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Cult of Domescity
Widespread cultural creed that glorified the traditional functions of the homemaker around 1850. Married women commanded immense moral power, and they increasingly made decisions that altered the family. Work opportunities for women increased particularly in teaching.
Samuel Morse/ Morse Code
In 1832, this professor of art with an interest in science, began experimenting with a different system. Fascinated with the possibilities of electricity, he set out to find a way to send signals along an electrical cable; the technology had its own language, in which alternating long and short bursts of electrical current would represent individual letters.
Sarah Bagley/ Female Labor Reform Association
Lowell women, behind their militant leader, created another organization, and began agitating for a ten- hour day and for improvements in conditions in the mills, this new association turned to the state government and asked for legislative investigation of conditions in the mills.
The Sentimental novel
since women were avid readers, many women writers created a new genre of fiction specifically for females, which often offered idealized visions of women's lives and romances.
Richard Hoe
In 1846, he invented the steam cylinder rotary press, making it possible to print newspapers much more rapidly and cheaply than had been possible in the past. Also, the rotary press spurred the dramatic growth of mass- circulation newspapers.
Minstrel Shows
white actors wearing black face mimicked and ridiculed African American culture, became increasingly popular.
Lowell System
common in Massachusetts, this system enlisted young women, mostly farmers' daughters in their late teens and early twenties, many of these women worked for several years in the factories, saved their wages, and then returned home to marry and raise children.
Limited Liability
the fact that a business with public stock can fail without any one person losing all of their money, it lowers the risk of new business ventures.
Factory System
system of manufacture in which all operations were brought under one roof, this is in contrast to earlier systems of manufacture, where most work took place in households or small workshops.
in 1837 was the first college or university to offer education to both women and men.
National Trades Union
founded in 1834 by delegates from six cities, and in 1836 printers and cordwainers (makers of high quality shoes and boots) set up their own national craft unions.
Cast Iron Stove
one of the most important household inventions, replaced fireplaces as the principal vehicle for cooking in the 1840's. Its devices were hot, clumsy, and dirty, but compared to inconvenience of cooking over a fire, it seemed a great luxury, allowing cooks more control over the preparation of food and multiple things being cooked at once.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The first company to begin actual road operations was the Baltimore and Ohio, which opened a thirteen mile stretch of track in 1830.
Factory Girl Association
1834, mill workers in Lowell organized a union, which staged a strike to protest a 25 percent wage cut, and later against a rent increase in the boardinghouses, the strikes were unsuccessful, and a recession in 1837 destroyed the organization.
John Stevens
ran a locomotive and cars around a circular track on his New Jersey estate in 1820.
Mary Lyon/ Mt. Holyoake
was a Massachusetts academy, founded by Mary Lyon for higher education of women.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
the greatest legal victory of industrial workers, the state supreme court, declared that union were lawful organizations and that the strike was a lawful weapon, yet many employers still resisted the decision.
Associated Press
because the telegraph system allowed the exchange of national and international news to be shared by different newspapers, and in 1846, newspaper publishers from around the nation gathered to create an organization that would promote cooperative news gathering by wire.
New York Sun/ Herald
The Sun was the most widely circulated paper in the nation, had 8,000 readers in 1834, but by 1860, its rival the Herald, benefiting from the speed and economies of production the rotary press made possible, had a circulation of 77,000.
Elias Howe
of Massachusetts constructed a sewing machine in 1846.
Know- Nothing/ American Party
because of their strict code of secrecy, which required members of the party to use the secret password "I know nothing", the nativist groups united under the party of the Know-Nothings, which later became the American Party, and held much success in the election of 1854, in the northeast.
Supreme Order of the Star Spangled Banner
an order signed by multiple nativists groups, demands included; banning Catholics or aliens from holding public office, enacting more restrictive naturalization laws, and establishing literacy tests for voting.
Jerome Cass/ Thresher
almost as important to the grain power was the thresher, a machine that separated the grain form the wheat stalks, and appeared in large numbers after 1840, before their invention farmers generally flailed grain by hand or used farm animals to tread it, manufactured most b Jerome Case factory in Racine, Wisconsin.
Lowell Offering
the women who worked at the textile mills and lived in the boarding houses, even managed to publish a monthly magazine, representing how good working conditions and wages had begun as.
PT Barnum
the famous and unscrupulous showman, opened the American Museum in New York in 1842, not a showcase for art or nature, but a great freak show populated by midgets, Siamese twins, magicians, and ventriloquists, eventually launching his famous circus
Tom Thumb
the most famous midget to participate in Barnum's freak show at the American Museum in New York.
Western Union Telegraph Company
by 1860 all independent telegraph lines had joined under one organization, as the telegraph spread rapidly across Europe also, and in 166 the first transatlantic cable was laid across the Atlantic
Cyrus McCormick/ reaper
another important tool was the automatic reaper, invented in Virginia, taking the place of sickle, cradle and hand labor, pulled by a team of horses, it had a row of horizontal knives on one side for cutting wheat; the wheels drove a paddle that bent the stalks over the knives, which then fell onto a moving belt that carried it into the back of the vehicle.
Charles Goodyear
In 1839, this New England hardware merchant, discovered a method of vulcanizing rubber (treating it to give it greater strength and elasticity); by 1860, his process had found over 500 uses and helped create a major American rubber industry.
Cast iron Plow/ John Deere
in the beginning an important farming tool because its parts could be replaced when broken, but even more vital when Deere established a factory at Moline, Illinois, and instead of making the plows of weaker iron, made them out of steel.
Native American Party
one of the first secret societies, who held prejudices against immigrants, was founded in 1837, and in 1850 it joined with other nativist groups to limit the capabilities of immigrants in society.
Isaac Singer
made improvements on Howe's sewing machine, as it was soon being used in the manufacture of ready-to-wear.
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.

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