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H English Final Exam - Semester 1


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Diatomic Molecules
H, N, O, F, I, Cl, Br
Binary Compound
a compound composed of 2 different elements
polyatomic ion
tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and carries a charge
law of multiple proportions
when 2 elements combine to form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers
law of definite proportions
In all samples of the same chemical compound, the elements are always combined in the same proportion by mass
binary molecular compounds are composed of 2 ___________ elements
Binary molecular compounds are composed of 2 NONMETALLIC elements
In naming a binary molecular compound, the number of atoms of each element present in the molecule is indicated by:
"ite" means 1 less ________ than "ate"
1 less oxygen
while solid has the highest melting point?
network solids
VSEPR theory
because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that the valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible
Shape of Methane
arranged the elements in his period table in order of increasing atomic mass
10 ^6
10 ^3
10 ^-1
10 ^-2
10 ^-3
10 ^-6
10 ^-9
10 ^-12
Molecular compounds tend to have relatively ________ melting and boiling points than ionic compounds
Molecular compounds tend to have relatively LOWER melting and boiling points than ionic compounds
Group A
Representative elements
Group B
Transition Metals
Group 1A
Alkali Metals
Group 2A
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 7A
Group 8A
Noble Gases
The nucleus is _____ charged
Atomic Mass Unit
1/12th of mass of Carbon 12
atom with same number of protons but different neutrons
Atomic Mass
Protons + Neutrons
Intensive Property
depends on the type of matter in a sample
Extensive property
depends on the amount of matter in a sample
physical property
a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance's composition
matter that has a definite volume and takes the shape of its container, isn't easily compressed
matter that has a definite shape and volume (isn't easily compressed)
matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container
PHYSICAL change? Melting Butter
PHYSICAL CHANGE? Breaking a window
PHYSICAL CHANGE? Burning gasoline
PHYSICAL CHANGE? boiling water
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture that is not uniform in composition
homogeneous mixture
a mixture that has a uniform composition throughout
HOMOGENOUS OR HETEROGENOUS? table salt dissolved in water
HOMOGENOUS OR HETEROGENOUS? fresh squeezed lemonade
a physical bend of two or more components
Democritis' philosophy was that all atoms were _______ and __________ and cannot be destroyed.
Democritis' philosophy was that all atoms were indivisible and indestructible and cannot be destroyed.
measure of how close a measurement comes to actual or true value of what is measured
measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
*C +237
Celsius (*C)
K - 273
5 types of Chemistry
Biochemistry - (processes that take place in organs) Inorganic (NON CARBON) Analytical chemistry (Composition of matter) Organic Chemistry (Carbon) Physical chemistry (Energy transfer)
study of the composition of matter and the changes
Discovered that oxygen is required for a material to burn Helped to transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of MEASUREMENT
Scientific Method steps
Make observations Test hypothesis Develop theories
Problem solving steps
making a plan and implementing that plan
Numeric problem solving steps
analyze calculate evaluate
conceptual problem solving
Analyze and Solve
The last number in your sig. fig. is called the ____________
estimated digit
1/1840 of the mass of hydrogen
When an electron approaches nucleus, it's energy
Heisenerg Uncertainty Principle
It's impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
Pauli Exclusion Principle
an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons
Hund's Rule
electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible
Which of the following is not a step for solving a numeric word problem? calculate analyze conclude evaluate
a proposed explanation for what is observed
the difference between the experimental value and the accepted value
Which of the following is not a part of the scientific method? experimenting observing hypothesizing
T or F? A scientific law fully explains a set of observations
T or F? The scientific method is a logical, systematic approach to the solution of a problem
T or F? The scientific method is repeated until a hypothesis either fits all the observed experimental results or the hypothesis is discarded
Which of these steps of the scientific method involves staing a relationship but not proposing an explanation for the relationship? observation scientific law theory hypothesis
scientific law
List the major steps in the scientific method and describe each briefly.
1. Observe and form hypothesis (A proposed explanation for what's observed) 2. Experiment - a series of experiments to prove that your hypothesis is correct
Develop a theory
a well tested explanation for a broad set of observations
What are some tasks that might be assigned to an analytical chemist?
Determine the amount of copper in a sample Determine the amount of lead in a blood sample Determine the amount of pollutants in a local lake (NOT determine the least expensive method to produce nylon)
Which of the following would would most likely be an organic substance? a chemical containing oxygen a chemical containing hydrogen a chemical containing carbon a chemical containing nitrogen
a chemical containing carbon
which type of chemistry is focused on the composition of matter?
Analytical Chemistry
Which chemistry deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the __________ that occurs when matter undergoes a change?
Physical chemistry -energy transfer
Biochemistry is the study of the prcesses that take place in __________
Organic chemistry is the study of chemicals that contain __________, while ____________ chemistry is primarily the study of chemicals that do NOT contain________
carbon; Inorganic; carbon
anything that has matter and occupies space
Applied chemistry
research that is directed toward a PRACTICAL GOAL or Application
Pure chemistry
the pursuit of chemistry knowledge for it's own sake
Which Chemistry is it? determining the energy transfer when water boils
physical chemistry
Which Chemistry is it? finding out how much nitrogen is in a smple of air
analytical chemistry
Which Chemistry is it? studying the process of photosynthesis in plants
Which Chemistry is it? manufacturing nylon, which contains carbon
Organic Chemistry
Chemistry is important in the production and conservation of _____
AT, ST, and NT? World energy demand is decreasing
Which of the following is not a step for solving numeric word problems? Evaluate ovserve calculate analyze
a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations
To which of the following might a hypothesis be elevated after repeated experimentation? observation scientific law theory experiment
Discuss the role of chemistry in one of the areas: Matericals, Energy, Medicine and Biotechnology, Agriculture, the Environment, or the Universe
Because Chemistry involves matter, it involves everything. Our culture relies on chemistry. We need chemists to come up with materials (Artificial legs, energy conserving materials), research on new medicines (insuline), figure out ways to prevent pests from getting crops, discovering ways we can be a "Green America" and research things in the atmosphere that can help us in the world.
What are 3 steps you can use to help solve numeric word problems? Describe what you would do in each step?
For each problem, you start off with information. That info is your "known" and you need to discover "The unknown." the first step is to OVSERVE. Form a plan of how to get from the unknown to known, by using the second step CALCULATE. Once you calculate, ask yourself, "Does this answer make sense?" This is your thrd step, EVALUATE. Evaluate if your answer is in correct units or if you have the correct number of significant figures.
1 Liter
The volume of a cube 10 cm on each edge
Conversion factor
a ratio of equivalent measurements
dimensional analysis
a way to analyze and solve problems, using the units of a measurement
a measure of the pull of gravity on a given mass
1 kilogram
originally defined as the mass of 1 L of water at 4 degrees Celcius
How many significant figures are in the measurement 2103.2 g?
Which of these equalities is not correct? 100 cg + 1 g 1000 mm+ 1 m 1 cm^3 =1 mL 10 kg = 1 g
10 kg = 1 g
How many of the zeros in the measurement 0.000040200 m are significant?
How many milligrams are in 2.5 kg? 2.5 x 10^6 mg 2.5 mg 2.5 x 10^-4 mg 2.5 x 10^2 mg
2.5 x 10^6 mg
The closeness of a measurement to its true value is a measure of its:
Which of these measurements is expressed to three significant figures? 0.070 mm 7.30 x 10^-7 km 7007 mg 0.007 m
7.30 x 10^-7 km
A metric unit of volume is the:
Liter (L)
The metric prefix "kilo" means
1000 times larger
The temp. reading of -14 degrees celcius corresponds to a Kelvin reading of
259 K K=C=273 K=-14 +273 K=259 K
Concentrated hydrochloric acid has a density of 1.19 g/mL. What is the mass, in grams, of 2.00 liters of this acid?
2.38 x 1063 g 2 L x 10^3 ml/ 1 L x 1.19 / 1mL = 2.38 x 10^3 g
A conversion factor: a. is equal to 1 b. is a ratio of equivalent measurements c. does not change the value of a measurement d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Chlorine boils at 239 K. What is the boiling point of chlorine expressed in degrees Celsius?
-34 degrees Celsius C = K + 273
A student measures a volume as 25 mL, wheras the correct volume is 23 mL. What is the percent error?
8.7% experiment - accurate/ accurate x 100%
AS, ST, NT? Precise measurements are also accurate measurements
AS, ST, NT? The weight of an object changes with its location
AS, ST, NT? A kilogram is the mass of 1 mL of water at 4 degrees Celsius
To convert density from g/cm^3 to kg/m^3, one of the conversion factors you could use is mg^3/kg.
NT g/cm^3 x 10^2 cm/ 1 m x 10^3 mg/g
Which of the following is the correct scientific notation for 0.000 008 62?
8.62 x 10^-6
The measurement 4.06 x 10^-5 g represents:
0.0000406 g
The largest number from among the following is 1.80 x 10^-4 1.80 x 10^-6 1.80 x 10^-2 1.80 x 10^-8
1.80 x 10^-2
According to the rules of significant figures, the number of digits that are estimated in a measurement is:
How many sig figs are in the measurement 603.040 g?
How many sig figs in 0.050 060 m?
Which of these measurements is expressed to 4 sig figs? 0.108 m 16.530 m 2.6 x 10^4 m 4.300 x 10^-7 m
4.300 x 10^-7 m
The thickness of a dime is approximately
1 mm
Which of these equalities is correct?
1 g = 1000kg 1 cm = 100m 1 mm = 10 cm 1 L = 1000 mL
How many centimeters are in 25 kilometers?
2.5 x 10^6 cm
The metric prefix milli means
1000 times smaller
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. Elements are composed of indivisible particles called Atoms 2. Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms of 1 element are different from another. 3. Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine in simple whole-number ratios to form compounds. 4. Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged.

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