of money (the interest rate) to affect the economy.
Administrative Procedure Act
before adopting a new rule or policy, an agency must give notice, solicit comments, and hold hearings
Lineage
a group of people descended from a common ancestor
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Flag-burning is symbolic speech with a political purpose and is protected by 1st Amendment.
War Labor Board
Lead by Taft during WWI
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1942
organization that was dedicated to bringing about change through peaceful confrontation
direct primary
an election open to all votes within the party
Martin Luther King Jr
became the spokesperson for the Montgomery bus boycott
Mischlenge
those with mixed Jewish and Gentile blood
Magna Carta
British document, signed by King John, which reaffirmed long-standing rights and responsibilities of the English nobility; limited the powers of the king; and recognized that all people, including the government and monarch, are subject to the law.
Battle of Antietam
Union army routes Lee's offensive strike, allows Lincoln to give emancipation proclamation
Maximilian
French viceroy who takes over Mexico during Civil War due to fact that America cannot enforce monroe doctrine
resource management
the rational scientific management of natural resources such as timber or mineral deposits
Overman Act
Act that regulates railroads during WWI
Conservative momvement by '80 supporters
Wanted to go back to the good old days. Too much government
Federal Judiciary
consists of the nine justices of the US Supreme Court and hundreds of federal judges, all of whom are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. Federal judges preside over constitutional courts, which include 94 district courts and 12 courts of appeal; and legislative courts, which consists of special courts like tax and military courts.
Legislative orversight
One of Congress most important tasks--to investigate and evaluate the executive departments and agencies.
GAO
General Accounting Office- performs primarily routine financial audits of the money spent by the executive branch departments and investigates agencies and policies and makes recommendations on almost every aspect of government
Congressional Reconstruction
The "real" reconstruction plan, it involved the Radical Republican's plans which override Johnson's vetoes
constraints on program planning
length of time; unexpected crisis; nature of federal government
Nixon's policies of invading Cambodia and Vietnamization
Nixon encouraged South Vietnam to take control. This did not eliminate the Viet Cong
George Creel
Propagandist in charge of Committee of Public Information
Peninsula Campaign
Botched Union attempt to capture the capital Richmond by circumventing the Confederate army by sea.
REA
Acronym: Agency that gives power to the poor
Edward Hopper
1926 artist who painted Early Sunday Morning: personal cityscapes
Implied Powers
powers claimed by Congress which are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution, but are implied in its necessary and proper clause (Article I, Section 8).
Swastika
emblem on the Nazi flag. The swastika was a cross with ends bent at a right angle
Nomadic
moving from place to place.
Containment
Post WWII built a network of defensive alliances in Europe and Asia during the late 1940s and 50s
trust
a legal combonation of companies brought together to gain control of an industry and reduce competition
Foreign Service
part of the Department of State. The Foreign Service has thousands of ambassadors and staff members, who are trained to represent the United States in embassies, missions, liaison offices, consulates and other agencies in the United States and throughout the world. Ambassadors report to the President via the Secretary of State. They are responsible for implementing US civilian foreign policy within the countries to which they are assigned.
Marshall Plan
a set of foreign policies adopted by the United States after World War II. Named after Secretary of State George C. Marshall, the policies provided substantial aid to European countries to help them rebuild their countries, economies and democracies, many of which had been destroyed or severely damaged during the war.
New York Draft Riots
Anti-conscription violence that protested the unfair $300 draft evasion fee that made poor people have to fight the war
Briefs
documents given to a court by the attorneys trying a case. These documents contain summaries of the issues in the case, the laws relevant to the case, and the arguments which support the position taken by the attorney on behalf of his or her client.
Abbington v. Schempp (1963)
Prohibited devotional Bible reading in public schools by virtue of establishment clause and due process clause. Warren Court's judicial activism
u-2 incident
an American plane was shot down behind soviet lines
War Industries Board
Board that organizes industry, reduces waste, rations resources, fairly ineffective (plural)
NAACP (1909)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Separation of Church and State
idea that the government and religion should be separate, and not interfere in each other's affairs. In the United States, this idea is based on the First Amendment to the US Constitution, which states that the government cannot make any laws to establish a state religion or prohibit the free exercise of religion.
appropriations
funding that must be authorized by Congress for any federal spending
Schenck v. United States
1919--Case involving limits on free speech. Established the "clear and present danger" principle.
Nation of Islam
preached black separation and self-help
June 1940
Month and Year France falls
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Attitude that told Europeans to stay out of Latin America
Delaware
Originally by Swedes, taken over by Dutch, then controlled by PA
16th Amendment
Amendment that legalizes the income tax
Reservationist Republicans
Post-WWII group lead by Henry Cabot Lodge opposed to ARticle X
John Foster Dulles
U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959
Frank Lloyd Wright
Pioneering architect of "form follows function"
Sussex Pledge
Agreement in which Germany ceases submarine warfare if British stop mining North Sea
Indictment
Written statement of criminal charges brought against a defendant.
Majority Rule
idea that all the people in a group or society should be held to the rules and decisions established by more than half of the people.
CIA
central intelligence agency
Pearl Harbor
Purchased in 1887
Dough Boys
slang for American soldiers (because of their uniforms)
Symbolic Speech
action that is meant to convey a message.
Iroquois
n American Indian confederacy originally of New York consisting of the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca and later including the Tuscarora
speculator
someone who invests in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit
Watergate Affait/Deception
Concept of democracy; hijack of election; shook US confidence in government
Amendment 16
Number of the amendment that legalizes income tax in 1913
March on Washington 1963
200,000 came to Washington D.C. to call for "jobs and freedom"
Farewell Adress
Washington advised Americans against becoming involved in European affairs
Equal Protection of the Law
idea that all citizens should be treated equally under the law, and that no state has the right to grant privileges or discriminated against any individual or group. This idea is embodied in the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution.
Bill of Rights
another name for the first ten amendments to the US Constitution. These ten amendments protect the fundamental freedoms of Americans from any infringement by the government.
HOLC
Acronym: Commission that loans money to house owners
Delegated powers
also called "enumerated powers." Delegated powers are those which are specifically listed in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution as being granted to the Congress.
Pearl Harbor
american base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japnese planes on Decemeber 7, 1941. the bombing of this forced the US to enter the war
Warren Harding
29th president from 1921 - 1923
Freedom of Information Act
citizens have the right to inspect all government records except those containing military, intelligence, or trade secrets or revealing private personnel actions
HUAC
Searched out spies and communists, begun before wwII
Pendleton Act
Bill signed into law by Arthur that ends patronage and institutes a meritocratic job-seeking system for civil service
Bluebacks
Term for confederate paper money
repatriation
return to a person's country of birth or citizenship
Gentlemen's Agreement
Informal agreement between the US and Japan, in which Japan would cease issuing passports in exchange for the US accepting Japanese immigrants already in America
Vote
choose. In order to vote in the United States, a person has to be at least 18 years old and a citizen of the United States. People who are eligible to vote must register.
Eisenhower Doctrine
the us would respond with armed forces to ANY type of agression
Panama
Site of a canal and a revolution
Dumbbell
Shape of an unsanitary, crowded housing complex
Bracero program
Labor program between US and Mexico importing workers
Social Darwnism
WASP dominate. All others are lesser; Superior should rule.
Disfranchised
having the right to vote taken away. The term is also used to refer to anyone whose rights and privileges of citizenship, including the right to vote, has been taken away.
15th amendment
Amendment that guarantees right of suffrage to all men
Sirhan Sirhan
assassinated Robert Kennedy in 1968
Plessy v. Ferguson
Landmark court ruling that legalizes segregation
Fair Labor Standards Act
Act that creates minimum wage and maximum hours
Progressives
Kept pushing things forward. Believed the government was an agent for change and improvement of the lives of the US. Middle Class movement as opposed to the Populust agrarian farmers.
Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of the Treasury
Vietname/Guerilla Warfare
blurred line between military and civilians; made surprise attacks on US frequent; Viet Cong took toll on our military
Judicial review
power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or government regulation which it believes to be unconstitutional. Chief Justice John Marshall articulated this right in the decision of Marbury v. Madison (1803). So far, the Supreme Court has ruled about 1500 congressional acts or parts of acts unconstitutional.
U.S. Steel
Established in 1901 by J.P. Morgan and Carnegie, it was a combination of steel operations into a single corporation
Gerrymandering
drawing the boundaries of an election district so that one party or group has a significant advantage. The strategy generally used is to concentrate opposition votes in a few districts, while spreading out the rest of the opposition over many districts. Gerrymandering is often used to help get candidates of a particular party elected, or to help increase minority representation in government.
Jay's Treaty
Britain pays for damages for the seized American ships and Americans had to pay debts longowed to Britain merchants
Trent Affair
Foreign event involving Union seizure of British ship with Confederate diplomats.
Copperheads
Democrats who opposed the civil war
Casablanca Conference
January 1943 conference between FDR and Churchill that produces Unconditional Surrender doctrine
Philanthropist
someone who donates time, money, or resources
17th Amendment
Amendment that provides for direct election of senators
Standing Committee
permanent bodies with specific legislative responsibilities
Merit system
manner of choosing employees that emphasizes their ability, education, experience, and job performance; rather than their connections or other political factors. In 1883, Congress passed the Pendleton Act, which called for reforms to make sure more federal employees were hired by a merit system and fewer by Presidential appointment. Today, almost 95% of federal civilian employees are hired on a merit basis, through civil service examinations and educational and skill qualifications.
Korematsu v. U. S.
T1941--he court upheld the constitutionality of detention camps for Japanese-Americans during World War 2.
Government
institutions and officials which enact laws and execute and enforce public programs. Government in the United States is made up of executive, legislative and judicial branches at federal, state, and local levels.
American Liberty League
League lead by Al Smith (bumped out by FDR) believing that there was too much government intervention
W.E.B. DuBois
Civil rights activist who helped found NAACP
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Clayton Antitrust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
International Workers of the World
Coal-miners/dangerous-jobs union known as the "wobblies",
Pennsylvania
Quaker colony, lead by William
The Jazz Singer
First film to use sound (leading the)
Pure Food and Drug Act
Federal statute that prohibits selling bad food and establishes meat inspection. Leads way for the Food and Drug Administration
Coalition
A combination of groups of people who work together to acheive a political goal.
Yalta Conference
Conference in Crimea, FDR and USSR make agreements for post-war
Fundamentalism
An exact translation of the Bible was taken and acted upon. Led religious revivals. Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson were some popular names at the time
Epperson v. Arkansas (1968)
Prohibited states from banning the teaching of evolution.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Attempt at tariff reform by lowering tariff that ends up getting so many amendments tacked on that it increases the tariff
Brown v. Board of Education Topeka 1954
ruled separate but equal facilties were unconstitutional
Iran Hostage Situation
1979. Iran students held 63 diplomats and three citizens hostage for 444 days under presidency of Carter
Emergency Quota Act
1921 Act that stipulates only 3% of 1910 immigrants are allowed in
CCC
Acronym: Military-style corp of young men who travel around to do heavy work
Ad Hoc Structure
used by Clinton - task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends and advisers deal directly with the president
Open Door Policy
China's ports were open to every country at all times
Square Deal
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
"Moslems"
the "walking dead" of concentration camps who looked and acted like zombies
Bernard Montgomery
British commander of WWII
Alger Hiss
a spy for the soviets. found guilty. years later.
warsaw pact
a pact between communist nations in Europe etc
Yellow Dog Contracts
contracts employees signed, giving them low wages and conditions like not joining unions
Cartier
Sails for French, explores Canada
Wounded Knee Massacre
Last armed conflict between Sioux and US, instigated by overzealous Ghost Dance
Jim Crow Laws
laws which promoted segregation, or the separation of people based on race. These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, usually the good ones; to vote; find decent employment and associate with anyone of their own choosing. These laws did not make life "separate but equal," but only served to exclude African Americans and others from exercising their rights as American citizens. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were unconstitutional. It took many years and much effort, however, before Jim Crow laws would be overturned across the country.
NRA
Acronym: Administration that has blue eagles, sets up codes of competition
Writ of certiorari
court order issued by the Supreme Court to order a lower court to send up the record of a case. Supreme Court justices use writs of certiorari to bring cases from lower courts to the Supreme Court for review. "Certiorari" means "to be informed" or "to be made more certain" in Latin.
Senate Majority Leader
first-ranking party position, held by a distinguished senior member of the majority party in the Senate. The Senate majority leader schedules floor actions on bills, and helps guide the majority party's legislative program through the Senate.
National Urban League 1911
helped African Americans moving out of the South find homes and jobs and ensured that they received fair treatment at work
Dissenting Opinion
written explanation of the opinion of one or more judges in a court who disagree with the decision of the majority of the court.
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 ruling that upon arrest, a suspect has the right to remain silent and the right to consult with a lawyer.
Plantation
a large farm on which the labor of slaves or other workers is used ot grow a single crop
Bread and Butter issues
Those political issues are specifically directed at the daily concerns of working-class Americans, such as job security, tax rates, wages, and employment benefits.
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Upheld new Georgia death penalty laws requiring dual-phase trial and special circumstances; capital punishment does not constitute cruel & unusual punishment of 8th Amendment.
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Group aimed at combating the influence of alcohol in families
SEC
Acronym: Commission that enforces T-i-S act and Wall Street laws
Appellate court
a court which hears cases which have been decided in lower courts. For cases involving state law, most states provide state appellate courts, while federal circuit courts ("courts of appeal") deal with most appeals related to federal law. The State Supreme Court is the highest appellate court, the "court of last resort," for cases involving state law, while the US Supreme Court is the highest appellate court, the "court of last resort," for cases involving federal law.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819--The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
Scalawag
Southerner in favor of reconstruction to garner political support
muckraker
a writer whose investigative articles or books attacked abuses such as child labor or corruption
Assembly Line
A new way of working. Unskilled workers could be hired and paid for less.
Freedom of Assembly
the right to gather with other people in public. This right is protected by the First Amendment to the US Constitution.
Election
process by which people choose the candidate they want to become a public official. Many positions in government are elected positions, which means that many voters have to decide on a person to fill each job. Elections are held for positions like City Council person, Mayor, State Representative, Governor, Congressperson, and President of the United States. Some positions are not elected, but appointed.
John Dewey
American educator and reformer who was progressive
President's Cabinet
gives the president advice and directs their departments
Griswold v. Connecticut
1965 decision that the Constitution implicitily guarantees citizens' right to privacy.
18th Amendment
Enacts the Prohibition
Bill of Attainder
legislative act declaring that a person is guilty of a crime and setting punishment without the benefit of a formal trial. The Constitution forbids the federal government (Article I, Section 9, clause 3) and the state governments (Article I, Section 10, clause 1) from passing bills of attainder.
Mugwumps
Republicans who supported the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in 1884 because they could not support Blaine
Grand jury
ranges in size from 6 to 23, depending on the state, and functions to determine whether there is enough evidence available against a person accused of a crime to justify a trial.
Arabic
Passenger-liner sunk in August 1915
concentration camps
prison camps established by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party for Jews and other political prisoners during the war
Cortez
Sails for Spain, crushes Aztecs and Mexico
Orval Faubus
governor of Arkansas in 1957
capital
accumulated money or other material wealth that is devoted to the production of more wealth; material wealth acquired in business by an individual or company
political machine
well organized political organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes
Bureaucracy
a large, complex administrative structure. Such structures exist in organizations such as governments and businesses. The executive branch of the federal government has a complex bureaucracy, with a hierarchy of bureaus and agencies.
CWA
Acronym: Administration that establishes smaller daily jobs for winter
Russo-Japanese War
War between to imperialistic powers over Manchuria and Korea. The Japanese whup the Russians.
Brandenburg v. Ohio
1969--Determined that a law that proscribes advocacy of violence for political reform is constitutional if applied to speech that is not directed toward producing imminent lawlessness and is not likely to produce such action is not constitutional.
protective tariff
a tariff meant to protect local industry from foreign competition
Korematsu v. US
Court case that upholds constitutionality of Japanese internment camps
Neutrality Proclamation
the United States would not support either side in the war and Americans could not aid either Britain or France
Gospel of Wealth
Philosophy asserted by Carnegie that the rich had to be philanthropic
Majority Leader
schedule the business of the senate usually in consultation with the minority leader
Gerald ford's liability in the '76 election
Pardonned Nixon and his approval rating TANKED
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
Boxer Rebellion
Chinese rebellion against foreign influence
neutral
not taking sides in a conflict
US during Vietnam
LDB presided over the US with his Great Society and new government programs which were severly financially undercut. His role in the war was often criticized as he stepped up the US involvement in Vietnam. This disabled him from running for reelection
Theodore Roosevelt
Police commissioner who called for expansion
Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General who prosecutes many suspected Communists
Compromise of 1877
Compromise that enables Hayes to take office in return for the end of Reconstruction
Rhode Island
Established by Roger Williams who was kicked out of MA, religious toleration and "Lord's Debris"
Prior restraint
blocking a story before it is punished or broadcast
Civil Liberties
personal freedoms, most of which are protected by the Bill of Rights from government interference.
Major Issues during Carter's presidency
Inflation; Salt Negotiation; Human rights; Iranian hostages
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or nation origin. Did no address voting. Fuller realization of 14th Amendment
James Blaine
Republican nominee for president in 1884, previously a Secretary of State
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Gideon v. Wainwright
1963 ruling that a defendant in a felony trial must be provided a lawyer free of charge if the defendant cannot afford one.
Ludlow Amendment
1937 act that would make war declaration possible only by popular referendum, narrowly defeated
Barron v Baltimore (1833)
The guarantee in the 5th Amendment that private property shall not be taken "for public use, without just compensation" is not applicable to state governments as well as the federal government.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
independent federal agency in the executive branch. Created in 1964, this agency works to eliminate employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, disability, age or other criteria unrelated to job performance. It investigates complaints of discrimination; files lawsuits in cases of discrimination and is responsible for enforcing equal opportunity laws in federal departments, offices and agencies.
Gavrilo Princip
Assassinates Ferdinand on June 28th, 1914
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Tariff instated in 1930 that imposes the highest tariff ever
Political participation
becoming involved in activities such as voting, running for political office, signing petitions and other activities which help citizens make an impact on public or political issues.
4 main causes of the Great Depression
Tariffs and war debt policies, over production of goods, global economic downturn, the availability of easy credit.
Farmers Mortgage Act
Act that aids people in mortgage need
Rule of Law
doctrine that no individual stands above the law, and that all rulers are answerable to the law. This is one of the major legacies of the constitutional system. The rule of law can also be understood as the belief that there is a universal standard of justice, equality and impartiality, against which all governments and governmental actions may be measured.
John Wilkes Booth
Assassin who kills Lincoln in Ford's Theatre
Wabash v. Illinois
Court decision that rules states may not directly regulate railroads but leads to establishment of Interstate Commerce Commission
Berlin Airlift
The Us dropped tons of food and supplies to help democratic germany outlast their shutout
Great Compromise
proposal presented by Connecticut delegates at the 1787 Constitutional Convention to compromise between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. The Great Compromise suggested that a bicameral Congress be established, with representation in one house being determined by state population, and the other having equal representation from each state.
Verrazano
Sails for France, explores Hudson River and NY
Chiseler
A person who put up an NRA blue eagle without following the codes
September 2, 1945
Date of V-J Day, when MacArthur accepts Japanese surrender off of the Missouri
Muckraker
One who investigates and exposes issues of corruption
foreclosure
the legal procedure for reclaiming a piece of property when the buyer is unable to keep up the mortgage payments
Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of State
1940
Election Year, FDR v. Willkie
Supreme Court (also High Court)
the highest court in the judicial branch of the United States government, and the only court specifically mentioned in the Constitution. It consists of a Chief Justice and eight other Associate Justices. The Supreme Court is the "court of last resort" for appeals-the final authority on any questions dealing with the Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties of the United States. The only way to get around a Supreme Court decision is to amend the Constitution or have the Supreme Court itself reverses the decision. If a case is decided by the US Supreme Court, it cannot be appealed anywhere else.
WPA
Administration that creates 8M jobs making roads, buildings, bridges and artistic projects
Selective Service System
independent federal agency in the executive branch. Selective Service works to register all males in the United States, between the ages of 18 1/2 to 26,to make sure that the Armed Forces can be adequately supplied with people in case of a crisis in national security.
Nepotism
unfair practice in which people in power give positions in a government or organization to their relatives or friends, rather than to any individual who is well-qualified. This can lead to inefficiency in the functioning of the government or organization, since hiring is based on personal connections, rather than ability or merit. In addition, nepotism can cause conflicting loyalties for the person who receives the job: he or she may be more loyal to the person who hired him or her than to the government or organization.
Criminal case
legal proceedings brought against a person or group accusing that person or group of having committed a public wrong, or crime. A criminal case involves a trial, while, with a civil case, the term "lawsuit" is more generally applied. In a criminal case, the State is always one of the parties - the prosecutor.
Lyndon Baines Johnson
US President 1963-1969
Blacklists
lists of people not to hire, usually people associated with unions or rebels
Second New Deal
Legislation covered from end of 1933 - November 1984
Ida Tarbell
Author of The History of the Standard Oil Company which muckraked the oil industry
New Nationalism
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
Neutrality Acts of 35-37
Three successive acts that outlaw trade, travel and loans with belligerents (need years, omit leading 19)
Thurgood Marshall
first African American Supreme Court Justice
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Voting
Women gain the right to vote in 1919
Vertical integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Hepburn Act
Gives the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, finally giving the agency enforcement power
Coronado
Sails for Spain, sees Grand Canyon and buffalo
Samoa
Site of a tri-protectorate between Britain, Germany and the United States
Caste system
manner of organizing society based on the wealth, privilege, profession or inherited rank of individuals.
Valparaiso Incident
Foreign incident where two sailors are killed in a fight in Chile, the US demands an indemnity and gets it
Broad constructionism
Belief that the Constitution should be interpreted loosely concerning the restrictions it places on federal power.
Richard Nixon's Acceptance of the Republican Party Nomination for President, August 8th, 1968
"My fellow Americans...we make history tonight not for ourselves but for the ages. The choice we make in 1968 will deternine not only the future of America but the future of peace and freedom in the world for the last third of te 20th century, and the question that we answer tonight: can America meet this great challenge?"
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1987)
More leeway for states in regulation abortion, though no overturning of Roe v. Wade. Upholds MO law prohibiting abortion in public hospitals; shift in composition of court. (Later cases allow 24-hour waiting periods, parental consent for minors, etc.)
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
The boy scouts were allowed to dismiss a leader after learning that he was gay, holding that freedom of association outweighed the New Jersey anti-discrimination statute.
Civil Rights Movements
organized efforts to get laws passed and enforced which protect people and groups from having their constitutional rights violated.
Marginal rate
The tax rate in the highest bracket. This is the percentage of the last dollar that you earn that must be paid out in taxes
Sherman's March to the Sea
1864--1865 total destruction campaign from Geogia to the coast
Korean War
a war begin by south korea invading north
Upton Sinclair
Author of The Jungle
Truman Doctrine
It stated that the US would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent theri falling into the Soviet's control; disallow outside influence
Dwight D. Eisenhower
president, super anti communist
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
William Seward
Secretary of State of who purchases Alaska
Alaska
Referred to as Seward's folly
John Locke
British political theorist of the Enlightenment who argued that government should be based on the consent of the governed, and that people had the right to revolt against ineffective or unfair government. His most famous work, Two Treatises on Government, was published in 1690.
Greenbacks
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
Battle of Chateau-Thierry
June 4, 1918: first large US battle
Economic planning
An economic philosophy that assumes that the government should plan, in varying ways, some part of the country's economic activity. For instance, in times of high inflation, it suggest hat the government regulate the maximum prices that can be charged and wages that can be paid, at least in the larger industries.
Council for National Defense
Investigative committee established 1916, pre-war planning that wasn't very effective
Open Door Policy
Idea that all nations should have equal trading rights in China. Is ultimately a failure because no-one followed it
Flappers
The stylish women of the 1920's. Shorter cut skirts and hair. Black hair. Took a bigger role is society; the workplace, politics, etc.
Second Battle of Bull Run
Culmination of offensive campaign by Robert E. Lee, overwhelming victory although Union army weathers it well
John Rockefeller
Industrialist and philanthropist responsible for creation of Standard Oil
Massachusetts
Puritans lead by William Bradford, landing site of Pilgrims. Later lead by John Winthrop, "city on a hill"
eugenics
a movement advocating improving the human race by controlling hereditary factors in mating
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Author of the Great Gatsby, ridiculing materialism
Skyscrapers
New building techniques (city's grew up and out)
Fundamental Rights
rights and privileges considered essential by the general society.
Select Committee
groups appointed for a limited purpose and usually lasting for only a few congresses
soft money
political parties can solicit unlimited funds from individuals, corporations, and unions, provided that they spend the money on local party activities such as voter registration campaigns and get-out-the-vote drives and not on behalf of specific candidates
settlement houses
institutions that provided educational and social services to poor people
Foreign Policy
decisions and programs made by the government which are directly related to issues involving other countries. Sometimes domestic and foreign policies influence each other.
disengagement
if a war was thought "immoral" we were reluctant to see American military involvement
African American Migration
many African Americans migrated to large northern cities after the Civil War
Adamson Act
1916 law that established 8 hour workday for railroad workers in order to avert a national strike
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
Impact of WWII on American Society
Newfound optimism; romens role during wartimes helped their push for equality; semi-integrated military promoted civil rights movement; put the brakes on the Great Depression
speculation
a risky business venture involving buying or selling propergy in the hope of making a large, quick profit; making investments in the stock market
suburbs
residential neighborhoods
Hiroshima
Site of first atom bomb drop "Little Boy" by Enola Gay on Japan
Republic
form of government based on a constitution, in which decisions are made by elected or appointed officials in a democratic manner.
Equality of Opportunity
situation in which every person has an equal chance, especially in areas such as education, employment and political participation
The Whip
a senator who helps the party leader stay informed about what party leaders are thinking, rounds up members when important votes are to be taken, and attempts to keep a noses count on how the voting on a controversial issue will go
Sovereignty
supreme and final authority or power in a government. In the United States, sovereignty rests with the people.
tenement
apartment house with poor safety and sanitation
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion
Half-Breeds
Moderate republicans who favored civil service reform
Promontory Point
Point in Utah where the Transcontinental Railroad was completed
Social Security Act
1935 act that establishes pensions and insurance
13th Amendment
Amendment that abolishes slavery
Filibuster
a tactic in which a Senator holds the floor for a long time in order to delay or prevent a vote on an issue. Filibusters cannot occur in the House of Representatives, since speaking time is limited.
Manifest Destiny
Idea prevalent from 1840s-1850s associated with Indians, gold and China
hard money
must be reported to the FEC
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Agreement between US and UK not to colonize any Central American kingdom
Balance of trade
the net difference between the value of American exports and imports. If the country has exported more than it has imported, then the United States has a positive or favorable balance of trade. If the country has imported more than it has exported, then it has a negative or unfavorable balance of trade.
Challenges to Neutrality
British blockade, Germany establishing a war zone around Great Britain, the sinking of the Lusitania, U-boat warfare
New York
Originally Dutch settlement, Duke of York threatens his way into the land
George Marshall
Lead general of the American army during WWII
Root-Takahira Agreement
Agreement between US and Japan officially recognizing the territorial sovereignty of each nation
initiative
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
The Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, (US)
Civil Rights Laws
laws designed to protect individuals or groups from having their civil rights violated by other individuals, organizations or groups.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) 1957
was started by Martin Luther King Jr. and advocated the practice of nonviolent protest
Charles Evans Hughes
Secretary of State under Harding
Morrill Act
Allows for creation of land-grant colleges, colleges built on federally granted land specially appropriated for this purpose. It was signed into law by Lincoln
Songhal
an empire that controlled much of central Africa in the 1500
Herbert Hoover
31st president from 1929 - 1933
William McKinley
25th president, Republican, Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism
Edgar Hoover
Leader of FBI, begins NARCS during red scare
W.W. Belknap
Secretary of War who sells $24k worth of supplies to Indians and pockets the money
Speaker of the House
decides who shall be recognized to speak on the floor of the house; ii. Rules whether a motion is relevant and germane to the business at hand; iii.decides the committees to which new bill shall be assigned; iv. influences what bills are brought up for a vote; v. appoints the members of special and select committees
Triple alliance
Alliance between Austria-Hungary, Germany and Italy, established 1879 and 1882
John Pershing
US General who searched for Pancho Villa
Sherman Anti-trust act
MAde it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or other countries
Henry Bessemer
Bessemer Process (steel)
Winfield Scott
Democratic nominee for election of 1880, also loses narrowly, but only by popular vote
Unalienable rights
fundamental rights belonging to people, which cannot be taken away. The phrase "unalienable rights" was used in the Declaration of Independence (1776).
cold war
a war with no direct fighting
Rugged Individualism
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
precedent
an act or a decision that sets an example for others to follow
Marbury v. Madison
1803 established the principle of judicial review
capitalism
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
Non-agression treaty between Germany and Russia
Shanty towns
Also known as Hoovervilles. Those with no home or work would create small town like areas of trash, boxes, boards, etc. Many were later burned out by the police force.
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824--Clarified the commerce clause and affirmed Congressional power over interstate commerce.
Reaganomics
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
Political Culture
A distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out
Great Migration
200,000 to 550,000 African American's moved northward from 1915-1930. Enjoyed the better standard of living, still there was racial tension and violence.
Taxes
money collected by federal, local or state government from individuals or businesses for use in public spending.
Bush v. Gore (2000)
Use of 14th Amendment's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of 2000.
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
Matching Grants
funding strategy in which the donor, whether the government or a private agency, requires the recipient to provide a given percent of the money needed to implement to program.
Pardon
legal forgiveness for a crime. Governors can issue pardons for state crimes, and the President can issue pardons for federal crimes.
Charles Hughes
Republican nominee for presidential election of 1916, believes he is president due to newspaper misprint
Warrant
a court order that makes an official action legal, such as a search warrant or an arrest warrant.
inaugaration
the ceremony in which the President officially takes the oath of office
Underwood Tariff
Imposes an income tax and actually does lower the tariff from 40% to 25%
John Steinbeck
Author of The Grapes of Wrath
Lever Act
Sets up Food and Fuel Administration, consolidates industry
Standing Cells
a punishment cell 35 x 35 inches, occupied by four prisoners. After standing all night, they joined work crews during days
Bank of the United States
the national bank that the government deposited money from taxes into and issued paper money
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary who conducted numerous raids on American soil
Amendment
an alteration or addition to a document. Although over 6,000 constitutional amendments to the US Constitution have been proposed in Congress, only 27 have been adopted, the most recent having been ratified in 1992. According to the Constitution, there are four ways in which it can be amended. An amendment can be proposed to the states either after a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress, or by a vote in two-thirds of the state legislatures. Once it has been proposed to the states, it can be ratified either by the legislatures of three-fourths of the states or by conventions in three-fourths of the states. All 27 amendments, except the 21st Amendment, were proposed by a two-thirds majority of Congress and ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the states.
Cabot
Sails for England, explores New England coast
Helen Hunt Jackson
Author of A Century of Dishonor
Volstead Act
Early bill that implements the prohibition
Clear and Present Danger
phrase used in the Supreme Court decision, Schenck v. United States (1919). It refers to the idea that the government has the right to punish individuals who engage in speech or actions which can be shown to present a serious and immediate danger to the nation or the interests of the government. Schenck had been convicted for having distributed leaflets urging people not to register for the draft during World War I. Although such "speech" would have been within his rights in peacetime, the Supreme Court ruled that the fact that he engaged in that activity in a time of war made his actions pose a "clear and present danger" to the nation.
Mahan
Author of "The Influence of Sea Power" in which he argued a strong navy was essential for the protection of American interests
Office of Scientific Research and Development
WWII agency contributes $100Ms to scientific projects like Manhattan, radar, sonar, etc
Fiscal policy
government policies which seek to influence the economy through tax and spending policies.
Human Rights
idea that humanaity has certain rights including that of security of person
Near v Minnesota (1925)
Case centered on censorship - government cannot censor something (newspapers) because that restricts freedom of the press. Main issue was government officials were being criticized and wanted to censor the criticism.
Unions
Low wages and unsafe working conditions cause workers to revolt and group together. (Ex. American Railway Union, Child Labor Movement, Women Labor Movement, Industrial Workers of the World, Social Gospel Movement)
Jazz
Originated among African Americans in the south, esp. New Orleans (Big Bands popularized jazz for dancing)
Carranza
Lead the opposition against Huerta during the Mexican Revolution
filibuster
tactic which senators prevent a vote on a bill by taking the floor and refusing to stop talking
Monroe Doctrine
justified American intervention in foreign territory
Ideology
set of beliefs and goals of a social or political group that explain or justify the group's decisions and behavior.
containment
the ideals to block the spread of communism
Zimmerman note
Proposes Mexico-German relations
Treaty
official agreement between two or more sovereign nations. Many treaties establish terms of peace after a war or conflict, or determine the rules nations must follow in theory relationship with other nations. A treaty creates rights or responsibilities, or restricts existing rights or responsibilities.
FERA
Acronym: Relief agency lead by Hopkins in New Deal
Frances Townsend
Hyper-liberal who wants large pensions for all retirees
George Pullman
Invented the sleeping car
Home Front
term given to the US mainland during the war
Anarchy
confused state of society in which there is no government and no laws.
exclusion
keeping a person or a group from coming in
Freedom Rides
designed to test whether southern states would obey Supreme Court rulings for African American rights
Economy Seas Culture Propaganda
Causes of US entrance into WWI. Order ESCP, spaces inbetween, one word each
Cuba
sold to US in the Treaty of Paris (along with the Philippines)
referendum
established a procedure by which voters cast ballots for or against proposed laws
Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy
Controversy in which th Interior (instated be Secretary ofy Taft) attempts to sell off reserved land for industrial development. He is opposed by Chief of the Forest Service, who investigates the issue. Taft decides to drop charges, Pinchot goes public and gets fired.
Battle of Verdun
September 26, 1918: Last US engagement, US fights alone
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, it detailed the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion
T.S. Eliot
Author of "The Wasteland" on the horrors of war (first two words initials)
Teheran Conference
December 1943 conference that begins to arrange D-Day
Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Offensive strike by US that gets to St. Mihiel and Verdun, ending WWI
migration
a movement of people within a country or area
John Keynes
Architect of Mixed Economy model, in which Command and Free Market economies are combined
Platform
set of opinions and ideas for policy, upon which the members of a political party decide. Party members often determine their platforms in caucuses.
Robert Moses
one of SNCC's most influential leaders
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Agreement between US and UK that permits the US to construct a canal, as long as it was open to all nations
Panic of 1873
Financial downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands
social gospel movement
a movement emphasizing the application of Christian principles to social problems
Harry Truman
33rd president 1945 - 1953
Primary
process by which members of a party elect candidates to run for office as the representative of the party. Primaries are held in national presidential elections, as well as more local elections.
Ethnic Group
group of people who are part of a common and distinctive culture. An ethnic group can be determined on the basis of a complex set of characteristics, including race, nationality, religion, ancestry, and language.
Nikita Krushchev
leader of the soviet party
Mexican Revolution
>Diaz was president for more than 30 years >Madero wins over Diaz in 1910 election (democrat) >Huerta seizes control in 1913, killing Madero >Wilson refuses to recognize Huerta as a leader
Minority Leader
the head of the minority party in either the House or the Senate. The minority leader represents the interests of the minority party by meeting with the majority leader and, in the case of the House, the House Speaker to schedule bills and rules for floor action.
Gerald Nye
Senator in charge of committee that determines war merchants caused WWI
Samuel Tilden
Democratic nominee for president in 1876, loses narrowly
Ernest Hemingway
Author of "Old Man and the Sea", "The Sun Also Rises", "A Farewell to Arms" and "For whom the Bell Tolls"
NAACP
(1906) North American Association of Colored People; founded by W.E.B. Dubois & Jane Addams
Federal Trade Commission
Federal institution that promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices
London Economic Conference
Conference in 1933 subverted by FDR's attempts to protect US dollars from deflation
McKinley Tariff
Raises tariff rates to 48.8% in return for Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Detrimental to farmers, Hawaii gets killed
Battle of Coral Sea
May 7th, 1942 battle where ships never see each other, halts Japanese advance
Judicial Activism
belief that the Supreme Court has the right or obligation to perform judicial review.
Civil Service
system of hiring government employees on the basis of merit, rather than political considerations. The term is also used to refer to government employees outside the military.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
1971 defining government actionsin dealing with religion--must not inhibit or advance religion and does not entangle the goverment with religion.
Ethnocentrism
the belief that your culture is superior or correct above others
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 case that overturned Separate but Equal standard of discrimination in education.
Bear Market
When the stock market is falling or expected to fall
Counter-Culture of the 60s
Anti-War Movement; Hippies; San Francisco; LOOSENING OF TRADITIONAL VALUES/RULES
War Powers Act
Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President's power
melting pot
a society in which various racial, ethnic, and cultural groups were blended together
nonviolent protest
a peaceful way of protesting against restrictive racial policies
Andrew Carnegie
Carnegie Steel. MONOPOLY. Partnered with Rockefeller. Was a steel tycoon. Used Vertical and Horizontal integration. Also, a great philanthropist.
24th amendment
eliminated the poll tax as a voting requirement
Tenure of Office Act
Makes it illegal for president to replace officers who have been confirmed by Congress without Congressional approval
satellite nation
countries that are formally independent, but otherwise influenced by another nation
Ghost Dance
Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee
brinkmanship
always on the brink of war
War Bonds
certificates sold by the US government to pay for the war
Civil Rights during the 60s
Catalyst for activists groups; picketing; sit-ins
Congress
chief legislative body of the United States federal government. The Congress is a bicameral legislature, made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. It is responsible for making all federal laws. In Article I, Section 8, the US Constitution gives the Congress a number of powers, including collecting taxes, regulating commerce, and providing funding for the military.
October 29, 1929
Date the stock market crashed, Black Tuesday
Initative
Process through which voters may propose new laws.
The Great Upheaval
A year of many strikes over labor issues
Causes of the Great Depression
Stock market crash; consumer debt and spending
gerrymandering
To divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections
Death Camp
a camp existing primarily for the quick killing of prisoners
NYA
Acronym: CWA for 17-year-olds
Whiskey Rebellion
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
veto message
a statement that the president sends to Congress accompanying the bill, within ten days after the bill has been passed
June 6, 1944
Date of D-Day, largest amphibious assault in the history of the war
skyscraper
very tall building with many floors, elevators, and a steel frame
John F Kennedy
US President 1960-1963
John Davis
Ohian compromise candidate between McAdoo and Smith
William Jennings Bryan
Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader
Steel
The Bessemer Steel Process was the new method to produce more than 90% of the nations steel. First Monopoly is steel was made by Andrew Carnegie
Shay's Rebellion
incident in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787. Small-farm owners, led by Daniel Shays, rebelled in reaction to the state's failure to address the widespread farm foreclosures and credit difficulties. Although troops were able to calm the rebellion, the rioting convinced many national leaders that the Articles of Confederation were insufficient for national stability, and that a stronger central government was needed. This helped compel leaders to create what would become the US Constitution.
Ex Post Facto
"after the fact." An ex post facto law is one which makes a particular act illegal, and punishes people who committed that crime before the law was passed, i.e., when the act was legal. "Ex post facto" means "from a thing done afterward" in Latin.
Anti-Semitism
prejudice or hostility towards Jews
Nagasaki
Japenese city on which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945)
Northern Securities
A railroad trust that was sued by the Sherman Antitrust Case, one of the first trusts to be busted
Francis Gary Powers
a pilot of a U-2, shot down
Industrial policy
Would have the government planning or subsidizing investments in industries that need to recover or in new industries that could replace them.
Mann Act
Prohibits interstate trafficking of prostitutes
Legislative Power
power to make laws. In the federal government of the United States, the Congress holds most of the legislative power.
Treaty of Whangia
Treaty that opened Chinese ports up to US shipping
majority-minority districts
those with a majority of residents who are part of an ethnic minority
Platt Amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Privileges and immunities
refers to Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution, which guarantees that "citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens" in any other state in the United States.
Pyramid Structure
used by Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, and Bush - assistants report through a hierarchy to a chief of staff, who then deals with the president
North Atlantic Treaty Ogranization (NATO)
established by a treaty signed in 1949. The treaty tied the security interested of the United States to those of the nations of Western Europe and other areas. NATO arose out of fear of the military and security threat posed by the Communist Soviet Union, although it still exists even after the fall of the U.S.S.R.
Mao Zedong
communist leader in N. Korea
Civil Law
set of laws which deal with private rights of individuals. Laws which are not civil laws are criminal laws.
pocket veto
if the president does not sign the bill within ten days and Congress has adjourned within that time, then the bill will not become a law
impoundment of funds
when Congress takes money from a bill that the president has vetoed and places it into bills he has not vetoed
Gilded Age
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Rutherford Hayes
19th president, Republican, succeeding Grant, didn't do much after the contested election against Tilden
Consent of the governed
agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government. Natural rights philosophers, such as John Locke, believe that any legitimate government must draw its authority from the consent of the governed.
racism
feelings against people because of their skin color
Joint Committee
those on which both representatives and senators serve.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
(1911) 146 women killed while locked into the burning building (brought attention to poor working conditions)
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of war, Union victory ends with Pickett's charge
Zionism
movement among Jews to establish a Jewish State in Palestine
Lee Harvey Oswald
suspected of killing John F Kennedy
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
created by Congress in 1947. The CIA functions under the direction of the National Security Council. It serves to: coordinate information-gathering activities of all federal agencies, especially those in the Departments of State and Defense; analyze and evaluate information collected; and keep the President and National Security Council updated on all the information obtained. The CIA also conducts intelligence operations across the world, in its efforts to obtain information. It is a very secretive organization, and even Congress is largely uninformed of most of its activities, except for a few key members of Congress.
The Jungle
Muckraking book by Upton Sinclair that detailed the gross innards of the meatpacking industry
Authority
right to influence, control or direct the actions of other people. Authority can be given ion law, by custom, by understood rules of morality or by consent of the person under authority.
Bull Market
When the stock market is rising or expected to rise
bond
a certificate that promises to repay the money loaned, plus interest, on a certain date
Supply Side economics
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
Bond
Represents a loan to government (pays interest). Fundraising technique employed by Union and Confederates
Franchise
the right to vote
Vanderbilt
Family of railroad moguls
Knights of Labor
1969 - labor union led by Uriah Stephens; open to all laborers, regardless of race, gender, skill... etc; "an injury to one is a concern to all."
Frederick Turner
Writer of The Significance of the Frontier in American History, arguing that in the frontier the purest form of democracy exists
Harlem Renaissance
Period of artistic development of african american writers, artists, actors, and musicians in the 1920s
Jackie Robinson
first African American to play in Major League Baseball
Ethnicity
a set of characteristics which result in a distinctive culture, in which a group of people share. In the United States, ethnicity is a term that is somewhat flexible in meaning, but generally refers to a subset of the national culture in which people share one of more of the following characteristics: race, nationality, religion, ancestry, or language. Ethnicity sometimes refers to the group of people, as well as the culture itself
Operation Torch
Codename for allied invasion of North Africa from Novermber 1942 to September 1943
Naturalization
process by which an alien becomes a citizen
Free silver
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
Georgia O'Keeffe
Aritst of watercolors, flowers, bleak cityscapes, deserts and bones (20s)
Boss Tweed
Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine
Bicameral
"two rooms." The term refers to a legislative body, such as the US Congress or the British Parliament, that is divided into two separate houses.
conflict
exists because some agencies seem to be working at cross-purposes with other agencies
prohibition
a ban on alcohol
Domestic Policy
decisions, laws, and programs made by the government which are directly related to issues in the United States. Sometimes domestic and foreign policies influence each other.
Progressive Tax
The wealthiest individuals paid at a higher rate than the less affluent.
Joseph McCarthy
accused bunched of innocent people of being communists in the senate
Domino Theory
If one more country falls to communism, the rest will fall.
Robert F. Kennedy - April 4, 1968 after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
"What we need in the United States is not division; what we need in the United States is not hatred; what we need in the United States is not violence and lawlessness, but it is love and wisdom, and compassion toward one another, and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country, whether they be white or whether they be black."
Nationalism
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
Pare Lorentz
American documentary-writer who exposed the New Deal's workings
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American commander of WWII
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
1st Amendment protects campaign spending; legislatures can limit contributions, but not how much one spends of his own money on campaigns.
Depression/Government
Increase in role of government programs, some of which are still around.
Circular Structure
used by Carter - cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the president
1916
Election year, Wilson v. Charles Hughes
Coal Strike of 1902
Strike by the United Coal Workers of America, threatening to shut down the winter coal supply. Theodore Roosevelt intervened federally, and resolved the dispute
Killer amendment
Amendment to a bill proposed by its opponenets for the specific purpose of decreasing the bill's chance of passage.
Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Entangling alliances
Causes of WWI. Order NIME, spaces inbetween
First Red Scare
Period of strong sentiment against Capitalism and Communism
Boynton v. Virginia 1960
ruled that bus station waiting rooms and restaurants could not be segregated
Why didn't the US participate in the League of Nations
They agreed with everything except for article 10. Article 10 states that if any member went to war, the others would fight for it also. Wilson thought that it defeated to point of the League of Nations
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
Yellow journalism
Term given to sensationalist newspaper writing, exemplified by that of Hearst and Pulitzer when they were attempting to garner support for war with Spain
Thomas Hobbes
British political theorist who argued that individuals formed governments because of their rational self-interest. One of the major intellectual figures of the Enlightenment, his most famous work is The Leviathan, published in 1651.
Civil rights
constitutional rights and privileges enjoyed by individuals and groups, which the government promises to protect from interference by others.
Quarantine Speech
Speech that marks turning point in US policy from isolationism to interventionism
Lincoln's Plan
Also known as 10% plan, it was the most lenient of all reconstruction plans, with the objective of getting the Southern states back in as quickly as possible
Ezra Pound
Poet author of "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley" on postwar crisis
Legistlative Branch
section of government that makes laws. In the federal government, the legislative branch consists of: Congress, the Library of Congress, the Congressional Budget Office, and General Accounting Office, and the Government Printing Office. On the state level, the state legislatures make up the legislative branch.
Herbert Hoover
Secretary of Commerce, facilitates (not regulates) business
Yellowstone
Signed into a national park in 1871 by Ulysses S. Grant, it is the first ever national park in the world, established in Wyoming, Montana and Idaho
disengagement
if a war was thought "immoral" we were reluctant to see American military involvement
Standard Oil
Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by Rockefeller
Cabinet
board of advisors to the President, composed of the heads of the executive Cabinet departments and any other officials whom the President chooses. The Constitution does not mention a Cabinet, but Washington created one by meeting with his Secretaries of State, Treasury, and War on a frequent basis. James Madison coined the term "president' cabinet" to describe the meetings. The tradition has been maintained in every subsequent American Presidency. Today, the Cabinet includes: the Secretary of State; the Secretary of the Treasury; the Secretary of Defense; the Attorney General; the Secretary of the Interior; the Secretary of Agriculture; the Secretary of Commerce; the Secretary of Labor; the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; the Secretary of Transportation; the Secretary of Energy; and the Secretary of Health, and Welfare; the Secretary of Health and Human Services; Secretary of Education, and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.
Harry Daugherty
Attorney General under Harding who sold illegal liquor licenses and pardons under Harding
Salary grab
Attempt by Senate to double their pay, is met by public outrage
Eminent Domain
governmental power to take private property for public use. The Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution requires the government to pay "just compensation" to anyone from whom it takes private property under eminent domain.
Full faith and credit
first words of Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution, which requires states to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings" of all the other states.
Zimmermann Note
a secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side
USS Maine
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
line item veto
the chief executive can approve some provisions of a bill and disapprove others
Equality of results
everyone receives the same in the end (i.e. salaries)
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
Bill that turns into the 14th amendment
First Battle of Bull Run
First "real" battle of the Civil War, it was expected by Union officials to be short but ended up a Confederate victory
Human Rights
idea that humanaity has certain rights including that of security of person
Constitutionalism
idea that the structure and powers of government should be based upon a written or unwritten constitution, which should set limits to the power of the government.
Spanish-American War
War that resulted in the American acquisition of Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam and firmly established American imperialism
Sacco and Vanzetti
1921 case where Italian archanists are executed under circumstantial evidence order SV
Moral Diplomacy
Name of foreign policy adopted by Wilson
Referendum
a direct vote by the people on an issue of public policy.
Privacy Act
Government files about individuals, such as Social Security and tax records, must be kept confidential
100 Days Congress
Litmus test of New Deal, runs March-June 1933 (use digits)
Emancipation Proclamation
Declaration by Lincoln after Antietam declaring all slaves in rebelling states to be free
Andrew Johnson
President who takes office after assassination of Lincoln
scientific management
a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it
Interest Groups
organization of people who share political, social or other goals; and agree to try to influence public policy to achieve those goals.

Deck Info

1087

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