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Ananomy 2 & 3 chapter


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Lipids Provide
Protection and insulation.
A 15% salt solution contains how many grams of salt per 100 ml of water?
15 grams
A change in protein shape that causes it to become nonfunctional is referred to as
A change of 1 pH unit represents how much change in hydrogen ion concentration?
10-fold change in the H+ concentration.
A double covalent bond is represented by a
Double line between atoms.
A double covalent bond means:
When 4 electrons are being shared
A mixture of materials that separate from each other when the mixing stops are part of a
A molecule of carbon dioxide consists of
One carbon bound to two oxygen atoms.
A negative charged ion is referred to as a
A pH of 7 is said to be
Neutral solution.
A positive charged ion is referred to as
A single covalent bond is represented by a
Single line between atoms.
A single covalent bond means:
When one electrons are being shared.
Acidic solutions have
A greater concentration of H= than OH-.
Adenine always binds to
Thymine by two Hydrogen bonds.
Adenosine Triphosphate - ATP is composed of
Adenosine and three phosphate groups.
Alkaline solutions have
A pH greater than 7 and have fewer H+ than OH-.
All living and nonliving things are composed of
An atom that lost or gained an electron is called an ?
An oxygen molecule consists of
Two Oxygen atoms bound together by covalent.
Any substance that binds to hydrogen ions is a
Any substance that releases hydrogen ions is an
ATP is important because of the energy stored
In all living organism.
ATP is often called the
Energy currency of cells because it is capable of both, storing and provinding energy.
Basic protein building blocks are
20 amino acid.
Carbohydrates are composed of
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Carbohydrates can be broken down to
Provide the energy necessary for life.
Carbohydrates undigested provide
Bulk in feces, which helps maintain the normal function and health of digestive tract.
Cellulose is used for
Energy source
Changes in pH are regulated by the action of buffers, which
Resist changes in solution pH when either acids or bases are added.
Chemical Energy
Potential energy stored within its chemical bonds.
Chemical Reactions-Reacting molecules must be
Disssolved in water.
Collectively decomposition reactions are referred to as
Collectively synthesis reactions are referred to as
Covalent bonding occurs when atoms share
One or more pair of e-.
Covalent bonds between amino acids are called
Peptide bonds.
Define what a decomposition reaction is:
A large reactant is chemically broken down into two or more smaller products.
Define what a synthesis reaction is:
When two or more reactants chemically combine form a new and large product.
Describe a colloid:
Is a mixture in which a dispersed (solute like) substance is distributed throught a dispersing (solvenlike) substance.
Describe how ionic bonding works:
Chemical Bond that is formed when one atom loses an e- and another accepts that e-.
Describe what important role hydrogen bonds play:
In determining the shape of complex molecules
Disaccharides are formed by
Two single sugar bound by dehydration.
Dissolving table salt (an ionic compound) in water will result in the ions separating from each other in the water. This is called
DNA and RNA consist of building blocks called
DNA contains the information for
The structure of proteins.
DNA has __________
Two strands of nucleotides twisted together to form a twisted, double helix.
DNA is the cells
Genetic material
DNA stands for
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Eicosanoids are important
Regulatory molecules with numerous effects.
Eicosanoids derived from
Fatty acid
Electrolytes are composed of what in water?
Cations and anions.
Energy that is actually working and moving matter is
Enzymes are
Protein Catalyst
Enzymes control
The rate of chemical reactins proceed in living systems.
Enzymes is protein catalyst that
Increases the rate a chemical reaction proceeds.
Fatty acids differ from one another in
Length and degree
For every oxygen atom in a carbohydrate there are
Two hydrogen atoms.
Functionally carbohydrates are important:
Parts of other organic molecules.
Functionally proteins are important to regulate
bodily processes.
Glycogen is also known as
Animal starch.
Glycogen is an important
Energy storage molecule.
Glycogen is composed of
Many glucose molecules.
Guanine always binds to
Cytosine by thre hydrogen bonds.
Heat Energy
Energy that flows between objects that are at diff. temp.
How many grams in a kilogram?
1 gram
How many milliosmoles in an osmole?
How many pounds in a kilogram?
2.2 Pounds
Hydrogen Bonds results when a positive charged hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to the
Neg. charged O, N, or fluorine of another molecule.
Increasing concentration of reactants
The grater the rate at which a give chemical reation proceeds.
Increasing temperature means
Increase of kinetic energy.
Isomers are
Molecules that have same number and types of atoms but diff. in their three dimensional arrangement.
Isotopes are
Have the same num. of protons and e- but diff. num. of neutrons.
Isotopes of an element have different numbers of
Lipids are composed of
Carbon, hydrogen and Oxygen.
Lipids are major
Energy storage.
Lipids form
Plasma membranes.
Lipids Regulate
Many physiologic Processes.
List 2 important pentoses:
Fructose and galactose.
List 3 common hexoses:
Glucose, fructose and galactose.
List several examples of steroids:
cholesterol, bile salts, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone.
Maltose is composed of
Two glucose.
Represents the amount of matter
Mechanical Energy results from
The position of movement of objects.
Most proteins also contain
Nitrogenous Organic Base-The double-ringed purines are:
Adenine, and guanine.
Nitrogenous Organic Base-The single-ringed pyrimidines are:
Uracil, thymine and cytosine.
Nonpolar covalent bonds are formed when
e- are share equally betweem atoms.
Nucleic acids composed of
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
Nucleotides building block is composed of:Phosphate Group, Monosaccharide: In DNA this is
Nucleotides building block is composed of:Phosphate Group, Monosaccharide: In RNA this is
One of the fatty acids is replaced by
Molecule containing phosphate.
Osmolality represents
The num., not the type of particles in solution.
Osmoles express
The number of particles in a solution.
Oxidation-reduction reactions
Can be synthesis or decomposition reactions,Have one reactant gaining electrons, have one reactant losing electrons and can create ionic or covalent bonds.
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chemical reactions that result from the exchange of
Are six carbon monosaccharides
Phospholipids are important
Structural components of the molecules of cells.
Polysaccharides consist of
Monosaccharides bound together
Primary structure of protein is determined by the
Sequence of the amino acid bound by peptide bonds
Protection-Water acts as a lubricant by preventing
Damage resulting from friction.
Protein act as a
Protein help
Muscle contract
Protein provide
Struture and energy.
Proteins contain
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Pure water is an example of a what solution in pH and what is the concentration?
Neutral solution and therefore has equal concentrations of H+ and OH-
Quaternary Structure refers to the
Spatial relationship between the individual subunits when two or more proteins join together to form a functional unit.
refers to the gain of an electron by a reactant.
Reversible Reactions is a chemical reaction in which the reaction can proceed from
reactants to products or from product to reactants.
RNA has __________ strand of nucleotides.
RNA play
Important roles in protein synthesis.
RNA stands for
Ribonucleic acid.
Salts are formed by
Interaction of an acid and a base in which the H+ of the acid are replace by the pos. ion of the base.
Saturated means
Single bonds between atoms.
Secondary Structure protein results from
Folding of bending of the polypeptide chain which is cause by hydrogen bonds between amino acids.
Secondary Structure two common shapes are
Hellices (coils) and pleated (folded)
Solubility is
The ability of one substance to dissolve in another.
Some proteins contain
Phosphorus, iron, and iodine.
Starch and cellulose are found in
Starch and cellulose molecules are composed of
Long chains of glucose.
Starch is used for
Energy Storage molecules.
Steroids-Carbon atoms bound together into
four ringlike structures
Stored energy that is not doing work is called
Substances that are uniformly distributed with no clear boundary between the substances form a
Substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being used up in the reaction are called
Sucrose is composed of
Glucose and fructose.
Synthesis reactions that result in the removal of water are
Synthesis reactions that use water in the reaction are
Tertiary Structure results from
Folding fo the helices or pleated sheets.
Are five carbon monosaccharides
The activation energy is
Minimum energy that reactant need to start a chemical.
The atomic number represents the number of
The DNA rungs of the ladder consist of
Basses of nucleotides.
The DNA uprights of the ladder consist of
Covalent Bonds.
The liquid that material dissolves in is a
The loss of an electron by a reactant is referred to as
The mass number of an element is the sum of
Protons and Neutrons
The material dissolving in the liquid is a
The pH scale refers to
H concentration in a solution.
The shape of the enzyme determines the structure of the
Active site
Thymine is replaced with __________
Triglycerides or Triacylglycerols composed of:
One Glycerol and three fatty acids.
Two or more atoms chemically joining together to form an independent unit create a ?
Unsaturated means
One or more double bond between atoms.
Water acts as a cushion by preventing around
Organs, help protect them from trauma.
Water can rid the body of excess heat when it
Water is produced in a
Dehydration (synthesis) reaction.
Water is required in a
Hydrolysis (descomposition) reaction.
Water requires a relatively large amount of heat to raise its temperature it therefore has
Specific heat.
Is caused by the gravitational force acting on mass
What is a domain?
Is folded sequence 100-200 amino acids within a protein.
What percent of the atmosphere is oxygen?
When a molecule is composed of more than one type of atoms it is a properly referred to as a
When two atoms do not share electrons equally they form
Polar covalent bonds.
Which end is nonpolar?
Hydrophobic (water fearing)
Which end is polar?
Hydropholic (water loving)
Which of these polysaccharides can humans digest?
Which subatomic particle has Neg. charge?
Which subatomic particle has no electric charge?
Which subatomic particle has pos. charge
Which subatomic particles are found in the nucleus?
Protons and neutrons
Why are domains important?
Can change protein function.

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