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Ch 29, Civil Rights & Liberalism


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Hernandez v Texas & desegregation
Hernandez convicted of murder, went to supreme ct under 14th amdmt equal protection clause, case established Latinos as distinct class of people (previously they had been legally white)
Rosa Parks
Refused to give up her seat to a white man in Montgomery Alabama
Delgado v Bastrop (segregated schools)
'47 Texas ct ruled to end latino segregation past 1st grade (served as precedent for Brown '54) argued by Gus Garcia
Soul Music
expressed black pride & seperatism "you've got to live with us or you dont have it" Diana Ross & The Supremes, The Temptations, Stevie Wonder "Motown Sound"
Voting Rights Act 1965
suspended literacy tests, Feds could supervise public elections, (5 yr period black registration from 35% - 65%)
Banning School Prayer
Engel v Vitale ('62) banned school prayer under constitutional separation of church and state (worried conservative religious groups)
Tragedy in Dallas
JFK assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald
Free Speech Movement
started at UC Berkeley when they did not let reform groups recruit on campus, 6000 students rebelled & overtook administration building, mvmt spread across the nation
Hippie communities that sought perfection along the fringe of society, sexual freedom, Drugs (LSD ect) opened mind, higher state of consciousness
Malcolm X
part of mvmt that questioned integration although personally he accepted it, emphasized black community action, militaristic
Freedom Riders Attacked
'61 CORE director James Farmer led group of Black & White ppl on a bus trip into heart of the South, Were assaulted & attacked, police did nothing, Attorney General Robert Kennedy attempted to stop w/ 400 fed marshals
Bob Dylan
Folk artist till '65 then shift to "folk-rock" featuring electric guitar
Medicare & Medicaid
MediCARE for elderly only ; MediCAID for poor, no age requirement
Education Programs
Elementary & Secondary School Act (fed money for low income education), Project Head Start (nursery school aid)
James Meredith
black applicant to U of Mississippi, Kennedy sent feds to assist his entrance into school, riot broke out on campus 2 killed 375 wounded
Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Robert Weaver head (former president of NAACP)
Civil Rights Act 1964
LBJ barred discrimination in public places, outlawed discrimination for employment, protection for voting rights
Liberal Tradition
Tame capitalism's excesses, pragmatic approach to reforming American society
1st Be-In
Jan '67 Allan Ginsberg (poet, on hand for spiritual guidance), Grateful Dead & Jefferson Airplane (acid rock bands performed), Diggers (free food & drink), Hell's Angels (police, maintained order)
Discovering Poverty
Attn to poverty despite nations affluence LBJ War on Poverty
"Letter from Birmingham Jail"
MLK arrested, wrote an "eloquent document of civil rights mvmt" defended Civil Disobedience
Immigration Reform
Immigration Act of 1965, abolished National Origins system, no more Eurocentrism, Asians allowed freer entry to US
Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
Leader of Montgomery Bus Boycott, Non Violent Direct action inspired by Ghandi, Leader of Nonviolent Civil Rights Movement
Environmental Reform
'64 National Wilderness Preservation System Act, 9.1 mil acres "forever wild"
Mechanized Cotton Farming
Less work for Southern Farmer (both races) left countryside for the city
Thurgood Marshall
NAACP's leading attorney, argued Brown case, Future 1st black Supreme Court Justice
Black Panthers
Called Black Community to arm, used violence and pressed for segregation, even at its height never more than 2000 members nationwide
Overturning Plessy
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Marshall attacked the Plessy doctrine itself, separate never equal, 9-0 decision against segregation
Protecting Due Process
Gideon v Wainwright ('63 right to legal counsel), Escobedo v Illinois ('64 informed of charges) & Miranda v Arizona ('66 informed of rights upon arrest, Miranda Rights),

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