This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

sensory organs


undefined, object
copy deck
Layer of tissue with no nerve supply or blood.
Layer of the dermis; contains loose connective tissue.
Lower layer of skin; contains thick, collagen fibers.
Also called the corium, it lies directly beneath the epidermis. Hair follicles, oil glands (sebaceous), and sweat glands are located in dermis.
Connective tissue that contains fat (adipose tissue) and connects organs to underlying skin. Also called the hypodermis.
Oil-secreting gland of the skin. Produces an oily substance called sebum.
arrector pili
A type of smooth muscle that moves hairs.
Also called sweat glands, these glands open as pores on the skin’s surface. Found on palms, soles, armpits (axillae), and forehead.
pacinian corpuscle
Found in subcutaneous tissue, these sense touch and vibratory pressure.
The wearing away of the epidermis by a scraping movement.
A thin-walled sac containing serous (clear) fluid.
A blister-like structure filled with serous fluid.
A blister on the skin, greater than 5 mm in diameter, with thin walls filled with fluid. (Plural of bulla is bullae.)
A localized buildup of layers of the epidermis caused by increased pressure or friction. A corn is a type of callus which is localized to the foot (especially around the toes).
A scar. The new tissue which forms during healing of a wound.
A noninflammatory lesion of acne, consisting of a plug of keratin within a dilated hair follicle. (Plural is comedones.)
A bruise, specifically an injury to the skin caused by blunt trauma that does not break the skin.
Hemorrhage under the epidermis that causes red or purple discoloration; a bruise.
The crust that forms over a burn or gangrene.
A scratch; a linear or hollowed-out crusted area caused by scratching, rubbing, or picking.
Also called a boil, this is a painful localized bacterial infection that originates in a hair follicle or gland in the subcutaneous tissue.
Localized thickening and coarsening of the skin due to chronic irritation. This is usually caused by scratching an area for a prolonged period of time.
A flat discolored spot less than 1 cm in diameter. Macules may be of various shapes. The skin is discolored but is not different in texture or elevation from the surrounding skin. Freckles, flat moles, and tattoos are examples of macules. If the area is larger than 1 cm it is called a patch.
Any congenital lesion of the skin or, in other words, a birthmark. (Plural is nevi.)
A solid elevated lesion of skin less than 1 cm in diameter. This is a superficial lesion which may or may not be of different texture and color than the surrounding skin. If the raised area is larger than 1 cm, more firm, and deeper it is called a nodule. If it is quite large, elevated, and firm it is called a tumor.
A pinpoint, round, nonraised purplish/red spot caused by hemorrhage just beneath the epidermal layer. (Plural is petechiae.)
psoriatic arthritis
a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the skin and joints
A small hemorrhage, up to about 1 cm, in the skin, causing purplish discoloration. This can be either macular (flat) or papular (raised).
A visible collection of pus in or underneath the epidermis, usually in a hair follicle or sweat pore. The pimples characteristic of acne are pustules.
The permanent dilatation of blood vessels; causes small red lesions, visible through the skin.
Warts. These are common epithelial lesions with a horny surface which are caused by human papillomavirus. They are often contagious. (Singular is verruca.) The most common form is verruca vulgaris.
A hive. A temporary elevated lesion caused by local edema. They usually appear suddenly and in large quantities and are a common allergic reaction.
decubitus ulcer
Decubitus means literally the act of lying down. A decubitus ulcer is a bedsore, or a loss of the epidermis in patches caused by lying in bed for long periods of time.
By itself this means redness of the skin. There are two specific types which are commonly seen in dermatology. These are: erythema multiforme and erythema nodosum.
erythema multiforme
An inflammatory eruption of the skin with symmetric, red, bullous lesions.
erythema nodosum
An inflammatory disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue characterized by tender red nodules, especially in the tibial region, but also involving the arms and other areas.
Inflammation of a follicle or follicles. This generally refers to hair follicles.
The death of tissue (necrosis), usually affecting a large area; associated with loss of vascular supply and secondarily with bacterial infection and putrefaction (decomposition).
Enzymatic decomposition, especially of proteins, with the production of foul-smelling compounds.
Localized benign vascular tumors of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
hidradenitis suppurativa
A recurrent skin disease, characterized by boil-like lesions or abscesses, usually found around hair follicles and apocrine sweat glands.
Any of several skin disorders in which the skin is dry and scaly.
ichthyosis vulgaris
The most common type of ichthyosis is ichthyosis vulgaris, which is characterized by prominent scaling on the extensor surfaces of the extremities and the back. Interestingly, flexor surfaces, the abdomen and face, are usually spared. "Ichthys" means "fish," and the condition resembles fish scales.
A superficial vesiculopustular infection of the skin most frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The most commonly affected areas are the arms, legs, and face.
Kaposi sarcoma
A neoplasm characterized by bluish-red skin nodules found most often on the lower extremities (especially the feet) which increase in size and number and spread to more proximal sites. This disease is endemic to Central Africa and Central and Eastern Europe, and a particularly virulent form occurs in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An enlarged or overgrown (hypertrophic) scar. Keloids are shiny, smooth, dome-shaped, and slightly pink.
A round, firm, usually flesh-colored lesion with a central crater containing keratinous material.
A tumor arising from the melanocytic system of the skin. If the term is used alone, it refers to malignant melanoma. Melanomas vary in size, shape, color (although they are usually pigmented), and in their propensity to invade and metastasize. Such a tumor can spread so quickly that it is fatal within a few months.
mycosis fungoides
A malignant condition in which itchy and erythematous patches gradually evolve into plaques infiltrated by abnormal lymphocytes and convoluted nuclei and then onto the tumor stage.
Infection at the margin of a nail. Also onychia: Infection of the nailbed.
Infestation with lice. Pediculus is the genus of sucking lice, and is therefore capitalized. This can affect the head (Pediculus humanus capitis), the body (Pediculus humanus corporis), or the genitals (Phthirus pubis).
pityriasis rosea
A self-limiting, mild inflammatory skin disease characterized by scaly lesions.
A common chronic and recurrent disease characterized by dry, silvery, scaling papules of various sizes.
A general term for any skin condition caused by pus-forming bacteria.
A chronic disease of the skin involving the middle third of the face and characterized by erythema, telangiectasias, papules, and pustules. This usually occurs in middle age.
A contagious parasitic dermatitis of both humans and animals; intense itching and secondary infection are common. This is sometimes called "The Itch."
A patchy intercellular edema of the epidermis that causes a spongy or porous appearance on microscopic examination.
squamous cell carcinoma
Skin cancer that arises from the malpighian cells of the epithelium. This generally occurs on sun-exposed areas but can develop anywhere. The tumor itself begins as a red papule with a scaly, crusty surface. The bulk of the tumor can actually lie below the skin, and eventually will invade underlying tissue.
Fatty mass of the skin that contains follicular, keratinous, and sebaceous material. These lesions are most commonly seen on the scalp, ears, face, back, or scrotum.
The general term for superficial infections caused by fungi that invade dead tissues of the skin or its associated structures. This is also called "ringworm." There are different types, which are classified according to the site of involvement.
tinea capitis
Ringworm of the scalp. This generally affects children and is highly contagious.
tinea corporis
Ringworm of the body.
tinea cruris
Jock itch.
tinea pedis
Athlete's foot.
tinea unguium
Ringworm of the nails. This is also called onychomycosis.
Ringworm of the nails. Same as tinea unguium.
toxic epidermal necrolysis
A life-threatening skin disease in which the epidermis peels off in sheets.
Local wheals and erythema in the dermis.
A progressive, chronic pigment anomaly of the skin manifested by white patches that may or may not be surrounded by a hyperpigmented border.
Captures the light rays that are reflected off the object being looked at.
Brings into focus the captured light rays before they hit the retina.
Sees the captured light rays as an upside down image of the object being looked at.
Located in the retina, they convert the upside down image into electrical impulses.
optic nerve
Path these electrical impulses travel to reach the brain.
brain (related to the eye)
Turns the upside down image right side up and "translates" said image into "information."
Sharpness of vision.
The eye chart used to determine acuity.
Examination of the back of the retina to assess abnormalities of the optic disc.
An instrument with a light attached to it for examining the eye.
fluorescein dye
A dye injected into the eye or the arm.
cobalt blue
Type of light used when examining with fluorescein dye.
Amsler grid
Grid used to test visual field.
Testing of peripheral vision.
An instrument for measuring tension or pressure.
Examination to demonstrate ocular motility and rotation.
Impairment of vision without any lesion of the eye detected.
arcus senilis
A white or gray band around the margin of the cornea as a result of cholesterol deposition, hyaline change, or both. This occurs with advancing age.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
A tonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle that produces more or less total closure of the eyelid.
An opacity on or in the lens that usually impairs vision or causes blindness. This can affect one or both eyes. There are different types of cataracts, and they are classified according to size, shape, and occurrence or by the etiology.
A cystic swelling in a gland of the eyelid due to a blocked duct.
Excessive edema of the conjunctiva.
Inflammation of the choroid or uveal tract.
Inflammation of the choroid and retina
Inflammation of the conjunctiva, usually associated with a discharge.
inflammation of the lacrimal sac
stricture or narrowing of lacrimal duct
The perception of two images of a single object. Also called double vision.
Eversion of eyelid edge.
Inversion (turning inward) of edge of lower eyelid.
Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball (bulging eyes). This can be due either to a local process or caused by a more generalized disease, such as Graves disease. Also spelled exophthalmus.
A set of diseases in which there is increased ocular pressure caused by a failure of the aqueous humor to be absorbed. This causes changes to the optic disc and defects in the field of vision.
A localized, purulent, inflammatory bacterial infection of one or more glands of the eyelids. This is also called a stye.
Infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid. Also called a hordeolum.
Also called hyperopia, this is farsightedness. This occurs when the eyeball is too short and images are thus focused at a point behind the retina.
Bleeding into the anterior chamber of the eye, usually due to trauma.
macular degeneration
The loss of central vision due to changes in a lining of the retina. This is an age-related disorder. In this condition, peripheral vision is preserved
Contraction of the pupil. This is a normal process unless related to paralysis of the dilator of the eye (paralytic miosis), caused by spasms (spastic miosis) or due to spinal disease (spinal miosis).
Physiologic or morbid dilatation of the pupil.
Nearsightedness. This occurs when the eyeball is elongated and light rays focus at a point in front of the retina.
An involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be horizontal, vertical, rotatory, or mixed. This is a symptom of systemic illness, such as multiple sclerosis or intoxication. It can also occur as a result of riding a circular ride or gazing fixedly at an object.
Swelling or edema of the optic disc, usually as a result of intracranial pressure, malignant hypertension, or thrombosis of a retinal vein.
Abnormal intolerance to light.
Impairment of vision due to old age. (The combining form presby- means old or denoting a relationship to old age.) This is caused by a decrease in the power of accommodation which causes the near point of distinct vision to be removed further from the eye.
A thick triangular piece of tissue, pale in color, that extends medially from the nasal corneal border to the inner canthus.
Drooping of the upper eyelid from paralysis of the third nerve or from sympathetic innervation.
A general term for degenerative, noninflammatory diseases of the retina.
Inflammation of the sclera.
An area of lost or depressed vision within the visual field, surrounding an area of normal vision.
Deviation of the eye which the patient cannot control. This is present when the direction of gaze of the two eyes is not the same.
Adhesion of the iris to the cornea or the lens. (Plural is synechiae).
Inflammation of all or part of the uveal tract or choroid. This condition commonly involves the other tunics as well (the sclera, cornea, and retina).
xanthoma palpebrarum
A soft yellow spot or plaque occurring on the eyelids, often in groups. Also called xanthelasma.
Another name for xanthoma palpebrarum.
Dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea due to a vitamin A deficiency.
sense of taste
auricle (or penna)
(external ear) visual, fleshy appendage attached to the side of the head
function of external ear
conduct sound waves through a gas medium to the structures of the middle ear
3 ear ossicles:
malleus, incus, stapes (also called hammer, anvil, and stirrup)
inner ear
3 areas of bony portion inner ear
vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea
tympanic membrane
conductive hearing loss
caused by a lesion in the external auditory canal.
sensorineural hearing loss
represents uncertainty as to whether a lesion has affected the inner ear (sensory) or the 8th nerve (neural). Sensory hearing losses are rarely due to life-threatening disorders. They are generally the result of such causes as acoustic trauma (loud noises), age, and viruses.
Weber tuning fork test
is done by placing the stem of a vibrating tuning fork on the midline of the head and having the patient indicate in which ear he/she can hear the tone.
Rinne tuning fork test
the tines of a vibrating tuning fork are held first near the pinna, and then the stem of the fork (still vibrating) is placed in contact with the mastoid process. The first site tests air conduction, and the second tests bone conduction. The calculated ratio of which is heard longer and louder represents either a conductive or sensorineural hearing loss.
is used to quantitate hearing loss.
hearing loss is measured in these
spondee threshold
is the intensity at which speech is recognized. This is tested by presenting two syllable words, accenting each syllable equally, to the patient.
The ability of individuals to correctly recognize and repeat one-syllable words
measures the effectiveness of the middle ear by placing a sound source into the external auditory canal and measuring the energy that passes through the middle ear. A tympanometer measures the movement function of the tympanic membrane.
a noise in the ears, such as ringing, buzzing, or roaring which others cannot hear
Valsalva maneuver
the forced exhalation effort against plugged nostrils and a closed mouth. The increased pressure in the eustachian tube and middle ear causes the tympanic membrane to move outward.
nasal cavity
interior chamber of the nose (divided into 2 parts: external/internal nares separated by nasal septum)
acoustic neuroma
A slowly growing, non-cancerous tumor that develops on the nerve connecting the ear to the brain.
A tumor (usually benign) of the sheath surrounding a nerve. This is another term for a schwannoma.
Loss of the sense of smell.
A tumor of the ceruminous glands.
A nodular growth of squamous epithelium derived from the cells in the external ear, but extending into the middle ear. This is a complication of otitis media and appears as a pearly white, shiny, formed, brittle mass.
Inflammation of the labyrinth (the inner ear).
Inflammation of the mastoid air cells.
Meniere disease
A disorder characterized by recurrent vertigo when lying down, sensory hearing loss, and tinnitus. It is associated with a dilation of the membranous labyrinth.
Inflammation of the tympanic membrane.
otitis externa
Inflammation or infection of the external canal or the auricle. Swimmer's ear is one form of otitis externa.
otitis media
Inflammation of the middle ear marked by pain, fever, abnormal hearing or hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. This is the most common ear infection. There are different types, such as acute otitis media, which is a bacterial infection in the middle ear, usually secondary to an upper respiratory infection; chronic otitis media, which is a permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane; and serous otitis media, which is an effusion in the middle ear which arises from incomplete resolution of an acute otitis media or obstruction of a eustachian tube.
A condition of a bony labyrinth in which there is spongy bone formation in front of and behind the stapes, resulting in conductive hearing loss.
A hole made through a part or substance. A perforated tympanic membrane is a common ear problem.
Inflammation of the pharynx (a sore throat).
The sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as a part of normal aging.
The most frequent upper respiratory tract infection; it is characterized by edema and dilation of the nasal mucous membrane, nasal discharge, and nasal obstruction.
An acoustic neurinoma; an enlarging, benign tumor usually within the internal auditory canal which arises from cells of the 8th cranial nerve.
Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
vestibular neuronitis
A benign disorder characterized by the sudden onset of severe vertigo which is persistent at first, and then becomes paroxysmal.

Deck Info