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Biology 1170 vocab ch 1-5


undefined, object
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one of two prokaryote domains the other beign bacteria
the scientific study of life
cell theory
all cells come from other cells
deductive reasoning
is used in testing hypothesis
a taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are- archaea, bacteria and eukarya
more complex organells, plant and animal cells
heiarchy of biological oganization
biosphere,ecosystem,community,population, organism, organ systems, organs, tissues, cells, molecules
guess, tenative answer to some questio- an explanation on trial
inductive reasoning
important conclutions generlization that summerizes many cncurent observations
negative feedback
primary mechanism of homeostasis whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a responce that couteracts the initial fluctuation
positive feedback
physiological control mechanism in which a change in some varriable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change
guess at the outcome of an experiment
simpiler, less genetic material, smaller bacteria
reducing complex to study simpler components- mechanistic, looking at all the parts
"to know" Latin
steps of the scientific method
observations>> questions>> hypothesis>> prediction>> test>>
(know the diagram)
much broader scope- very comprehensive explanation supported by abundant evidence contrasts w/ our everyday usage
the smallest particle of an element
chenical bond
atoms stay close together held by attractions
chemical equalibrium
in a reversible chemical reaction the point at which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate if the reverse reaction
chemical reaction
process leading to chemical changes in matter. involves making and breaking of chemical bonds
chemical elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds
covalent bond
the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms ----- stongest kind of chemical bond
energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom
move at nealy the speed of light form a cloud around the nucleus
attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
a substnce that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means
energy level
the different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom
the ability to do work
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond- but CRUCIAL. Form when a hydrogen bond atom covalently bondes to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electonegative atom
a charged atom
ionic bond
because of their opposite charges, cations and anions attract eachother
ionic compound
compounds formed by ionic bonds also called salts
one of several atomic forms of an element each containing a different number of neutrons thus differing in atomic mass
molecular formula
a type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the constituent atoms
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
electcally neutral particle found in the neucleus of an stom
non polar covalent bond
type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electonegativity
an ending material in a chemical recation
subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom
radioactive isotope
an isotope that is unstable, the nucleus decays spontansously giving off detectable particles of energy
a starting material in a chemical reaction
structual formula
type of molecular notation in which the constituant atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds
trace element
an element indispensible for life, but required in extremly minute amounts
the bonding capacity of an atom generally equal to the number of unpaired electrons in the atoms outermost shell
van der Waals
everchanging "hot spots" of positive abd negative that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another- they are weak and only occur when atoms and molecules are very close together
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
the attraction between diferent kinds of molecules
aqueous solution
solution in which water is the solvent
any substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
resists changes to the pH of a solution when H+ or OH- is added to the solution
the amount of heat energy reqired to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1'C, also the amount of heat energy that 1 g of water releses when it cools by 1'C. The calorie usually used to indicate the energy content of food is a kilocalorie
binding together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds
total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form
hydrogen shell
sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
hydrogen ION
single proton w/ a charge of +1, the dissociaton of water moleclues leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion OH- and a hydrogen ion H+
having an affinity for water
having an aversion to water, tending to coalesce to form droplets in water
kinetic energy
energy of motion which is directly related to the speed of that motion
common measure of solute concentration referring to the # of moles of solute in 1 L of solution
the number (mol) of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogadro's number of molecules
a measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log (H+) and ranging in value from 0-14
polar molecule
a molecule (ie water)with opposite charges on opposite sides
substance that is dissolved in a solution
homogeneous, liquid mixture of two or more substances
dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known
specific heat
amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change it's temperature by 1'C
surface tention
measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid is related to cohesion
measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of molecules

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