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Rubenstein Chapters 8 and 9

Eh, I'm bored...

Terms

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Primary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry
Imperialism
control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
Landlocked State
a state that does not have adirect outlet to the sea
Literacy rate
the percentage of a country's people who can read and write
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)
compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
Value added
the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
Perforated state
a state that completely surrounds another one
State
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
Unotary state
an internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Balance of Power
condition of roughhly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
Gerrymandering
process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
City-state
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Fragmented state
a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Frontier
a zone seperating two states in which neither state exercises political control
Colony
a territory that is legally tied to a soverign state rather than completely independent
Sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Tertiary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and servicesto people in exchange for payment
Less Developed Country (LDC)
a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
Gender Empowerment Measure[Index] (GEM)
compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
Microstate
a state that encompasses a very small land area
Human Development Index (HDI)
indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the UN, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Development
a process of improvement in the medical conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
Colonialisn
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principals in another territory
Elongated state
a state with a long, narrow shape
Federal state
an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
Secondary sector
the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
Productivity
the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period [usually one year]
Compact state
a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Structural adjustment program
economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publically owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services
More Developed Country (MDC)
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development

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