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Fire Eaters
name for southerners that belived taht th restriction of slavery is aviolation of constitution rights
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Doctor who taught anatomy with a sparkle at Harvard Medical School, a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer, and wit. Nonconformist and a fascinating conversationalist, he shone among a group of literary lights who regarded Boston as "the hub of the universe."
Tariff of 1842
Protective Whig tariff to help raise the average tariff to 40%.
Theodore David Weld
Devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs to Congress and his anonymous tract "American Slavery as it is " (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
A wisp of a woman and the mother of a half dozen children. Published her heartrendering novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, which awakened the North to the wickedness of slavery.
Winfield Scott
General in the Mexican-War; " Old Fuss and Feathers" ; succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by 1847.
Elijah J. Lovejoy
Abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and he was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
Arthur and Lewis Tappan
Brothers born in Northampton, Massachusetts who united with Theodore D. Weld to form the American Anti-Slavery Society. Brothers also gave financial support to Oberlin College in Ohio.
Joseph Smith
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
A semisecret society founded in Ireland to fight rapacious landlords, served in America as a benevolent society, aiding the downtrodden.
Hudson's Bay Company
It was at one time the largest landowner in the world. From its longtime headquarters at York Factory on Hudson Bay, it controlled fur trade throughout much of British-controlled North America for several centuries, undertaking early exploration.
"Spot" Resolution
Resolution by Lincoln that required to get information on the specific "spot" where American blood had been shed on American soil.
Oneida Community
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
Cotton Gin
Machine that was fifty times more effective than the handpicking process. Separated cotton from seed.
Burned-Over District
Western New York where New England puritans settled had sermons preached "hellfire and damnation".
Am. Temperance Society
Formed at Boston in 1826. Group implored drinkers to sign the temperance pledge and organized children's clubs, known as the "Cold Water Army".
Phineas T. Barnum
Master showman who had early discovered that "the public likes to be humbugged" joined hands with James A. Bailey in 1881 to stage the "Greatest Show on Earth".
Pony Express
Carried mail speedily the two-thousand lonely miles from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. Daring, lightweight riders, leaping onto wiry ponies saddled at stations approximately ten miles apart, could make the trip in an amazing ten days.
Nat Turner
Black priest; led a revolt in Virginia 1831, killed sixty people (mostly women and children). This scared the southerners because it was the first really violent action of the slaves. As a result, slave codes were made stricter.
James Russell Lowell
Ranks as one of America's better poets; distinguished essayist, literary critic, editor, and diplomat. Remembered as a political satirist in his Biglow Papers especially those of 1846 dealing with the Mexican War.
James K. Polk
Dedicated to Democratic Party, favored American expansion, follower of Andrew Jackson, slaveowning southerner, "dark horse" candidate for president, got everything done the way he said he would
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist and friend of Emerson who lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. On Civil Disobedience, he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and spent a night in jail. Extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
Harriet_Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
compromise of 1850
California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
Edgar Alan Poe
Gifted lyric poet. Wrote "The Raven"; master stylist, he also excelled in the short story especially horror type, in which he shared his alcoholic nightmares with fascinated readers. Wrote "The Gold Bug".
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
Nativists rallied for political action made the order which soon developed into the formidable American or "Know Nothing" party.
Hudson River School
American painters of portraits turned increasingly from human landscapes to romantic mirrorings of local landscapes. School during transcendentalism.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance, spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the abolitionists.
Tammany Hall
Gaelic newcomers soon began to gain control of powerful city machines.
Transportation Revolution
By 1850s, railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time.
Mormons
Group of people part of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Followed Joseph Smith.
Alamo/San Jacinto
Alamo- Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force. San Jacinto- surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexico 1500 dead 1000 captured Texans 4 dead.
Henry Clay
United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852), Whig senator who helped make the Compromise of 1850, Clay and Calhoun's "American System
Lone Star Republic
Name of Texas before annexed to the United States when Texas was its own country.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Gave Britain their desired Halifax-Quebec route for a road while America got more land north of Maine as well as readjustment of US-Canada border.
Sam Houston
President of Texas who calls for annexation.
Bear Flag Revolt
Fight between Mexico and the United States for California: US victory
Margaret Fuller
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited "The Dial" which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom" "progress in philosophy and theology and hope that the future will not always be as the past".
Am. Colonization Society
In 1817, anti-slavery activists goal was to remove both free and enslaved African Americans from the United States and transport them to Africa. Believed that only after implementation of such a drastic solution could racial conflict in the United States be brought to an end.
James Fenimore Cooper
First American novelist to gain world fame and to make New World themes respectable. Married into a wealthy family, he settled down on the frontier of New York. Reading one day to his wife from an insipid English novel, remarked with disgust that he could write a better book (challenged by his wife he did). Wrote The Spy, Leatherstocking Tales and Last of the Mohicans.
Cult of Domesticity
Widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker.
Henry Wads. Longfellow
One of the most popular poets ever produced in America. Writing for the genteel classes, he was adopted by the less cultured masses. Admired poems- Evangeline, Song of Hiawatha and Courtship of Miles Standish.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo
Peace treaty between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican War. Mexico gave Texas the Rio Grande boundary, California, and New Mexico-$15 million for the territory.
Stephen A Douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
Liberty Party
(1840-1848) United States political party formed by a splinter group of abolitionists. In opposition to political action as a futile way to end slavery. 1844, the party had influenced undecided legislators in many local elections to adopt anti-slavery stands. In 1848, it dissolved when many of its members joined the Barnburners to form the Free Soil Party.
"Lowell System"
Developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the process, and the workers were almost all single young farm women, who worked for a few years and then returned home to be housewives.
Lucretia Mott
Sprightly Quaker whose ire had been aroused when she and her fellow female delegates to the London antislavery convention of 1840 were not recognized.
Franklin Pierce
an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.
Cyrus McCormick
contributed to the most wonderful contraption, the mechanical mower reaper. Could do work of 5 men.
Caroline
American steamer that was attacked in New York and set on fire by British Force.
Louisa May Alcott
Grew up in Concord, Massachusetts in the bosom of transcendentalism. Worked as a seamstress, governess, teacher and housemaid until her writing finally brought her success. Wrote Little Women
Peter Cartwright
Best known of the Methodist "circuit riders" (traveling frontier preachers). Sinewy servant of the Lord ranged for half-century from Tennessee to Illinois, calling upon sinners to repent.
Nativism
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840s and 1850s in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Clipper Ships
Second quarter of 1800s. Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. Unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western United States.
Abolitionism
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830s to the Civil War.
Joint Resolution
Passed to annex Texas because of the growing popularity of annexation; a legislative measure which requires approval by Senate and House and presented to the president for his approval or disapproval.
Herman Melville
Wrote Moby Dick; he rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny.
Eli Whitney
He built the cotton gin in 1793 within 10 days which affected the whole world.
Frederick Douglas
Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
Susan B. Anthony
Militant lecturer for women's rights who fearlessly exposed herself to rotten garbage and vulgar epithets.
Stephen Foster
Made a valuable contribution to American folk music by capturing the plaintive spirit of the slaves.
Samuel Slater
Father of the Factory System in America. Skelled British mechanic of 21 who was attracted by bounties being offered to British workers familiar with the textile machines.
Louis Agassiz
Distinguished French-Swiss immigrant served for a quarter of a century at Harvard College. Student of biology who sometimes carried snakes in his pockets, he insisted on original research and deplored the reigning overemphasis on memory work.
Californios
Descendents of Spanish and Mexican conquerors; Spanish speaking inhabitants of California they were culture of Mexico carried to California.
"Conscience" Whigs
Stand in association with Free Soil Party; oppose to slavery
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Mother of seven who had insisted on leaving "obey" out of her marriage ceremony, shocked fellow feminists by going so far as to advocate suffrage for women.
Robert Fulton
Famous inventor who designed and built America's first steamboat the Clermont in 1807. Also built Nautilus, first practical submarine.
Walker Tariff
A tariff for revenue bill that reduced that rates of the Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%.
William Lloyd Garrison
Militant abolitionist, he came editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slaveholders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
Industrial Revolution
The period where western expansion and urbanization happened in America distinguished by factories, new inventors improved transportation, communication and production.
Declaration of Sentiments
Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal). It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Wrote The Scarlet Letter; originally a transcendentalist but later became a leading anti-transcendentalist.
Lord Ashburton
Non-professional diplomat sent to Washington to negotiate with Daniel Webster a treaty to get a road for Britain. "Ash-Burton Webster treaty".
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
1842 in Massachusetts; First judgement in the United States that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
John J. Audubon
Naturalist who painted wild fowl in their natural habitat. Birds of America received considerable popularity.
Emma Willard
Early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
Second Great Awakening
As many as 25000 people would gather for an encampment of several days to drink the hell fire gospel as served up by an itinerant preacher swept more people than the first.
Zachary Taylor
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Sojourner Truth
First black woman orator to speak out against slavery. Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best known abolitionists of her day.
John C. Fremont
Leader of the Bear Flag Revolt in California; helped overthrow Mexicans in revolt
Washington Irving
First American to win international recognition as a literary figure. Wrote "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow". Combined pleasing style with delicate charm and quiet humor.
Women's Rights Convention
Convention for women advocates at Seneca Falls to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women. "All men and women are created equal" -Declaration of Sentiments
Horace Mann
Brilliant and idealistic graduate of Brown University. Secretary of Massachusettes Board of Education, campaigned effectively for more and better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum.
Elizabeth Blackwell
Pioneer in a previously forbidden profession for women; first female graduate of a medical college. Doctor.
Grimke Sisters
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
"King Cotton"
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton.
William McGuffey
A teacher-preacher of rare power. His grade-school readers, first published in 1830s, sold 122 million copies in the following decades. McGuffey's Readers hammered home lasting lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism.
Lewis Cass
He was nominated as President after Polk and he evolved a doctrine of popular sovereignty. He argued that slavery should be kept out of Congress and left to the people.
Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
David Wilmot
Proposed the amendment that stated the territory from Mexico should remain free. -Wilmot Proviso
Charles G. Finney
An immensely successful revivalist of the 1800s. He helped establish the Oberlin Theology. His emphasis on disinterested benevolence helped shape the main charitable enterprises of the time.
Dorthea Dix
Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.
Transcendentalism
Belief in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Shakers
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Walt Whitman
Wrote "Leaves of Grass" which he gave free reign to his gushing genius with what he called a "barbaric yawp" dispensed with titles, stanzas, rhymes, and at times even regular meter.
Aroostook War
Boundary dispute between settlers in Maine and New Brunswick in 1838 to 1839. Issue settled by Webster Ashburton treaty.
The Liberator
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despited having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.
Am. Anti-Slavery Society
Main activist arm of the United States abolition movement, which sought an immediate end to slavery in the country. Promoted the formation of state and local auxiliaries to agitate for abolition. In 1839, it split into two factions: a radical group led by Garrison that denounced the Constitution as supportive of slavery and a moderate faction led by Tappan that led to the Liberty Party.
John Tyler
Vice President to Henry Harrison, president after Harrison's death, vetoed Bank of the United States, lowered tariff
Free Soil Party
A small, short-lived abolitionist, the main goal was to gain territory in the west and assimilate it into the union as free territory. Candidates include John Hale and Martin Van Buren.
DeWitt Clinton
Governor whose grand project was the Erie Canal which linked the Great Lakes to the Hudson River.
Wilmot Proviso
Proposal for slavery to be banned in land acquired from Mexican War. (David Wilmot)
Knickerbocker Group
Blazed brilliantly across the literacy heavens, enabled America for the first time of a literature to match its boast magnificent landscapes.
Cotton Kingdom
Cotton-producing region of the southern United States up until the Civil War. Section remained indeliblytied to and controlled by plantation agriculture. This was the employment of slave labor.
" Peculiar Institution"
Euphemistic term that white southerners used for slavery. Term came into general use in the 1830s when the abolitionist followers of William Lloyd Garrison began to attack slavery. Its implicit message was that slavery in the United States South was different from the very harsh slave systems existing in other countries and that southern slavery had no impact on those living in northern states.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
Robert Owen
A wealthy and idealistic Scottish textile manufacturer founded in 1825; a communal society of about 1000 people at New Harmony, Indiana.
Interchangable Parts
That each machine has assembled parts. Became the basis of modern mass-production, assembly methods.
Catharine Beecher
Unmarried daughter of a famous preacher and sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe, who tirelessly urged women to enter the teaching profession.
"Molly Maguires"
A shadowy Irish miners' union that rocked the Pennsylvania coal districts in the 1860s and 1870s.
Manifest Destiny
Concept that stated the United States was destined to expand across the continent and get as much land as possible. (ocean to ocean)
General Incorporation Law
Laws that said no need to apply for charter from legislative to start a corporation.
"all of Mexico"
Movement by senators that wanted the United States to include "all of Mexico" in the treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo but failed.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Samuel Morse
Developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
Noah Webster
Yale-educated Connecticut Yankee who was known as the "Schoolmaster of the Republic"; devoted 20 years to his famous dictionary, published in 1828 which helped standardize the American language.
Millerites
Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end.
Francis Parkman
(1823-1893) Historian whose eyes were so defective that he wrote in darkness with the aid of a guiding machine, penned a brilliant series of volumes beginning in 1851.
Lane Rebels
In 1832, Theodore Dwight Weld went to the Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio. The seminary was presided over by Lyman Beecher. Weld and some of his comrades were kicked out for their actions of anti-slavery. The young men were known as the "Lane Rebels." They helped lead and continue the preaching of anti-slavery ideas.
Maine Law
A law Neal Dow secured in 1851 which forbade the sale or manufacture of liquor.
Brigham Young
Led the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Desert. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.

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