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comp final 2

ed psych college level part 2


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deductive reasoning
drawing conclusions by applying rules logically moving from a general to specific
norm referenced testing
testing in which scores are compared with the average performance of others
process of searching info by using memories, expectations. logic and existing
percentile rank
of the noming sample who socred at or below an individual score
allocated time
time set for learning
importance/attainment value
the importance of doin well on a task
making teachers and schools responsible for students earning
lesson study
a group teachers develop test improve and retest lessons until they are satisfied with the final version
norm groups
a group whose average score serves as a standard for evaluating any students score on a test
criterion referenced testing
testing in which scores are compared to a set performance standard
adequate yearly progress AYP
objectives for yearly improvement for all students and for specifics
participation structure
rules defining how to participate in different activities
advanced organizer
statement of inclusive concepts intro and sum up material that follows
wrong answers offered as choices in a multiple choice item
situated learning
one situation of a particular community; situation specific
phonological loop
a memory rehearsal system for verbal and sound info of aobut 2 secs
executive control processes
selective attention rehearsal elaboration and organization that influence encoding storage and retrieval of info in memory
normal distribution
most commonly occuring distribution in which scores are distributed evenly around the mean
instructional objectives
clear statement of what students are inteded to learn through instruction
means end analysis
heuristic in which a goal is divided into subgoals
step by step procedure for solving a problem
convergent thinking
a single answer
cognitive evaluation theory
that events affect motivation through the individuals perception of the events as controlling behavioral or providing info
buckley amendment
right under law to see results of all classroom records
knowledge that we aren't conscous of recalling, but influences behavior or thoughts
degree of difference or deviation from mean
maintenance rehearsal
keeping info in a working memory by repeating it
representititvness heuristic
judging the likelihood of an event based on how well the events match your prototype
focus on stimulus
grade equivilant score
measure of grade level based on comparison with norming sample from each grade
most frequent score
standard deviation
measure of how widely scores vary from mean
teaching to transfer
influence of previously learned material on new material
lower needs
interpretation of sensory info
bloom's taxonomy 3 domains
cognitive (remembering or reasoning), affective (emotional), psychomotor (physical ability)
adding and extending meaning by connecting new info to existing
story grammar
typical structure for a category of stories
loci method
associating items with places
3 skills of classroom management
planning, monitoring, evaluating
sociocultural views of motivation
perspectives that emphasize participation identities and inertpersonal relations within communities
social pursuasion
a pep talk
formative assessment
ungraded testing used before or during instrtuction
behavior context matrix
plan what you want them to get from your teaching
meaningful verbal learning
focused organized relationships among ideas and verbal info
critical thinking
evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem
humanistic interpretation
approach to motivation that emphasizes personal freedom choice self determination and striving for personal growth
physical or emotional backdrop associated with an event
defining attributes
distinctive features shared by members of a category
norming sample
large sample of students serving as a comparison group for scoring standardize tests
independant classwork
goal orientations
patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement
declarative knowledge
"know that" verbal info, facts
mastery goal
personal intention to improve abilities and learn now matter how performance suffers
low road transfer
spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practical skills
gestalt (face/vase)
hold that people organize their perception into cohort wholes/pattern
comparative advanced organizer
activate already existing knowledge schemas
peg type
associating items with key words
service learning
an approach combining academic learning with personal and social development
ordered and logical relations
working memory
the info that you are focusing on at a given moment
stand alone thinking skills programs
teach thinking skills directly without need for extensive subject matter
analogical instruction
teaching new concepts by making connections with existing knowledge (analogies)
group focus
ability to keep as many students as possible involved in activities
empathetic listening
hearing the intent and emotions behind what another says
putting your problem solving plan into words
authentic task
have some connection to real life problems
maslow's hierarchy of needs
7 levels of human needs
kounin's withitness
awareness of everything happening
functional fixedness
inability to use objects or tools in a new way
diagnostic test
individually administered tests to id special learning problems
Z score
standard score indicating the number of standard deviations above or below the mean
the contents of procedural memory; rules about what actions to take
words with concepts with similar sounding cue words
a specific example of a given category that is used to classify an item
criterion referenced grading
assessment of each student's mastery of course objectives
perfomance assessment
any form of assessment that requires students to carry out an activity or produce a product in order to demonstrate learning
degree to whic a test measures what it is inteded to measure
cooperative learning
arrangement in which students work in mided ability groups and are rewarded on the basis of the success of the group
availability heuristic
judging the likelihood of an event based on waht is available in your memory
diagnostic test
formative test to determing students areas of weakness
a general category of ideas
ego involved learner
student who focus on how well they are performing and how they are judged by others
standarized tests
tests given under uniform procedures
distributed practice
brief periods with rests
bottom up processing
percieving based on noticing separate defining features and assembling them into recognizable pattern
any situation where you are trying to reach some goal and must find means to do so
elaborative rehearsal
keeping info by associating it with something else
failure avoiding
who avoid failure by sticking to what they know
grading on a curve
norm referenced grading that compares students performance to an average level
will power
social goals
wide variety of needs and motives to be connected to others or part of a group
serial position effect
remembering the beginning and end without middle
second wave constructivism
a focus on the social and cultural sources of knowing
respnse set
respond in the most familiar way
cognitive view of learning
general approach that views learning as an active mental process of acquiring remembering and using knowledge
assertive discipline
clear firm unhostile response style
problem based learning
methods that provide students with realistic problems that don't necessarily have right answers
weakening and fading of memories with passage of time
massed practice
single extended periods
legitimate peripheral participation
genuine involvement in the owrk of the group
motivation to learn
tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile
long term memories that involve deliberate or conscious recall
constructed response format
assessment procedures that require the student to create an answer instead of selecting an answer
a way of preventing serious behavior problems of students who have been labled at risk by directing toward more appropriate actions
exclusion of nonmembers of a category(ostrich doesn't fly)
locus of causality
the location-internal or external- of the cause of the behavior
spreading activation
retrieval of peices of info based on their relation to eachother
pygmalian effect
exceptional progress by a student as a result of high teacher expectations
conditional knowledge
"knowing when"
long term memory
the goal of teaching; permanent storage
flashbulb memory
clear vivid memories of emtionally important events
warm demanders
effective teachers with african students who show both high expectations and caring
procedural knowledge
demostration, "know how"
academic learning time
when students are actually learning
instructional conversation
keep every one congnitvely involved
first wave constructivism
focus on the individual and pysch sources of knowing
4 components for a lesson (weetags)
example, nonexamples, relevant and irrelevant attributes, name and definition
vicarious experiences
accomplishments modeled by someone else
a philosophy about how to deal with people that respect differences, share authority and build on the knowledge of others
view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of info
top down processing
percieving based on the context and the patterns you expect ot occur in that situation
expository teaching
present material n complete organized form moving from broad to specific
extrinsic motivation
created by external factors
movement management
keeping lessons moving at an appropriate pace
natural/logical consequences
instead of punishing have students fix the result of their actions
distance from highest to lowest
proffessional and congenial
best example of a category
schema or expected plan for the sequence of steps in a common event
domain specific knowledge
info that is useful in a particular situation or that applies mainly to one specific topic
middle score
expository advanced organizer
provide new knowledge
individual learning expectations ILE
personal average score
reciprocal questioning
approach where groups ask and answer eachother's questions after a lesson
techniques for remembering
work avoidance learners
who don't want to learn or to look smart
bahavioral view of learning
new behaviors are learned, observation, mental process, knowledge brought to learning situation
self instruction
talking self through the steps of a task
standard scores
based on the standard deviation
evaluation expressed in quantative terms (numbers)
failure accepting
who believe their failures are due to ability and there is nothing they can do
long term working memory
holds the strategies for pulling info into working memory
self management
use of behavioral learning principles to change your own behavior
intrinsic motivation
associated with activities that are their own reward; internal
procedures used to obtain info about student performance
process that occurs when remembering certain info gets in the way
problem based learning
provide students with realistic problems that don't have right answers
gronlund's cognitive objectives
instructional objectives stated in terms of higher level thinking and operations
craik and lockhart's levels of processing theory
recall of info is based on how deeply it's processed
aptitude test
tests meant to predict future performance
central tendency
typical score for a group of scores
self fullfilling prophecy
groundless expectation that's confirmed because it's been expected
capacity to coordinate learning skills motivation and emotions
sensory memory
system that holds sensory info very briefly
ability to perform thoroughly learned tasks with out much effort
goal structure
the way students relate to others who are also working toward a goal
episodic memory
info tied to a particular time and place
halo effect
the tendency for a general impression of a person to influence our perception of any aspect of that person
info processing
human minds activity of taking in, storing and using info
general strategy used in attempting to solve problems
domain specific strategies
applied to reach goals in a particular area
scripted cooperation
a learning strategy in which students take turns summarizing material
a cooperative structure in which each member is responsible for teaching the others
incremental view of ability
belief that ability is a set of skills that can be changed
entity view ability
belief that ability is a fixed characteristic
working backward strategy
heuristic in which one starts with the goal and moves backwards to solve
purse option
in a contract system the chance to revise and improve work
formative test for assessing student's knowledge readiness and abilities
self regulation
process of activating thoughts behaviors and emotions in order to reach a goal
supervised several activities
assistive technology
devices, systems and services that support and improve the capabilities of individuals with disabilities
semantic memory
memory for meaning
wiener's attribution theories
description of how individuals explanations justification and excuses influence their motivation
contract system
each student works for a particular grade according to agreed upon standards
representations based on the physical attributes info
intuitive thinking
making imaginitive leaps to correct perceptions or workable solutions
central executive
responsible for monitoring and directing attention to other mental resources
inclusion of nonmembers of a category(bats have wings)
fostering communities
a system of ineracting activities that results in a self consciously active learning environment
summative assemssment
testing that follows instruction and assesses achievement
radical constructivism
knowledge is assumed to be the individual's construction; not right or wrong
discovery learning
students work on their own to discover basic principles
items link together
consistency of test scores
universal design
considering the needs of all users as new tools or learning programs
mager's behavioral objectives
instructional objectives stated in terms of observable behaviors
objective testing
multiple choice matching true fals short answer and fill in testes
standard error of measurment
hypothetical estimate of cariation in scores if testing were repeated
task involved learner
student who focus on mastery the task or solving the problem
T score
standard score with a mena of 50 and a standard deviation of 10
confidence interval range
wihtin which an individuals particular score is likely to fall
grouping bits of data into meaningful larger units
whole language approach
philosophy that stresses learning through langurage to learn, integrates learning across skills and subjects, respects the language ability of student and teacher
concept attainment
way of helping students construct an understanding of specific concepts
schema driven problem solving
recognizing a problem as a disguised version of an old problem
cognitive behavior modification
procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive learning principles for changing your own behavior by using self task and self instruction
frequency distribution
record showing how many scores fall into set groups
mastery experiences
own direct experiences (most powerful source of efficacy info)
expectancy x value theories
explanations of motivation that emphasize individuals expectations for success combined with their valuing of the goal
analogical thinking
heuristic in which one limits the search for solutions to situations that are similar to the one at hand
reciprical determinism
explanation of behavior that emphasizes the mutual effects of the individual and environment
self regulated learning
a view of learning as skills and will applied to analyzing learning tasks, setting goals and applying skills
academic task
work the student must accomplish
action zone
area of a classroom where the greatest amount of interaction takes place
I message
clear nonaccusatory statement of how something is affecting you
high stakes testing
standardized tests whose results have powerful influences when used
concept mapping
student diagram of understanding
true score
the score the student would get if the measurment were completely accurate and error free
need for autonomy
desire to have our own wishes rather than external rewards
high road transfer
application of abstract knowledge learned in one situation to a different
differenciated instruction
matches content process and priduct based on student differences in readiness interests and learning needs
classroom management
techniques used to maintain a healthy learning environment
scoring rubrics
rules that are used to determine the quality of a student performance
automated basic skills
applied without conscious
performance goal
personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others
question part of multiple choice
essay testing
subjective and take longer to grade
time on task
time spent actively engaged
inductive reasoning
formulating general principles based on knowledge of example
problem solving
creating new solutions
activating a concept in memory or the spread of activation from one concept to another
paraphrase rule
policy where listeners must accurately summarize what a speaker has said
sustaining expectation effect
student performance maintained a certain level because teachers don't recognize improvements
first letter spells word
divergent thinking
several possible solutions
knowledge about our own thinking processes
propositional network
set of interconnected concepts and relationships in which long term knowledge is held
inquiry learning
the teacher presents puzzling situation and students solve problem by forming a conclusion
authentic assessment
measurement of important abilities using procedures that stimulate the application of these abilities to real life problems
bandura's social learning theory
emphasizing learning through observation, vicarious and modeling
cognitive apprenticeship
guideance from a model
short term
component that holds infor for about 20 secs
part learning
breaking down info into parts
bar graph of a frequency distribution
rote memorization
info by repitition without understanding the meaning
guided discovery
adaption of discovery learning where the teacher provides some direction
general knowledge
info that is useful in many different kinds of tasks
achievement tests
standardized tests measuring how much students have learned in a given content area
working together with others to reach a shared goal
practicing a skill passed the point of mastery
stanine score
whole number scores of 1 to 9 each representing a wide range of raw scores
visuospatioal sketchpad
holding system for visual and spatial info

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