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Anth201 Exam 3


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Key components of language
1) used to communicate 2) learned & shared 3) consists of arbitrary symbols
universal aspects
1) all languages are equal 2) all languages are conventional 3) all languages change through time 4) all languages share a standard array of utterance types
sex differences in communication
women are better at identifying loved ones by their smell and at transmitting and receiving information through facial expressions
paradoxical aspects of language
1) language is primary barrier to communication 2) linguistic competence is often very difficult
design features
1) arbitariness 2) displacement 3) openness 4) prevarication 5) semanticity
meanse that there is seldom a link between a symbol and a meaning in human language
means referring to things that are not present, such as things that are happening elsewhere, that happened in the past, or that will happen in the future
means that as long as individual words are familiar to a listener, any combination, even if never before heard, can be understood
refers to the association of linguistic signals with aspects of the social, cultural and physical worlds of a speech community
Cultural Anthropology
the attempt to document the diversity of human cultures and explain why this diversity exists.
subsistence patterns
1) food collection 2) food production
Inuit, Okiek, Ainu, Australian Aborigines
food production
dometication first began about 10,000 years ago
horticulture (extensicve agriculture)
growing crops without the aid of irrigation, or animals/machines for plowing
intensive agriculture
dive from platforms to insure a good yam harvest
the Khmer kings
built Angkor Wat based on a system of intensive agriculture
the market
developed in societies that use intensive agriculture
Nature of Culture Video Q1
culture is the primary cause of human diversity
the belief in the righteousness of your own ways- that your own ways are best while the ways of others are inferior
rules of postmarital residence
rule when couple marries, they move into the husbands community
rule when couple marries, they move into the wifes community
biological father
socially recognized father
the practice of seeking a mate outside one's own group, to link people into a wider social network that nurtues, helps, and protects them in times of need
dictate mating or marriage within a group to which one belongs
a customary gift, before, at, or after the marraige fomr the husband and his kin to the wife & her kin
progeny price
the children are permanetly transferred to the husbands group
where the wife's group provides substantail gifts to the husbands family
1) polygny 2) polyandry
man has more than 1 wife
woman has more than 1 husband
replacement of the wife by her sister if she dies
replacement of the husband by his brother if he dies
descent group
a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry: fundamental to tribe soceity
family of oreintation
nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
family of procreation
nuclear family established when one marries and has kids
has 3 main concepts anth refer to 1) descent 2) marraige pattern 3) nurturance
the circumstantes of your birth, the parent-child relationship
marriage pattern
the way in which a socially sanctioned union between a man and woman confers
who raises the children
Most basic division of kinship systems
1) bilateral descent systems 2) unilateral descent systems
bilateral descent systems
where people trace their ancestry through both their father and mother
unilateral descent systems
where people reckon who they are related to only through their father partilineal descent or their mother matrilineal descent
bilateral descent subcateorgies
1( bilateral descent groups 2) bilateral kindred
bilateral descent groups
in these groups people claim to be ralted to each other through ties either from the mother's side or the fahter's side to a common ancestor
bilateral kindred
in these groups people discern relationships to other people they call relatives through both theu parents family's
where women control the society
Six kinship terminologies
1) Sudanese 2) Crow 3) Hawaiian 4) Omaha 5) Eskimo 6) Iroquios
The six kinship terms were determined by 7 criteria
1) generation 2) sex 3) affinity 4) collaterality 5) bifaraction 6) relative age 7) sex of linking relatives
people from the same generation
biologically determined
blood realted??
refers to if one is one the direct line of descent or off on a side branch
when the use of different terms for the mother's side or the father's side of the family are used
relative age
VERY IMPORTANT: one disguishes in a formal way, between older and younger brothers
sex of linking relatives
to establish whether a relative is parallel or cross.
Two branches of intensive agriculture
1) shifing horitculture 2) long-growing tree crops
the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations
basic unit of social organizations among foragers. Fewer than 100 people and they move according to the seasons
form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism
form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state
complez sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power.

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