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Practical Computer Literacy Chapter 3


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instructions that tell a computer how to carry out a task
computer programs
a computers operating system - carries out basic operating functions such as managing files, interacting with peripheral devices, sending data over networks, and filtering out viruses
system software
designed to increase productivity through word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, etc
productivity software
related software that has been bundled together
software suite
name the two types of business software
vertical market software and horizontal market software
designed to automate specialized tasks in a specific business
ex: job estimating software for construction
vertical market software
generic software that can be used by any business to complete tasks such as payroll, accouting, etc
horizontal market software
helps a business keep track of money in and out
accounting software
important tool for planning large projects
project management software
horizontal market software designed to help several people collaborate on a single project using LAN or the internet
writes instructions for computer programs that become the components of a computer software product
computer programmer
a company that specializes in marketing and selling commercial software
software publisher
instructions for each element in the software environment
the tools used by the programmer to create software
programming language
lengthy list of instructions which define fhe software environment in every detail
source code
a team of programmers that work together to analyze an organizations hardware, software, data and workflow to improve proficiency and performance
system analysis and design
series of phases to guide systems analysis and design
systems development life cycle (SDLC)
name the 5 phases of the systems development lifestyle
1) planning phase
2) analysis phase
3) design phase
4) implementation phase
5) maintenance phase
technologies used to create, store, and exchange information in many formats
information technology (IT)
master controller for all the activities that take place within a computer - primary purpose is to help the computer system monitor itself in order to function efficiently
operating system
a prompt displayed in the DOS - difficult to remember the DOS commands
command-line interface
represent controls and commands as pictures that users can manipulate with a mouse
ex: microsoft windows
graphic user interface (GUI)
applications for maintaining schedules and contact lists used by PDA's with touch-sensitive screens
personal information management (PIM)
large-scale computer operating system that allows system administrators to monitor multiple users, network security, etc
word processing
desktop publishing
web authoring
word-processing software
adds graphic design techniques to enhance the format and appearance of the document
desktop publishing software (DTP)
helps you design and develop customized web pages that you can publish electronically on the internet
web-authoring software
uses rows and columns of numbers to create a model or representation of a real situation
provides tools to create electronic spreadsheets - automatically adds up the columns or applies other specified formulas
spreadsheet software
composed of cells formed by rows and columns
can contain labels or values
work behind the scenes to perform calculations and ddisplay results
supplies tools needed for combining text, photos, clip art, graphs, animation, and sound clips into a series of electronic slides
presentation software
collection of data stored on one or more computer
stores data as a series of records, composed of fields that hold data - helps you manipulate information stored in the database (enter, find, organize, etc)
ex: mailing lists
database software
holds data for a single entity
hold one item of data relevent to a record
contain unique identifiers to sort and quickly search for data
key fields
name 2 benefits of using spreadsheets
- less prone to calculation errors
- provides repetitve calculations
used to formulate search criteria
used to entre information into the database
electronic forms
gather, format, and present information
pictures, drawings, sketches, photographs, images, or icons that appear on the computer screen
provides a set of electronic pens, brushes, and paints, for painting images on the screen
paint software (image-editing software)
designed to help create, manipulate, and print graphics
graphics software
includes features specially designed to fix poor-quality photos
photo-editing software
provides a set of lines, shapes, and colours that can be assembled into diagrams
drawing software
provides a set of tools for transferring video footage from a cacorder to a computer
video editing software
system software that includes programs designed to optimize your computers performance, protect data, and facilitate communication
ex: anti-virus software
utility software
shrinks the size of archived files for storage
compression utility
rearranges segments of files in order to clear space on the hard disk drive
defragmentation utility
new and improved version of a software product
software upgrade
memory, adequate disk space, correct version of windows to run software
system requirements
form of legal protection that grants the author an exclusive right to copy, distribute, sell, etc
legal contract that defines the ways in which a computer program may be used
software license or license agreement
you 'buy' this software but actually only purchase the right to use it under defined terms
commercial software
copyright software marketed with a 'try before you buy' policy - low cost marketing and distribution channel - not always profitable
copyright software that is free - cannot be altered or sold
makes the source code available to programmers who want to modify or improve the software
open source software
available without restriction - can be changed, copied, or sold, but you cannot apply for a copyright on it
public domain software

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