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Jazz Section 3


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What was funky jazz first called?
Funky hard bop regression
What does funky refer to?
The rollicking, rhythmic feeling of the style
What changed with the dawn of the swing era?
Adding more musicians than new orleans
What changed with the dawn of the bop era?
Extended harmonies and complicated melodies
What changed with the dawn of the cool era?
New instruments, new time signatures, and extended forms
What happened in the funky era?
Revert quite suddenly to the most basic of music elements, including the Amen chords from religious services.
What was an important difference in the feeling between funky and cool?
Funky had a happy sound. It lacked frustration and tension
What type of music did funky heavily borrow from?
African American church music (gospel blues notes)
What instrument was key in the introduction of funky jazz?
The piano
Who is considered the father of funky jazz?
Horace Silver
What two figures are considered the most important in starting the funky movement?
Art Blakely and Horace Silver
How was the artistic intent different in the funky era from the cool era?
Communication with the audience was important to funky musicians
Who was Carol Perkins?
Perkins was a great funky piano player, who died too early to leave a strong legacy
Many of the key personnel of the mouth of the mainstream could be found under the tutelage of what musician?
Art Blakely
Who was Sonny Rollins?
Tenor saxophonist
Who was Charles Mingus?
a bassist/composer, who is very difficult to categorize (post-bop though)
Who was Bill Evans?
Piano player that created a legacy for future jazz piano players. Played with Miles Davis group.
What is an avant-garde of a developing art form?
Implies a concious breaking away from the tradition established by that art form.
What are other names of the avant-garde jazz?
Free form, free improvisation, or "new thing"
Who is considered the father of free jazz and what instrument did he play?
Ornette Coleman, saxophonist
What was Cecil Taylor?
A pianist, known for integrating the conservatory technical facility and European-based compositional practices.
Who was John Coltrane?
Tenor/soprano saxophonist. admired as both technically complete and creative artist.
Who was the first composer in Chicago to employ techniques of collective improvisation in big-band compositions?
Sun Ra
What was the Association for Advancement of Creative Music? WHo was it started by?
Started by Richard Abrams
What was different about the Art Ensemble of Chicago's rhythm section?
No fixed rhytmic support (no drummer)
Who was Anthony Braxton?
Clarinet player
Who are two important figures in the contemporary avant-garde movement?
Greg Osby, saxophonist and Henry Threadgill, composer
Who is considered to be the central figure in the development of jazz/rock fusion?
Miles Davis
What were Miles Davis's two influential fusion albums?
In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew
What were some of the changes with fusion?
Newer electronic instruments, greater amplification, and increasingly complex rock rhythms.
What happened to the bass?
Stringed bass was replaced by electric bass?
Where was the rock influence most dominant in fusion music?
The rhythm section
Who started up the Mahavishnu Orchestra?
John McLaughlin, guitarist
Who started up Return to Forever and the Elecktric Band?
Chick corea, pianist
Who started up Weather Report?
Joe Zawinul, pianist, and Wayne Shorter
WHo was MIchael Brecker?
an electronic wind instrument player (EWI)
What saxophonist plays at a middle ground between the fusion and classical schools?
David Sanborn
What is Pat Matheny known for?
Guitarist that is known for his blending of jazz, rock, and latin influences.
Name two contemporary popular fusion groups.
Spyro-Gyra, started by saxophonist Jay Beckenstein and the Yellowjackets
Who are considered to be the preeminent players/composers of jazz/pop?
Quincy Jones and Herbie Hancock
When did the neo-classical school emerge?
Who is considered to be the strongest proponent of the neo-classical school?
Wynton Marsalis
What instruments do Branford, Wynton, and Delfayeo Marsalis play?
Saxophone, trumpet, and trombone
What periods do the Marsalis brothers believe is true jazz?
early New Orleans music to the bop period
Where was Wynton Marsalis influential in developing a center for jazz?
Lincoln Center, in NYC
Who is considered to be the preeminent Young Lion trumpeter?
Terrence Blanchard
Who is Nicholas Payton?
a young trumpeter that draws inspiration from Louis Armstrong
Who is Jon Faddis?
young trumpeter
Who is Wallace Roney
young trumpeter
Who is Jane Ira Bloom?
a female soprano saxophonist
Name two saxophonists of the contemperary era?
Joshua Redman and James Carter
Name the three young lion pianists.
Ahmad Jamal, Herbie Hancock, and Keith Jarrett
Name four young lions singers.
Betty Carter, Sheila Jordan, Cassandra WIlson, and Bobby McFerrin
Name three singers that border jazz/pop?
Frank Sinatra, Harry Connick Jr, and Diana Krall.
Name four vocal jazz groups.
Lambert, Hendricks, and Ross, Manhattan Transfer, New york Voices, and Take 6.
Describe how latin music has had influence over different eras?
1880-1910, new orleans influence
1910-1920s, tango craze
1930s, rumba craze
1940s, most of all the big swing bands had Latin numbers in their repetoires
1950s, mambo and cubop, influence including addition of vibraphone
1960s, brazillian wave (bossa nova)
What is the name for the two resonant sticks that are struck together in latin music? What also did this term refer to?
Clave. To the rhythm by claves in a musical composition.
Who was the most important figure in the effort to import Latin music into the developing jazz mainstream?
Dizzy Gillespie
Name an important figure in Latin jazz.
Eddie Palmieri
What city is often called the birthplace of jazz?
New Orleans
What are the six instruments that are typically associated with jazz music?
Saxophone, drums, trumpet, stringed bass, guitar, and trombone
T or F, The bass and hi-hat cymbal can be heard playing every beat in a typical swing tune.
What are three different types of saxophones found in a big band?
Alto, tenor, and baritone
What term describes what bass players do when playing bass lines?
T or F, in jazz drumming, the cymbals are not as important as the actual drums.
List the sections of the typical big band.
Horn - trumpet, trombone
Reed - Clarinet, sax
Rhythm - Drums, piano, guitar, bass
What is the term for composing and performing at the same time?
Recalling the selctions we have covered in class, most jazz tounes classified in the "blues" form have how many measures?
To what does the term tempo refer?
The pace of the rhythm in a piece of music.
People who were called Kings usually played what instrument?
What instrument did Jelly Roll Morton play?
What instrument did Sidney Bechet play?
What instrument did Scott Joplin play?
What instrument did Louis Armstrong play?
Trumpet (vocals)
What instrument did Billie Holiday play?
What instrument did Toshiko Akiyoshi play?
What part of the drum set is played with the drummer's right hand?
Ride cymbal
T or F, jazz composer either wrote compositions for big bands or combos - not both
T or F, The listening guide at the end of the first chapter lists melody, tempo, and meter among the elements for whicho ne must listen when listening to jazz.
T or F, Photos of Louis Armstrong show an accurate representation of who he really was.
T or F, when attending jazz performances one is expected to applaud for all soloists as soon as they finish playing their solos
What is the largest drum of a drum set?
bass drum
What is the rhtymic phenomenon most easily understood as "accents that do not occur on the main beat"?
Who is the father of stride piano playing?
James P. Johnson
What is a good example of how "call and response' is used in jazz?
Trading fours
What do we call when a member of a band starts playing as though the tempo were twice its orginal rate?
double time
What music was referred to as raggedy?
When did Louis Armstrong get his first trumpet?
Reform School
When organist play, are bass players needed?
The string bass (or double bass) replaced what instrument as jazz evolved?
What two instruments are primarily responsible for providing harmony in jazz?
Piano and guitar
What instruments make up the rhythm section?
Piano, bass, drums, and guitar
How many beats per measure does a waltz have?
What piano player's spacious "salon" apartment provided a place for musicians to hang out int he 1940s?
Mary Lou Williams
What is a "head" as it relates to jazz musician talk?
Statement of the melody.
Where is the concept of "trading fours" derived from?
African tribal traditions
Who is Herlin Riley best known for performing with?
Louis Armstrong
T or F, Miles Davis is one of the most influential big band arrangers.
T or F, one of the rasons cool jazz was so popular that it reminded people of the comploex music of New Orleans Dixieland bands
T or F, as jazz evolved, the dummers made the most significant changes in how they played by avoiding the consitent reference to 2 and 4 on the ride cymbal
T or F, jazz music became elitist with big band swing because one really had to pay attention while listening
List three things that distinguish bebop from cool jazz
1) bebop is associated with fast, hecic, rhythms and complex harmonies
2) bebop players had more emotional performances
3) bebop had smaller ensembles than cool groups.
What was one of Duke Ellington's greatest talents?
Write parts suited to each of his players
Duke Ellington had an "accomplice" when writing music and making new arrangements for his band; this person also named compositions after his health concerns (name a song) who was it?
Billy Strayhorn - Upper Manhattan Medical Group
Describe Ellington's concerto style.
Assoicated with a soloist playing to the background accompaniment of the rest of the band. The solo was ofetne performed by a trumpet or a clarinet. Concerto style was also usually longer in compositional form.
Big bands were very popular in the 30's and 40's, before the rise of the small combos. While big bands were expensive to maintain, they enjoyed continue success beyond this time, in part because:
the bands played performances for social dances
Who collaborated with Dizzy Gllespie to help create bebop?
Charlie Parker, saxophonist
List two differences between bebop and swing.
1) bebop had more of an emphasis on the individual performer
2) bebop was not used as dance music
T or F, the trombone was more widely used in bebop than it was in swing?
T or F, bebop musicians deliberately played long solos so people could dance longer.
Miles Davis is known for his use of a device that altered the sound of his instrumetn. What is it?
Name one musician who is well knwon for performing with Duke Ellington?
Johnny Hodges
Name the style that best describes the type of music that Scott Joplin played.
Ragtime piano
Did bebop compositions retain the concept of playing a head, taking solos and playing a head again to end a tune?
T or F, Dizzy Gillespie inspired a lot of fast playing and busy sounding music because he was abnormally tealented and cold play anything on the saxophone, no matter how difficult.
What was the famous music school that Miles Davis attended?
T or F, Miles Davis was a prodigy and created a new approach simply because of the extremely diffficult things he could play.
What instrument is associated with Mary Lou Williams?
What instrument is associated with Louis Armstrong?
Trumpet and vocals
What instrument is associated with Johnny Hodges?
What instrument is associated with Benny Goodman?
T or F, Duke Ellington's Band disbanded after his death.
Name a musician associated with cool jazz besides Miles Davis?
Gil Evans
What great saxophonist was given the nickname "Bird"?`
Charlie Parker
On one video we watched in class, this person put together an all star band for a performance at Carnegie Hall. This musician was:
Dizzy Gillespie
T or F, Among the differences between bebop and wing musicians was the fact that swing musicians had to have a better understanding of theory and a better command of their instrumetns to keep up with other members of their respective sections.
List the periods in chronological order: cool, swing, ragtime, bebop
Ragtime, swing, beboip, cool
What is another name for cool jazz?
Name the title of a composition or album by Miles Davis besides Kind of Blue
Bitches Brew
Wht kind of mute did Miles Davis use most/
Harman mute
Name a musician who played in the "All Star" band we saw on the video we watched in class.
Dizzy Gillespie
How does Miles Davis's approach differ from other musicians who preceded him?
Miles Davis was born into an affluent family unlike most of the musicians that preced him. Therefore he didn't have the same life experiences of knowing what it was like to struggle and being sad to influence his music. This could possibly be a reason that his music is much more relaxed and thoughtful than others. He takes more time to decide what to play next and picks his roles, while other musicians are anxious and just play whatever comes to mind.
Who is the significant bebop piano player discussed in the chapter on bebop?
Bud Powell
Name a big band associated with Cool Jazz.
Woody Herman's band.

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