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Who was the first Vice President?
John Adams
What was the French Revolution considered?
an attack on religion and a disregard of individual liberties - anti-Christian revolution
What was Washington's role toward future presidents?
he would shape the future of the United States and the role of future presidents would be based partly on precedents or traditions he established such as calling the President "Mr. President"
Why were people willing to trust Washington as president?
they believed his leadership brought victory in the Revolutionary War
What are concurrent powers?
those SHARED by the states and the federal government
What position did Thomas Jefferson serve on Washington's cabinet?
Secretary of State
What were some of the financial problems that were faced and dealt with by Alexander Hamilton?
large debt owed to foreign countries and those owed to individual American citizens - Congress agreed to pay off debts to other nations
What is popular sovereignty?
authority of the people
What would the Department of State (or State Department) handle?
relations with other nations; foreign relations
What are reserved powers?
those retained by the states
What does the 22nd amendment do (XXII)?
limited the number of terms a President may be elected (2 term maximum)
Who is the prosecutor?
person accusing - represents the state or federal government
What was the Alien and Sedition Act?
with the threat of war with France - Americans were suspicious of aliens or immigrants living in the U.S. - the federalists in Congress passed this act - strict laws to protect the nation's security
What does it mean to nullify?
to cancel or make ineffective
What are the parts of the Constitution?
the Preamble, Articles 1 - 7, and Ammendments 1 - 27
When and where was George Washington inaugurated as president?
April 30, 1789 in New York city
Who had authority over the executive branch after the Cabinet Controversy was solved?
What was the Bill of Rights?
10 amendments to the Constitution that guaranteed personal liberties
What was the significance of the election of 1796?
John Adams - federalist got 71 electoral votes and Thomas Jefferson - Republican got 68 electoral votes - ONLY TIME in HISTORY the PRESIDENT and V. PRES. were from DIFFERENT PARTIES
What were Washington's 3 warnings in his farewell address?
1) attacked the evil of political parties 2) the entanglement in foreign affairs and 3) to steer clear of permanent alliances
Who was pro-Britain?
Hamilton and Adams
What were the Bill of Rights?
the first set of Amendments during the first session of Congress presented by James Madison to uphold the promise that included guarantees of personal liberties - it limits the powers of the government and protects the rights of individual liberties such as freedom of speech, the rights of a person accused of crimes (trial by jury) - the 10th amendment was to serve as an important line of defense against a too powerful national government
What were the views of the Republicans?
ruled by the people, wanted strong state governments, emphasized agriculture, wanted a strong interpretation of the Constitution, had French alliances, supported state banks, and believed in free trade
What are enumerated powers?
those that belong ONLY to the federal government
What executive departments were set up by Congress in 1789?
Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury, Secretary of War, and Attorney General
What could be done under the Sedition Act?
made it illegal to say or write anything against the President, government, or Congress (problem with this is it is a VIOLATION of 1st AMENDMENT - freedom of speech)
How did Hamilton win the support of the South?
he compromised - agreeing to a proposal of Southern leaders to locate the new nation's capitol to the South - special district laid out between Virginia and Maryland
What is the term that means the power to govern is shared between the national government and the sates?
Who were two major Republicans (Democratic-Republicans)?
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
What were the two main parties during this time in history?
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans or (Republicans)
Who was Washington's Vice President?
John Adams
What does the 20th amendment do (XX)?
terms regarding the succession of the President and Vice President - when the President will take oath - Lame Duck President
What are the first 10 amendments known as?
Bill of Rights
In what year was the Constitution ratified (Constitution Ratification)?
When was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
December 1791
Who was pro-France and why?
Jefferson because he felt it would help drive the British out of North America
What would the War Department handle?
provide for the nation's defense; military matters
What was Hamilton's Whiskey tax?
a tax on whiskey distilled in the United States
Under what treaty did the Native Americans surrender most of the land in present-day Ohio?
Treaty of Greenville
Why was neutrality difficulty for the U.S. regarding the French Revolution?
some Americans were helping the French - the British were outraged and forced British impressment of American soldiers
What are the First Amendment rights?
known as freedom of speech rights - can't establish a religion or prohibit the free exercise of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of press, the right to peacefully assemble, right to petition government for a redress of grievances
How was the president's authority over the executive branch established?
it was voted on by the cabinet and the tie was broken by Vice President John Adams
What are enumerated powers?
those powers that belong only to the federal government.
What was the result of the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
crushed Native Americans' hopes of keeping their land - defeat of Natives and signing of treaty opened Ohio to western settlements
What are several examples of enumerated powers?
foreign trade, right to regulate money, maintain armed forces
What are the responisbilities of a juror?
remain impartial and uninfluenced, listen carefully to the case and take notes, avoid ANY press concerning the case, avoid discussing the case with anyone NOT involved in the case, choosing a jury foreperson, and participating in the deliberation process
What is a bond?
a note issued by the government, which promises to pay off a loan with interest
In what year was the Bill of Rights added?
What position did Alexander Hamilton serve on Washington's cabinet?
Secretary of Treasury
How did many citizens feel about paying debt of other citizens?
most were unhappy
What was the result of the whiskey tax and what lessons were learned?
led to a rebellion in western Pennsylvania - farmers were in uproar over having to pay a special tax on the whiskey they made from surplus corn - as many farmers lived by bartering - which meant exchanging whiskey and other items produced for goods they needed - because they rarely had cash - how could they pay a tax on whiskey. After a mob of people attacked tax collectors and burnt down buildings - it was decided to crush the rebellion and only allow citizens to PEACEFULLY CHANGE LAWS through Constitutional means - lesson learned - the government would USE FORCE when necessary TO MAINTAIN SOCIAL ORDER
Who was the first Chief of Justice of the United States?
John Jay
What were the concerns regarding a national bank?
whether it was unconstitutional - inconsistent with the Constitution
Who are the parties in a criminal trial?
the prosecutor and the defendant
What is physical evidence?
other evidence such as a weapon, clothing, fingerprints, etc
What is a tariff?
a tax on imports or exports
What could be done under the Alien Act?
President could deport any alien considered dangerous - and the Naturalization Act made immigrants wait 14 years not 5 to apply for citizenship
Who is the defendant in a criminal trial?
person accused of the crime
Who has the burden of proof in a civil case?
the plaintiff
What happened to one of the original 12 amendments that did not pass and become one of the first 10?
became the 27th amendment - passed in 1992 - restraint on Congressional salaries - first suggested by James Madison
Who bought the bonds at the lower rate?
What is a plaintiff?
person making the complaint
What department dealt with financial matters and how headed this department?
Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton
What is a cabinet?
group of advisers to the President
Who was the first president of the United States?
President George Washington took his oath of office April 30, 1789 after being unanimously elected- the first president under the federal Constitution
What does the 15th amendment do (XV)?
gave the right to vote to all races (NOT women)
What is a defendant?
person the plaintiff is complaining about
What are the types of evidence?
testimony, documents, and physical
What were the views of the Federalists?
ruled by wealthy class, wanted strong federal government, emphasized manufacturing, wanted a loose interpretation of Constitution, had British alliances, supported a national bank, wanted protective tariffs
How many possible amendments did James Madison give to Congress (for the Bill of Rights)?
What is the role of the judge?
to keep order during, directs the case, and gives directions to the jury
Who was to lead the Supreme Court as the first Chief Justice?
John Jay
What are documents?
any paper or document put up as evidence
Who are the parties to a civil trial?
the plaintiff and the defendant
Who opposed Hamilton's suggestion of a national bank?
Madison and Jefferson
What is the difference between a civil and criminal case?
a civil case involves a dispute between two parties while a criminal determines guilt or innocense of a crime (the plaintiff has the burden in the civil the prosecutor has the burden in a criminal case - in a criminal case - evidence must prove beyond a reasonable doubt)
What are the 3 branches of government and what does each do?
Legislative - makes and passes laws, Executive - executes laws, and Judicial - enforces laws
What does the 12th amendment provide for (XII)?
election of President and Vice President
Who was the Secretary of War?
Henry Knox
What does the 13th amendment do (XIII)?
abolition of slavery
What was another financial difficulty Hamilton faced as Secretary of the Treasury?
he asked Congress to create a national bank - the Bank of the United States
What happened as a result of the French Revolution - what role did the U.S. play?
France went to war with Britain - Americans were divided on who to support
How many amendments did Congress pass (for the Bill of Rights)?
Who were two major Federalist supporters?
Alexander Hamilton and John Adams
What are implied powers?
those not specifically mentioned in the Constitution
What was the XYZ affair?
the dispute with France that Adams inherited when he took office - Adams sent a delegation to France in hopes of avoiding war - the French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand refused to meet with the delegation - instead 3 French agends asked for a bribe to begin the negotiation process - America refused to pay the bribe - Adams referred to the French agents as X, Y, and Z and aks Congress to prepare for war
What department provided for the nation's defense and how headed this department?
Secretary of War Henry Knox
What was the Cabinet Controversy?
after congress created the executive departments - opinion was divided over how much power the President should have over them - the Senators were evenly divided - Vice President Adams broke the tie - voted to allow the President the authority to dismiss cabinet officers without Senate approval - this strengthened the President's position - also created a greater separation between the legislative and executive branches
How many amendments did the states pass which then became the Bill of Rights?
Who has the burden of proof in a criminal case?
the prosecutor
What did the final portion of Hamilton's economic program cover?
creation of national taxes - these funds were needed for the operation of the government and and to make interest payments on national debt
What is neutrality?
a position of not taking sides in a conflict
What position did George Washington take?
hoped/wanted the U.S. to remain neutral - to not take sides in this conflict - but neutrality became difficult
What were the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
resolutions written by Madison and Jefferson about states' rights - were adopted by Virginia and Kentucky - said states had the right to judge constitutionality of federal laws - KENTUCKY said states has right to NULLIFY federal laws - many feared this would lead to a war between the U.S. and Virginia and Kentucky
What does the 19th amendment do (XIX)?
suffrage for women - gave women right to vote
What does the 21st amendment do (XXI)?
Repeal of Prohibition - did away with prohibition of alcohol (18th)
What were the 3 departments established in the executive branch (Executive Departments)?
The Department of State, the Treasury Department, and the War Department
What is national debt?
the amount of money a national government owes to other governments or its people
What are aliens?
immigrants living in a country (US) that were not citizens
Who was called to make one last peaceful solution and what was the result?
John Jay - chief justice of Supreme Court - Jay's Treaty was able to avoid war with Britain - but few Americans approved because the treaty did not deal with issue of impressment or British interference with American trade
What are the steps in a trial?
1) opening of the court 2) opening statement by the prosecutor 3) opening statement by defendant's attorney 4) direct examination of prosecutor's witnesses 5) cross examination of prosecutor's witnesses 6) direct examination of defendant's witnesses 7) cross examination of defendant's witnesses 8) closing argument by prosecutor 9) closing argument by defendant's attorney 10) judge's final instructions to the jury 11) deliberations by the jury 12) verdict
What does domestic tranquility mean?
to keep peace among the people
What is a speculator?
person who risks money in order to make a large profit
What was the only reason the South agreed to support Hamilton's proposals?
the capital was moved south to Washington, D.C.
Why did the South object to Alexander Hamilton's plan to repay the bonds?
opponents felt this would make speculators rich and - Southern states which had accumulated much less debt complained that they would have to pay more than their fair share under this plan
What are the 3 branches of government?
executive, judicial, legislative
What is an impressment?
forcing people into service, as in the navy
What does the 18th amendment do (XVIII)?
prohibition of Alcoholic beverages
What is the name of the introduction to the Constitution - it reflects the basic principles of American government?
What did Pinckney's Treaty accomplish?
gave the U.S. unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and the right to trade at New Orleans
What is a precedent?
a tradition; that which is done first and sets an example or model
What is an amendment?
an addition to a formal document such as the Constitution
What happened to many of those bonds?
people sold them (shopkeepers, farmers, soldiers) for less than their original value
What does the 1st amendment do (I)?
provides a redress of grievances
When and where was the first Inauguration date - date and location of Washington's inauguration
April 30, 1789 in New York City
What were bonds?
paper notes promising to repay money borrowed in a certain length of time
What does the 27th amendment do (XXVII)?
placed restraint on Congressional salaries (1 of the original - Madison originally passed this one)
Who did not support Hamilton's tariffs and why?
the South because they had little industry to protect
What is testimony?
when witnesses tell their version of the story
What department handled relations with other nations and how headed this department?
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
What are bonds?
paper money promising to repay the money in a certain length of time
What would the Treasury Department handle?
financial matters
What is the role of the jury?
listen and take notes - can't ask questions, can't discuss the case until deliberation - must make verdict based on evidence - proof must be beyond a reasonable doubt
What percentage of the national government's income came from revenue from tariffs?
90 percent
What did Congress establish with the Judiciary Act of 1789?
the setting up of the nation's court system
How did people feel toward speculators?
they were angry - felt these people would get rich while the original bond owners felt betrayed by the government because they had lost money while the speculators - new bond owners profited
What happened regarding a national bank?
the President agreed with Hamilton and signed the bill creating the national bank

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