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APUSH Summer Terms


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The Renaissance started up people’s curiosity, which made them want to explore and learn new things, and technology was being advanced so that people could explore more easily, such as many advances in nautical equipment.
An island discovered by the Portugese,off the coast of Africa, which was an exporter of sugarcane, one of the first slave markets.
800 years in the Middle Ages when Christian kingdoms on the Iberian peninsula retook it from the Muslims.
Christopher Columbus came across this island, which is now the DR and Haiti and colonized it, making it the first European foothold in the Anericas. Colony name = La Navidad
What were the Spanish attitudes towards colonization, and how did this affect the development of relations with Native Americans?
The Spanish felt entitled to take whatever they wanted, such as gold or the natives as slaves, and they did not treat the natives politely, which led to Native Americans being angry, but as they were all dying of small pox and such, they couldn't really do much.
An ancient empire in Mexico that was conquered by Hernan Cortes.
Hernan Cortes
a Spanish conquistador who colonized large parts of Mexico and caused the fall of the Aztec empire.
Bartolome de Las Casas
One of the first bishops in the Americas, strongly opposed to the bad treatment of the natives. Helped abolish the encomienda system.
Florentine Codex
Major source of information on Aztec life before Spanish conquest. Only edited versions were available until 1979 (Which is also a good song by the Smashing Pumpkins)
Intercontinental Exchange
trade between continents (DUH)
Someone of mixed ancestry: half Native American, half European
Someone of mixed ancestry: half black, half white. Also possibly something you can order at starbucks.
What happened to Florida?
Discovered and colonized by the Spanish in the 1500s, killed natives, harsh treatment, disease, fought over Florida with the French. British got it at the end of the Seven years War in 1763.
Council of the Indies
Most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire. Legislative, executive and judicial functions, put together colonial bureaucracy.
How did the Reformation affect American development?
Many of the discriminated against Protestant groups left Europe and settled in America where they and their ideas influenced American ideals and morals.
Walter Raleigh
Founded the colony of Roanoke in Virginia, which failed. Later, searched for El Dorado.
An enterprise by Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a permanent English settlement in Virginia. This colony disappeared without a trace. Possibly eaten by cannibals. Only clue was the word Croatoan carved into a post at the fort.
House of Burgesses
First elected lower house in the legislative assembly of the New world in Virginia Colony. First form of representative government. I assume by this fact, Wikipedia means ever.
Beaver Wars
Also called the Iroquois wars or the french and iroquois wars, encouraged and armed by their dutch and english trading partners, the iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade. The conflict pitted the nations of the iroquois confederation, led by the Mohawks, against the french-backed tribes.
Indentured Servants
A laborer under contract by an employer, usually works for 3-7 years, very like a slave, except it's for a specified amount of time. People usually agreed to be indentured servants in exchange for passage to the New World.
A member of any number of religious groups advocating for more purity of worship, doctrine, and personal and group piety. They don't have any fun. Nora tells me they were calvinists.
Early settlers of Plymouth colony. Leadership came from a religious congregation that fled discrimination in England. Came to the New World after Holland.
People who advocate a state of separation from the larger group for a number of reasons, such as religion. The Pilgrims who established the first sucessful colony in New England were separatist.
Proprietary Colony
A colony in which one or more private landowners retain rights which are normally the privilege of the state. Many colonies in the New World started as such, chartered land given to nobles without an estate.
A Christian sect founded by George Fox c. 1660, commonly called Friends, moved to Pennsylvania to escape persecution.
Pequot War - pea-kwaht
1634-1638. An alliance of the Mass. Bay and Plymouth colonies, along with some Native American tribes, against the Pequot tribe. The Pequot were either killed, forced into slavery, or dispersed. It would take them three and a half centuries to regain their former standing.
Bacon's Rebellion
1674. An uprising in Virginia Colony. Led by Nathaniel Bacon, it protested NA raids on the frontier,and policies of favoritism by Gov. William Berkeley. One of the first times whites and blacks united for a cause. Did not succeed in getting rid of NAs, but got WB recalled to England.
King Philip's War
An armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of southern New England and English colonists & their Native American allies. From 1675-1676. Continued after death of King Philip. Treaty signed at Casco Bay in April 1678. Bloodiest and costliest war in the history of America.
Virginia Company
A pair of English joint-stock companies chartered by King James I. Their purpose was to establish settlements on the coast of North America.
Mayflower Compact
The first governing document of the Plymouth colony. Written by the Pilgrims, who crossed the Atlantic on board the Mayflower. Almost half of the colonists were part of the separatist group.
Massachusetts Bay Company
Also known as the Mass. Bay Colony, was an English settlement on the east coast of North America. Now called Massachusetts.
Great Migration
The migration of English people to New England in the years 1630-1640.
Culpeper's Rebellion
1677-1679. Led by John Culpeper and George Durant, a popular uprising against proprietary rule, caused by the prop. gov. enforcing the Navigation Acts. Imprisoned the deputy governor, Thomas Miller, and other officials, convened a legislature, and chose Culpeper as governor. It was a capable government for two years, until Culpeper was removed.
King William's War
1689-97. North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance. The first of the French and Indian wars, it was fought between England and France, and their respective Native American allies.
Those who captured Africans and brought them back to North America to serve as slaves.
Middle Passage
Part of the Triangular trade. The part of the journey where millions of enslaved Africans were taken from Africa to the New World, in order to be traded for raw materials. On the passage, there were terrible conditions and abuse,and many died on the way.
Slave Codes
The Slave Codes of 1705 in Virginia defined slave as all real estate and not as human beings. It was a model for other colonies.
An economic theory which says that the prosperity of a country is dependent on its supply of capital. Ruling government should play a protectionist role. led to the increase of colonies so that countries could have a definite source of raw materials.
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous firsthand contact. The original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct. happened to Native Americans.
Enumerated Goods
Listed and counted goods. Those goods that were taxed individually from the colonists to England. Led to 'No taxation without representation'
Salutary Neglect
An unofficial long-standing British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of laws meant the to keep the colonies obedient. Prime Minister Robert Walpole stated that "If no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish."
Royal African Company
A slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the Stuarts regained the throne. Had a monopoly on the English slave trade. Lasted from 1660-1752.
Originally a derogatory term for residents of New England. Embraced by us yanks.
Tobacco Colonies
extended from Delaware to North Carolina. During the 17th century the European demand for tobacco increased tenfold, and was largely supplied by this area.
French Louisiana
An administrative district of New France. Under French control from 1682-1763(gave up after F&I War) and 1800-03(sold to US). Dumb large(seriously, google map it, friggin huge).
Jumping the Broomstick
An African American phrase and custom related to wedding ceremonies. In some African American communities, marrying couples will end their ceremonies by jumping over a broomstick. This dates back to at least the 19th century.
European immigrants who, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, gained passage to the America by selling themselves into indentured servitude.
Deerfield Massacre
February 29, 1704. French and Indian forces under the command of Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville attacked Deerfield, Mass., and English settlement. 56 died, 109 were captured and taken to Quebec, 21 of those died.
New Spain
The political unit of Spanish territories in North and Central America and Asia-Pacific. Cali, NW United States, Mexico, Central America, Carribean, and the Phillipines. Ruled by a viceroy from Mexico City who governed on behalf of the King of Spain.
A labor system used by Spain. The crown granted a certain number of natives for whom they would take responsibility. The receiver of the grant had to teach the natives Spanish and Catholicism.In return they could use the natives for labor.
Freedom dues
Materials given to freed indentured servants which usually included a piece of land and supplies, including a gun.
The Half-Way Covenant
A form of partial church membership created in New England in 1662, spurred by the colonies drifting away from their original religious purpose. First generation settlers were dying out while their children and grand-children often expressed less religious piety.
Toleration Act
Also known as "The Act Concerning Religion" was passed in 1649 in Maryland. Allowed toleration of any kind of Christian, but sentenced to death anyone who denied Jesus Christ. Later revoked by OLIVER CROMWELL =]
New Lights
A term used in Christian circles. Refers to the split of a denomination, with the group that changes being New Lights. Term first used during the first Great Awakening.
William Penn
An English founder of Pennsylvania. Known as the early champion of democracy and religious freedom. Famous for his good relations and treaties with the Lenape Indians. Under his direction, Philadelphia was planned and developed.
A term used to describe a golden age of western philosophy and cultural life in the 18th century, in which reason was advocated as awesome.
Great Awakening
A period of heightened religious activity primarily in the UK and it's North American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
Jonathan Edwards
A colonial American congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. Helped shape the First Great Awakening, wrote many influential books. Was president of the College of New Jersey (now called Princeton).
The religious belief that God determined the fate of everyone and everything before creation. One of the main tenets of Calvinism.
Cotton Mather
New England Puritan minister, prolific author, and pamphleteer. He is often remembered in his connection to the Salem Witch trials. Son of influential minister Increase Mather. (These guys had naming issues).
Albany Conference
Also known as the Albany Congress, was the meeting of representatives of seven British North American colonies. They discussed how to defeat the French and better their relationship with the NAs. Out of this came the Albany Plan of Union, and the Articles of Confederation.
Intolerable Acts
A series of acts passed by the government in response to the Boston Tea Party. They caused outrage, as the colonists viewed the acts as a violation of their rights. This led to the creation of the First Continental Congress and the Revolutionary War.
French and Indian War
The North American theater of the Seven Years War. A war fought between the French, the British, and their respective Indian allies. At the end of this war, French ceded most of their territory, Making Britain the dominant colonial power in North America.
Treaty of Paris
Signed September 3, 1783. Ratified January 14, 1784. This treaty ended the Revolutionary War between the British and the United States of America.
Proclamation of 1763
Issued October 7(mybday!)1763. Purpose of the Proclamation was to organize Britain's North American Empire and to stabilize relations with the Native Americans. This ceased to be law after the American Revolution.
John Peter Zenger and his Trial
A printer and journalist from New York City. Printed an article about William Cosby, the Governor of New york. The gov. had him arrested, and Cosby hand picked a two man court for his trial. His defense attorney, Andrew Hamilton, won the case. it was one of the first times where a lawyer challenged the legality of the laws, rather than the innocence of his client.
Letters From A Farmer In Pennsylvania
A series of essays written by a Pennsylvania lawyer/legislator John Dickinson. They were widely read, and helped unite the colonies against the Townshend Acts
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770. Heavy military presence in Boston, tense situation, boiled over. Brawls, troops discharged their muskets, 5 civilians killed.
Tar and Feather
The subject of a crowds anger is stripped to the waist, has hot tar poured on them, and is then rolled around in feathers. Then paraded around town, and usually too humiliated to come back.

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