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Ch 25 IDs 24-48

Terms

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Franco-Prussian War (Franco-German War)
1870-French leaders of the Second Empire, goaded by Bismarck and alarmed by their powerful new neighbor on the Rhine, had decided on a war to teach Prussia a lesson-Louis Napoleon was captured and humiliated
Alsace-Lorraine
France ceded these provinces to Germany-French view seizure of these as terrible crime
Pope Pius IX
support for unification gave way to fear and hostility after he was temporarily driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848-Syllabus of Errors: strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty
Giuseppe Mazzini
idealistic Italian patriot-preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people
Schleswig-Holstein
provinces engaged in battle-complicated issue from legal point of view-inhabited primarily by Germans but ruled by king of Denmark-Holstein member of German Confed.-revolted after Frederick VII tried to integrate provinces into the rest of his state-
King Frederick William IV of Prussia
promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created
Realpolitik
politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. The term realpolitik is often used to imply politics that are coercive, amoral, or Machiavellian.
German Empire (Second Reich)
describe the first 47 years of the German Reich when it was a semi-constitutional monarchy: beginning with the unification of Germany and proclamation of William I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871)
Kaiser William I of Germany
tough-minded-replaced the unstable Frederick William IV as regent in 1858 and became king himself in 1861-became convinced of the need for major army reforms-wanted to double the size of the highly disciplined regular army-bigger defense budget and higher taxes-called on Count Otto von Bismarck to head a new ministry and defy parliament
Camillo Benso di Cavour
brilliant statesman-dominant figure in the Sardinian govt. from 1850 until his death in 1861-came from a noble family and embraced the economic doctrines and business activities associated with the prosperous middle class-made substantial fortune in sugar mills, steamships, banks, and railroads-national goals were limited and realistic-until 1859, he sought unity only for the states of northern and perhaps central Italy in a greatly expanded kingdom of Sardinia-worked to consolidate Sardinia as a liberal constitutional state capable of leading northern Italy-worked for secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria-
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor Napoleon III
elected to French govt in Dec 1848-ppls desire for tough ruler for protection; pamphlets on elimination of poverty; govt. should represent people-help ppl economically-disassembled National Assembly-voted for presidency of 10 yrs-voted to make him hereditary emperor
Kaiser William II
last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Zollverein
German customs union-founded in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states-tariff duties were substantially reduced so that Austria couldn't join
Giuseppe Garibaldi
super patriot-job of unification only half done-son of a poor sailor, personified the romantic, revolutionary nationalism and republicanism of Mazzini-led a corps of volunteers against Austria in 1859-emerged as an independent force in Italian politics
Austro-Prussian War, "The Seven Weeks' War"
1866: utilizing railroads to mass troops and the new needle gun to achieve maximum firepower-reorganized Prussian army overran northern Germany and defeated Austria decisively at the Battle of Sadowa in Bohemia-Bismarck offered Austria realistic, even generous, peace terms-Austria paid no reparations and lost no territory to Prussia-Venetia was ceded to Italy-German Confed. dissolved-Austria withdraws from German affairs
Kingdom of Sardinia (Sardinia-Piedmont)
program of those who looked for leadership to the autocratic kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont-a liberal, progressive state ideally suited to achieve the goal of national unification
Vincenzo Gioberti
Catholic priest who called for a federation of existing states under the presidency of a progressive pope
Second Republic
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became president of the Second Republic- Constitution of the Second Republic stated that the Presidency of the Republic was to be held for a single term of four years, with no possibility of re-election, a restriction written in the Constitution for fear that a President would abuse his power to transform the Republic into a dictatorship with a president for life
"Red Shirts "
Garibaldi's guerrilla band-captured the imagination of the Sicilian peasantry
Otto von Bismarck
most important figure in German history between Luther and Hitler-seen as both great hero and great villain-master of politics-born into Prussian aristocracy, young Bismarck was a wild and tempestuous student given to duels and drinking-proud of Junker heritage-always devoted to Prussian sovereign-strong personality and an unbounded desire for power-high-ranking diplomat for Prussian govt when young-chief minister in 1862-lashed out at middle-class opposition
King Victor Emmanuel II
Sardinia's monarch-retained liberal constitution granted under duress in March 1848
Second Empire
the Second Republic was officially ended and the Empire restored, ushering in the Second French Empire. President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon III

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