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Chapters 4-8


undefined, object
copy deck
mathematical principle that the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in the set. (186)
identification of the self as a physically unique being. (157)
violation-of-expectation method
method in which researchers habituate infants to a physical event and then determine whether they recover to (look longer at) a possible event (a variation of the first event that conforms to physical laws) or an impossible event (a variation that violates physical laws). recovery to the impossible event suggests that the infant is surprised at at deviation from reality and is aware of that aspect of the physical world. (119)
sum total of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is. (199)
in Piaget's theory, the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment. (made up of two complementary processes: assimilation and accommodation) (116)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine, which is necessary for brain development and body growth. (168)
joint attention
state in which the child and the caregiver gaze at the same object or event and the caregiver comments verbally about what the child sees. (supports language development) (134)
aboriginal head start
Canadian federal program that provides First Nations, Inuit, and Metis children younger than age 6 with preschool education and nutritional and health services and that encourages parent involvement in program planning and children's learning. (188)
type of memory that involves noticing whether a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced. (124)
infantile amnesia
inability of most older children and adults to remember events that happened before age 3. (125)
differentiation theory
view that perceptual development involves the detection of increasingly fine-grained, invariant features in the environment. (112)
social smile
smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face. (first appears between 6 and 10 weeks) (141)
food insecurity
uncertain access to enough food for a healthy, active life.
primary circular reaction
gain voluntary control by repeating chance behaviors largely motivated by needs. (1-3 months)
disease usually appearing in the first year of life that is caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. (leads to a wasted condition of the body) (100)
classical conditioning
form of learning that involves associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. (once the nervous system makes the connection between the 2 stimuli, the neutral stimulus will produce the behavior by itself.) (101)
gradual reduction in the strength of a response as the result of repetitive stimulation. (103)
dynamic systems theory of motor development
in motor development, combinations of previously acquired abilities that lead to more advanced ways of exploring and controlling the environment. each new skill is a joint product of central nervous system development, movement possibilities of the body, environmental supports for the skill, and the goal the child has in mind. (105)
developmentally appropriate practice
set of standards devised by the National Association for the Education of Young Children that specify program characteristics that meet the developmental and individual needs of young children of varying ages, based on current research and the consensus of experts. (131)
emotional contagion
automatic process in which infants detect other's emotions.
memory strategies
deliberate mental activities that improve the likelihood of remembering. (182)
physical aggression
type of hostile aggression that harms others through physical injury. (includes pushing, hitting, kicking, punching, or destroying another's property) (209)
pleasant vowel-like noises made by infants beginning around 2 months of age. (134)
long-term memory
in information processing, the part of the mental system that contains our permanent knowledge base. (123)
inner speech
Vygotsky's view that children speak to themselves for self-guidance.
type of gender identity in which the person scores high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics. (214)
expressive style of language learning
style of early language learning in which toddlers frequently produce pronouns and social formulas, such as "stop it," "thank you." and "I want it." (they use language mainly to talk about the feelings and needs of themselves and other people) (135)
nerve cells that store and transmit information. (93)
understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. (175)
secondary circular reaction
turn attention outward toward the environment by trying to repeat interesting events caused by their own actions. (4-8 months)
effortful control
self-regulatory dimension of temperament that involves voluntarily suppressing a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response. variations in effortful control are evident in how effectively a child can focus and shift attention, inhibit impulses, and egage in problem solving to manage negative emotions. (146)
deferred imitation
ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present. (119)
disease usually appearing between 1 and 3 years of age that is caused by a diet low in protein. (symptoms: enlarged belly, swollen feet, hair loss, skin rash, and irritable listless behavior) (100)
type of discipline in which the effects of the child's misbehavior on others are communicated to the child. (205)
make-believe play
type of play in which children pretend, acting out everyday and imaginary activities.
associative play
form of true social participation in which children are engaged in separate activities, but they interact by exchanging toys and comment on one another's behavior. (202)
thinking and reasoning
part of conscience development that cognitive-developmental perspective emphasizes.
invariant features
features that remain stable in a constantly changing perceptual world. (112)
mental representation
internal depiction of information that the mind can manipulate; most powerful: images and concepts. (119)
learning by copying the behavior of another person. (also modeling or observational learning) (103)
general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. (basic means through which children organize and interpret their everyday experiences. (183)
ability to understand another's emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way. (158)
thinking about thought; awareness of mental activities. (183)
goodness-of-fit model
effective match between child-rearing practices and a child's temperament, leading to favorable adjustment. (148)
gender schema theory
combines elements of social learning theory and cognitive-developmental theory.
central executive
conscious part of working memory that directs the flow of information through the mental system by deciding what to attend to, coordinating incoming information with information already in the system, and selecting, applying and monitoring strategies. (123)
in Piaget's theory, that part of adaptation in which the external world is interpreted in terms of current schemes. (116)
corpus callosum
large bundle of fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain. (167)
sociodramatic play
make-believe play with others that first appears around age 2 1/2 and increases rapidly until 4 to 5 years. (174)
guided participation
shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication. (a broader concept than scaffolding) (181)
growth hormone (GH)
pituitary hormone that from birth on is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals. (168)
nonsocial activity
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play. (202)
animistic thinking
belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions. (175)
brain plasticity
ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions. (declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.) (95)
delay of gratification
waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act. (158)
authoritative child-rearing style
child-rearing style that is high in acceptance and involvement, that emphasizes adaptive control techniques, and that includes appropriate autonomy granting. (215)
social referencing
relying on a trusted person's emotional reaction to decide how to respond in an uncertain situation. (142)
difficult child
child whose temperament is such that he or she is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely. (145)
language acquisition device
in Chomsky's theory, a biologically based innate system that permits children, no matter which language they hear, to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they have picked up enough words. (133)
experience-dependent brain growth
additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures. follows experience-expectant brain growth. (97)
theory of mind
coherent set of ideas about mental activities.
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus that through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus leads to a new response. (102)
type of memory that involves remembering a stimulus that is not present. (124)
time out
form of mild punishment in which children are removed from the immediate setting - for example, sent to their rooms -until they are ready to act appropriately. (206)
dual representation
viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol. (175)
telegraphic speech
toddlers two-word utterances that, like a telegram, leave out smaller and less important words. (135)
adult reponses that restructure children's incorrect speech into a more mature form. (193)
zone of proximal development
in Vygotsky's theory, a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners. (127)
process in which neural fibers are coated with an insulating fatty sheath callefd myelin that improves the efficiency of message transfer. (93)
slow-to warm-up child
child whose temperament is such that he or she is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly when faced with new experiences. (145)
dominant cerebral hemisphere
hemisphere of the brain responsible for skilled motor action.(left hemisphere is dominant in right handed individuals. left handed individuals - right hemisphere may be dominant or motor and language skills may be shared between the hemispheres. ) (167)
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response. (102)
overly strict conscience
for Erikson, the negative outcome that causes children to feel too much guilt because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.
pituitary gland
gland located near the base of the brain that releases hormones that induce physical growth. (168)
sensory register
part of the information-processing system where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly. (123)
diorganized/disoriented attachment
quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who respond in a confused, contradictory fashion when reunited with the parent. (151)
in Piaget's theory, that part of adaptation in which new schemes are created and old ones adjusted to capture the environment more completely. (116)
emergent literacy
young children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences. (184)
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, a reflexive response that is produced by an unconditioned stimulus. (102)
gender constancy
understanding that sex is biologically based and remains the same even if clothing, hairstyle, and play activities change. (214)
child-centered programs
preschools and kindergartens in which teachers provide a wide variety of activities from which children select, and much learning takes place through play. (187)
principle specifying order relationships between quantities, such as three and two is more than one. (186)
assimilation and accommodation
two types of adaptation.
secure attachment
quality of attachment characterizing infants who are distressed by parental separation and easily comforted by the parent when he or she returns. (151)
easy child
child whose temperament is such that he or she quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences. (145)
unintentional injuries
leading cause of childhood mortality in industrialized countries.
motor vehicle collisions
leading cause of death among children over 1 year old; most frequent source of injury across all ages.
early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too narrowly to a smaller number of objects and events than is appropriate. (134)
cephalocaudal trend
organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from the head to tail. (distinguished from proximodistal trend) (92)
cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behavior scales
main subtests of Bayley infant and toddler intelligence test.
solve problems by analogy
take a solution strategy from one problem and apply it to other relevant problems.
mental strategies
in information processing, procedures that operate on and transform information, increasing the chances that we will retain information, use it efficiently, and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances. (123)
child-rearing styles
combinations of parenting behaviors that occur in a wide range of situations, thereby creating an enduring child-rearing climate. (215)
intentional or goal-directed behavior
sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberately combined to solve a problem. (118)
cooperative play
form of true social participation in which children's actions are directed toward a common goal. (202)
early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate. (134)
emotional self-regulation
strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals. (144)
avoidant attachment
quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who are usually not distressed by parental separation and who avoid the parent when he or she returns. (151)
basic emotions
emotions that are universal in humans and other primates, have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival, and can be directly inferred from facial expressions, (includes happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust) (141)
failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own. (175)
intermodal stimulation
simultaneous input from more than on e modality, or sensory system.
normal distribution
bell shaped distribution that results when individual differences are measured in large samples. (most scores cluster around the mean, or average, and progressively fewer fall toward extremes.) (129)
adjusting the quality of support during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance. (direct instruction is offered when a task is new; less help is provided as competence increases. ) (180)
tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect other important features. (175)
resistant attachment
quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who remain close to the parent before departure and display angry, resistive behavior when he or she returns. (151)
genetic and environmental factors
factors that affect temperament and personality.
academic programs
preschools and kindergartens in which teachers structure children's learning, teaching academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill. (187)
nonorganic failure to thrive
growth disorder usually present by 18 months of age that is caused by lack of affection and stimulation. (101)
in Piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. (in information processing, the memory strategy of grouping together related items) (116)
autobiographical memory
representations of personally meaningful, one-time events.
strategies that modify the reactivity.
vital for the survival of neruons, as they form connections. (93)
preoperational stage
Piaget's second stage, in which rapid growth in representation takes place. However, thought is not yet logical. (spans from 2-7 years) (173)
catch-up growth
return to genetically influenced growth path once conditions improve.
gender identity
image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics. (214)
object permanence
understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight. (118)
quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention and motor activity.
experience-expectant brain growth
young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences, such as opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment. provides the foundation for experience-dependent brain growth. (97)
in Piaget's theory, a specific structure, or organized way of making sense of experience, that changes with age. (116)
synaptic pruning
loss of connective fibers by seldom-stimulated neurons, thereby returning them to an uncommitted state so they can support the development of future skills. (93)
following the habituation, an increase in responsiveness to a new stimulus. (103)
connecting a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter. (191)
authoritarian child-rearing style
child-rearing style that is low in acceptance and involvement, is high in coercive an psychological control, and low in autonomy granting. (216)
repetition of consonant-vowel combinations in long strings, beginning around 4 months of age. (134)
gender typing
any association of objects, roles, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes. (211)
secure base
infants' use of the familiar caregiver as a point from which to explore the environment and return for emotional support. (142)
emotional side
part of conscience development that psychoanalytic theory emphasizes.
basic trust versus mistrust
in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of infancy which is resolved positively if the balance of care, especially during feeding, is sympathetic and loving. (141)
social learning theory
emphasis on modeling and reinforcement.
sensitive caregiving
caregiving involving prompt, consistent, and appropriate responses to infant signals. (153)
gaps between neurons, across which chemical messages are sent. (93)
referential style of language learning
style of early language learning in which toddlers produce many words that refer to objects. (they use language mainly to name things) (135)
uninhibited or sociable child
child whose temperament is such that he or she displays emotion to and approaches novel stimuli. (146)
psychological control
parental behaviors that intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expressions, indivduality, and attachments to parents. (216)
glial cells
cells serving the function of myelination. (93)
verbal aggression
type of hostile aggression that harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing. (209)
permissive child-rearing style
child-rearing style that is high in acceptance but overindulging or inattentive, low in control, and lenient rather than appropriate in autonomy granting. (216)
relational aggression
form of hostile aggression that damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation. (209)
cognitive-developmental theory
focus on children as active thinkers about their social worlds.
sensorimotor stage
Piaget's first stage, during which infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. (spans the first 2 years of life) (116)
cerebral cortex
largest structure of the human brain, which accounts for the highly developed intelligence of the human species. (94)
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, a new response produced by a conditioned stimulus that resembles the unconditioned, or reflexive, response or UCR. (102)
grows faster than any other organ, early in development.
gender schema theory
information-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features to explain how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development. (214)
inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point. (176)
application of regular grammatical rules to words that are exceptions. (192)
aspect of self-concept that involves judgements about one's own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements. (199)
brain structure that aids in balance and control of body movements. (167)
self-conscious emotions
emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self. (examples: shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride) (144)
circular reaction
in Piaget's theory, a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity. (117)
early appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation. (reactivity refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity. self-regulation refers to strategies that modify reactivity.) (145)
internal working model
set of expectations derived from early caregiving experiences concerning the availablitiy of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress. Becomes a model or guide for all future close relationships. (150)
4 factors that produces new skill
1) central nervous system development 2) body's movement capacities 3) goal the child has in mind 4) environmental support for the skill
fine motor development
control over actions that have to do with smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
score that permits an individual's performance on an intelligence test to be compared to the performances of other individuals of the same age. (129)
images and concepts
most powerful kinds of mental representations.
psychological knowledge
understanding of mental states, such as intentions, emotions, desires and beliefs.
instrumental aggression
aggression aimed at obtaining an object, privilege, or space with no deliberate intent to harm another person. (209)
separation anxiety
infant's distressed reaction to the departure of the familiar caregiver. (150)
core knowledge perspective
view that assumes infants begin life with innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought, each of which permits a ready grasp of new related information and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition. (121)
specialization of functions of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. (95)
prosocial or altruistic behavior
actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self. (201)
in operant conditioning, removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response. (102)
uninvolved child-rearing style
child-rearing style that combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to autonomy granting. (216)
hostile aggression
aggression intended to harm another individual. (209)
autobiographical memory
representations of special, one-time events that are long lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning. (125)
gross motor development
control over actions that help infants get around in the environment., such as crawling, standing and walking. (104)
adult responses that elaborate on children's speech, increasing its complexity. (193)
feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight. (201)
strange situation
laboratory procedure involving short separations from and reunions with the parent that assesses the quality of the attachment bond. (151)
chemicals that are released by neurons that send messages across synapses. (93)
working or short-term memory
part of the information-processing system where we "work" on a limited amount of information, actively applying mental strategies so the information will be retained. (123)
strong, affectionate tie that humans have with special people in their lives that leads them to feel pleasure and joy when interacting with them and to be comforted by their nearness during time of stress. (149)
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. (101)
egocenteric speech
young children have difficulty taking the perspective of others.
project head start
U.S. federal program that provides poverty-stricken children with a year or two of preschool along with nutritional and health services and that encourages parent involvement in program planning and children's learning. (188)
social conventions
customs determined solely by consensus, such as table manners. (208)
child-directed speech
form of language used by adults to speak to infants and toddlers that consists of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts. (135)
frontal lobes
cortical region with the most extended period of development; responsible for thought - consciousness, inhibition of impulses, integration of information, and regulation of behavior through planning.l (95)
moral imperatives
standards that protect people's rights and welfare. (208)
private speech
self-directed speech that children often use to plan and guide their own behavior. (179)
practice of giving a newly constructed test to a large, representative sample of individuals, which serves as the standard for interpreting individual scores. (129)
parallel play
form of limited social participation in which the child plays near other children with similar materials but does not interact with them. (202)
invisible displacement
finding a moved toy while out of sight.
ethological theory of attachment
theory formulated by Bowlby which views the infant's emotional tie to the mother as an evolved response that promotes survival. (150)
hierarchical classification
organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences between the groups. (176)
inhibited or shy child
child whose temperament is such that he or she reacts negatively to and withdraws from novel stimuli. (146)
operant conditioning
form of learning in which a spontaneous behavior is followed by a stimulus that changes the probability that the behavior will occur again.
proximodistal trend
organized pattern of physical growth an motor control that proceeds from the center of the body outward. (92)
initiative versus guilt
in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative and through development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and guilt-ridden. (198)
moral behavior
part of conscience development that social learning theory emphasizes.
intermodal perception
perception that combines information from more than one modality, or sensory system. (111)
autonomy versus shame and doubt
in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved positively if parents provide young children with suitable guidance and appropriate choices. (141)
voluntary obedience to requests and commands. (158)
matters of personal choice
concerns that do not violate rights, are not socially regulated, and therefore are up to the individual. (208)
child maltreatment
include physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and emotional abuse.
practical, social side of language that is concerned with how to engage in effective and appropriate communication with others. (192)
stranger anxiety
infant's expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults. (appears in many babies after 6 months old) (142)
categorical self
early categorization of the self according to salient ways in which people differ, such as age, sex, physical characteristics, and goodness and badness. (158)
make-believe play
strengthens mental abilities such as attention, memory, logical reasoning, language, literacy, imagination, creativity, ability to reflect on one own thinking, control one's own behavior, and take another's perspective.

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