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Networking Vocabulary 2


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Time used to forward a packet in and out of a device, e.g., router/switch. [CPWW]
Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol
Dial-up VPN protocol designed to work with PPP to support authentication standards, e.g., TACACS+ or RADIUS, for secure transmissions over the Internet. [CPWW]
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
Dial-up VPN protocol which defines its own tunneling protocol and works with IPSec. It allows PPP sessions to be tunneled across an arbitrary medium to a host gateway at an ISP or enterprise. [CPWW]
learning bridge
Builds its own address table, rather than requiring you to enter information manually. [CPWW]
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
IP based X.500 based directory service DB used in >_ Netware 4 to display information about a network and its resources. [Reeves & Reeves]
line conditioner
A.k.a., power conditioner or voltage regulator. Non-battery operated device used to stabilize flow of power to the component. [CPWW]
Link Control Protocol
Component of PPP which configures and tests the data link and negotiates highest transmission speed prior to transmission. [Reeves & Reeves]
Text file containing list of NetBIOS host-name-to-IP-address mappings used n TCP/IP name resolution. [CPWW]
Local Area Network
Physical net technology designed to span distances <- few Km. Usually 10 Mbps to several Gig/sec. [Comer]
local broadcast
Broadcast on the local network, looking for the IP address of destination host. [CPWW]
logical addressing scheme
Addressing method used in providing manually assigned node addressing. [CPWW]
logical link control layer
Sub-layer of the data link layer of the OSI reference model. Provides an interface for the network-layer protocol and the MAC sub-layer, also part of the data link layer. [CPWW]
A continuous circle that a packet takes through a series of nodes in a network until it eventually times out. [CPWW}
loopback plug
A device used for loopback testing. [CPWW]
loopback testing
A troubleshooting method in which the output and input wires are crossed or shorted in a manner that allows all outgoing data to be routed back into the card. [CPWW]
[TCP IP} LS command
Lists files in current directory. TCP/FTP. [p. 349 CPWW]
Main distribution facility
Central distribution point for network cabling to a building. Cabling can connect to intermediate one or end user. Can also connect LAN to WAN. [Reeves & Reeves]
Large computer network (sic) in which the central computer handles all the data processing and storage, and only the results requested are sent to the requesting node. [CPWW]
Master Name Server
Supplying name server that has authority in a zone. [CPWW]
MAC address
media access control address
A six octet number that uniquely identifies a host on a network. It is a unique number, burned into the network interface card, so it cannot be changed. [CPWW]
[OSI] MAC layer
Media Access Control Layer
The lower of the two sub-layers of the OSI Data Link layer. Responsible for interaction with Physical layer. [CPWW]
Media Access Unit
802.3 spec on transceivers. [CPWW]
Megatransfer Rate
Bus signal transmission speed detailed in SCSI standards. Measured in Mbps. [CPWW]
memory address
Usually expressed in binary, this is the label assigned to define the location in memory where the information is stored. [CPWW]
A portion of information that is sent from one node to another. They are created at the upper layers of the OSI reference model. [CPWW]
[TCP FTP] MGET command
Allows download using wildcards of file(s) from a TCP FTP server. [p. 349 CPWW]
Process of using switches to divide a net into smaller segments. [CPWW]
Micro$oft Pt-to-Pt Encryption
M$oft's proprietary, pt-pt secure data-encryption method, designed for use w/PPTP. [CPWW]
RF >_ 890 MHz
Device used to modulate/demodulate signals. Converts between DC pulses of the serial digital code into the analog signal compatible with the PSTN. [CPWW]
modem speed 14.4
Max recommended port speed 19.2 K bps for this modem speed. [p. 327 CPWW]
modem speed 19.2
Maximum recommended port speed 38.4 K bps for this modem speed. [P. 372 CPWW]
modem speed 28.8
Max recommened port speed 57.6 K bps for this modem speed. [p. 372 CPWW]
modem speed 33.6
Max recommended port speed 57.6 K bps for this modem speed. [p. 372 CPWW]
modem speed 56
Max recommmended port speed 115.2 K bps at this modem speed. [p. 327 CPWW]
[TCP FTP] MPUT command
Copies a file or files using wild cards to a TCP FTP server. [p 349 CPWW]
Single packet transmission from one sender to a specific group of destination nodes. [CPWW]
Term referring to support for multiple processors in a single machine. [CPWW}
Multi-station Access Unit (MSAU)
TR concentrator which forms an internal ring while cable terminates to a central location. [Reeves & Reeves]

Hub used in an IBM TR network. Organizes the connected nodes into an internal ring and uses RI and RO connectors to expand to other MAUs on the net. [CPWW]
The running of several programs simultaneously. In actuality, the processor is sharing its time between them, and it only appears as if they are running concurrently. [CPWW]
A form of multitasking in which the different tasks that appear to be running concurrently are coming from the same application rather than from different applications. [CPWW]
name resolution methods
NBNS; DNS; local broadcast; LMHOSTS file; HOSTS file. [p. 328 CPWW]
name servers
Contains DBs of name resolution information used to resolve names to network addresses. [CPWW]
Narrow SCSI
One-byte wide data bus on a 50-pin parallel interface as defined in SCSI-1. Eight data lines with parity and a series of matching control and ground lines. [CPWW]
Command for shooting NetBIOS name resolution problems that can correct/remove preloaded NetBIOS entries. [Reeves & Reeves]

Command line utility displaying protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP). [CPWW]
NetBIOS Extended User Interface
IBM/M$ proprietary non-routable protocol best used on LANs <_ 50 people. Fast transport, low memory requirements, no configuring. [Reeves & Reeves; CPWW]
NetBEUI Frame
Transport driver that implements NetBEUI 3 specs and exceeds 254 session NetBEUI barrier. [Reeves & Reeves]
Network BIOS
Standard interface to networks on IBM PCs. [Comer]
NetBIOS Name Server
Central server providing name resolution for NetBIOS name to IP addresses. [CPWW]
Command showing status of TCP and UDP port activity on workstation or server. [Reeves & Reeves]

Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections. [CPWW]
Netuse command
A M$ Windows NT command that allows you to connect to a network path through its UNC name. [CPWW]
Netware Core Protocol
Netware protocol that provides a method for hosts to make calls to a NetWare server for services and network resources. [CPWW]
Netware Loadable Module
Service/process running on a Netware server. [CPWW]
Network Control Protocol
PPP component which establishes a connection with and configures the >_ network layer protocols that PPP encapsulates and exports. [Reeves & Reeves].
Network Driver Interface Spec
M$ proprietary spec or standard for protocol independent device driver. They allow the NIC to bind multiple protocols to the same NIC, allowing card to be used by multiple OS's. Similar to ODI [CPWW]
network ID
The port of the TCP/IP address that specifies the network portion of the IP address. Determined by the subnet mask used. [CPWW]
Network Information Services
User, group, and security information DB used in a UNIX internetwork. [CPWW]
network interface card
Card installed inside network devices that allows device to connect to the network. OSI layer 1 device. [Reeves & Reeves]

Has transceiver, MAC address, and physical connection for network cable. [CPWW]
[TCP/IP] Network Interface layer
Bottom layer of TCP/IP model. Responsible for sending and receiving frames. [CPWW]
[OSI] Network layer
OSI level 3. Connects WAN or LAN networks. Network wide routing. [Reeves & Reeves]

Node address based routing takes place here, e.g., IP/IPX. [CPWW]

IP & IP datagram formats. IP addresses found here. [Comer]
[OSI] network layer PDU is
datagram = PDU
Network monitor
M$ Win NT program used to monitor & analyze packet traffic on a network. [CPWW]
Network News Transfer Protocol
Internet protocol which controls how new articles are to be queried, distributed and posted. [CPWW]
Network Operating System
An OS running network services, e.g., NetWare, Unix, M$ Win NT. [CPWW]
'No access'
File right used to specify that the user does not have any access to the file or directory. Some NOS's do not have this right and use a filter instead. [CPWW]
Novell Directory Services
X.500 based directory structure which configures net in a tree structure. Provides contextless login to allow authentication from any point. [Reeves & Reeves]

A user, group, & security information DB, used in NetWare 4.x/5.x. [CPWW]
[TCP FTP] Open command
Establishes connection to a TCP FTP server. [p. 349 CPWW]
Open Data-Link Interface
Drivers heavily used in Novell & Apple Talk nets which allow NIC to bind multiple protocol to same NIC, allowing card to be used by multiple OS's. Similar to NDIS. [CPWW]
Loosely, any small block of data sent across a packet switch network. [Comer]

May refer to a PDU at any layer. [AI]
OSI Reference Model
Open Systems Interconnect Reference Model
Seven layer model which standardizes and explains interactions of networking protocols. [CPWW]
Packet InterNet Groper
Command which sends an ICMP echo request to an IP host to test connectivity and then registers response time. {Reeves & Reeves, CPWW]
[M$ Win NT] Parallel Install
2nd installation of Win NT into a new directory in order to get the system booting so that you can retrieve or restore the old directory. [CPWW]
passive termination
SCSI bus terminator using a terminating resister pack placed at the end of the bus. Resister relies on interface card to provide it with a consistent level of power. [CPWW]
Set of characters used with a username to authenticate a user on the network & to provide the user with rights and permission to files and resources. [CPWW]
patch panel
Device where wiring used in coax or twisted pair nets converge in a central location and are then connected to back of panel. [CPWW]
peer-to-peer networking
Networking environment without dedicated servers where communication occurs between similarly capable network nodes. [CPWW]
[M$ Win NT] performance monitor
M$ Win NT diagnostic program that allows you to set baselines and log variances regarding processor, memory, and disk usage to monitor operation of computer and HW. [CPWW]
Peripheral Component Interconn.
Hi-speed bus designed for Pentium systems. [CPWW]

Max width = 64 bits; max speed = 66 M Hz; capacity = 528 MB/sec. [p. 170 CPWW]
permanent virtual circuit (packet sw)
permanent virtual connection (ATM)
Logical path - in packet switching/ATM nets - between 2 locations. Similar to dedicated line. [CPWW]
Authorizations provided to users, allowing them to access objects on the network. Network administrators generally assign permissions. Slightly different from but often used with rights. [CPWW]
physical addressing scheme
MAC address on every network card manufactured. Unchangeable. [CPWW]
[OSI] physical layer
OSI layer 1 responsible for electrical, mechanical interface aspects of xmitted data. [Reeves & Reeves]

Site of physical connectivity definitions. [CPWW]

Network media, connection specifications, electrical & electromagnetic signaling. [CPWW]
[OSI] Physical layer PDU is
PDU = bit
Method of printing - used in ink jet printers - that shoots ink onto paper. [CPWW]
plug and play
Architecture designed to allow devices to be detected by the OS & for the driver to be automatically loaded. [CPWW]
Physical location where a long-distance carrier or a cellular provider interfaces with the net of the local exchange carrier or local telco. [CPWW]
Point-to-point protocol
Data link layer protocol that encapsulated other network layer protocols, e.g., TCP/IP, IPX, for sync/async transmission. Can encapsulate multiple protocols in a given session. [Reeves & Reeves]

Provides host-network & switch-switch connections for >_ 1 user sessions. [CPWW]
Point-to-point tunneling protocol
Network protocol supporting multiprotocol, VPNs enabling remote users to access corporate networks securely accross the Internet via TCP/IP. Encapsulates and cpmpresses PPP packets into IP datagrams & routes them over the Internet. [Reeves & Reeves]

Encapsulates private network data in IP packets. They're transmitted over synch/asynch circuits to hide underlying routing/switching infrastructure from senders/receivers. [CPWW]
Media-access method for transmitting data, in which a controlling device is used to contact each node to determine if there's data to send. [CPWW]
[protocol] port
Abstraction used by TCP/IP protocols to distinguish among multiple destinations within a given host. [Comer]
[OSI] Presentation layer
OSI layer 6 which enables application layer to interpret the data being exchanged between two systems. [Reeves & Reeves]

Prepares information to be used by application layer. [CPWW]

PDU is perhaps the packet which is used at other layers, too.

Data transfer syntax, format of data encryption, decryption, compression & expansion. [CPWW]
[M$ Win NT] PDC
primary domain controller
M$ Win NT server that provides primary authentication, network access, device/directory structure. When it fails the backup one is promoted to perform these functions. [CPWW]

Server acting as main repository for user, group, security information of the domain. [CPWW]
prmary name server
Server that offers zone data fro files stored locally on the machine. [CPWW]
Primary Rate Interface
Circuit-switched network of 23 B channels which can be strapped together for greater bandwidth and 1 D channel. [Reeves & Reeves]

In ISDN. 1.544 Mbps. 1 x 64K D channel plus 23 x T1 or 30 x E1 (B) channels for voice/data. [CPWW]
primary site server
Server responsible for all changes made to a zone. [CPWW]
print server
A network device or computer that manages and executes print requests from other nodes on the network. [CPWW]
Private Virtual Circuit
Logical connection between locations through a frame relay/ATM clout. [CPWW]
program-specific backup
A backup program specific to an application, usually of a database such as M$ SQL server. [CPWW]
Protocol Data Unit
Generic term for the protocol unit (e.g., header and data) used at any layer. [AI]
protocol identification field
In a frame, a 5 bye field used to identify to the destination node the protocol that is being used in the data transmission. [CPWW]
protocol stack/suite
>_2 protocols working together. [CPWW]
proxy server
Program that makes a connection and retrieves information on behalf of a client. [CPWW]
Public Switched Telephone Network
All the phone networks and services. Same as POTS. Digital except for connection between local exchanges and customer which is analog. [CPWW]
[TCP FTP] PUT command
Copies a file to the TCP FTP server. [p. 349 CPWW]
Fault-tolerance method using disk mirroring to duplicate the information on a disk. [CPWW]
Fault-tolerance method using disk striping w/error correction. [CPWW]
Fault-tolerance method using disk striping w/single disk for parity. Striping not done across disks in blocks. [CPWW]
Fault-tolerance method using disk striping w/single disk for parity. Striping done across disks in blocks. [CPWW]
Fault tolerant method that uses disk striping with distributed parity. Striping is done across the disks in blocks. [CPWW]
Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
Fault-tolerance methods using multiple HD's to duplicate info that can be accessed if one becomes inoperable. [CPWW]
Command used to open registry editor to access HKEY's & make changes. [CPWW]
[M$ Windows NT] RAS
Remote Access Service
M$ Win NT service that controls dial-up ? access. [CPWW]
remote control
Physical controlling remove computer using, e.g., PC Anywhere or M$ Systems Mgt Server. [CPWW]
remote node
A node or computer that is connected to the network through a dial-up connection. [CPWW]
repair install
M$ Win NT setup option allowing for repair of current OS directory by overwriting corrupt/damaged files. [CPWW]
Device that regenerates/rexmits signal on a network. Usually used to strengthen signals traveling long distances. [CPWW]

Copies electronic signals from one physical network to another. [Comer]
Request for Comments
Method used to post documents regarding networking or Internet-related standards/ideas. Some adopted by IAB. [CPWW]
Utility designed to pass name requests between a client application and name servers. [CPWW]

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