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Scientific

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
shah
hereditary monarch of Iran
orrery
a popular 18th century scientific toy
the restoration
the return of the institution of the monarchy in england
sultan
"overlord" or "one with power", title for ottoman rulers during the rise of rthe Ottoman empire
mausoleum
a large tomb or building containing tombs
Beccaria
Abolishment of Torture and Capital Punishment
quakers
a religious group, also Known as the "society of friends"
Antoine Lavoisier
dscovered How materials Burn
Timur the Lame
named due to an injury by an arrow in the leg, this conqueror from Samarkand burned what is not the city of Baghdad, crusing the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, halting the expansion of the empire
sam, johnson
complied the first comprehensive english dictionary in 1775
Hobbes and Rousseau
Belief in Progress
R hooke
discovered the cells
Nicolaus copernicus
discoverd that the Earth orbits the sun
Constantinople
Conquered by Mehmed II, considered the most dramatic feat in Ottoman history
devshirme
in the Ottoman Empire, the policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
newton,
English scientific and mathematician considered to be the greatest figure in history and discovered the law of motion
Bacon and Descartes
American and French Revolutions, Independdence Movements
Pilgrims
A band of english puritans
Ottoman
follower of Osman (also called Othman)
Jizya
a per capita tax imposed on non-Muslin adult males in states ruled by Islamic law in order to freely worship
Safavid
Safavid Empire, a Shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia between the 16th and 18th centuries, culturally diverse from traditions of Persians, Ottomans and Arabs.
Johannes Kepler
Discovered Planets Have Elliptical orbits
Puritans
a religious group who wanted even greater reform of the church of england
Issac Newton
Growth of Secular Ideas; Importance of Education
Mehmed II
also called Mehmed the Conqueror, Murad's son, conquered Constantinople in 1453 and opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds. The rebuilt city was remaned Istanbul.
John Locke
Declaration of Independence; Rights of Man and Citizen; Growth of Individualism
william Harvey
discovered the Heart pumps blood
Reason
to think coherently and logically
infidel
one who doesn't believe in a certain religion. in Ottoman Empire, territories of people who didn't believe in Islam were raided by the military.
Suleyman the Lawgiver
also known as Suleyman the magnificent, ruled from 1520 to 1566, credited with great military leadership as well as implemented a highly structured social organization. Created a lwa code, simplifed the system of taxation and redueced government bureaucracy,. Viewed as having improved the daily life of almost every citizen.
Byzantine Empire
non-Muslim religious communities permitted to follow their own religious laws and practices. Millet leaders reported to the sultan and his staff.
Linneeus,
Swedish botanist who developed the first successful systum for classifying living things into similar groups
Voltaire
U.S. Bill of Rights and Enlightened Monarchies
Montesquieu
French, U.S., and Latin American Consitutions
Rousseau
Franch philosopher
Millets
separate legal courts pertaining to personal law under which minorities were allowed to rule themselves in cases not involving any Muslim with fairly little interference from the Ottoman government.
R Boyle
discovered that air is made of gases
scientific method
an approach to scientific research developed by Newton
Osman
known as the most successful warrior (ghazi), built a small Muslim state in Anatolia between 1300-1326. father of the second Ottoman leader, Orkhan I
Shah Abbas
Also known as Abbas the Great, took the throne in 1587 and helped create the Safavid culture.
janissary
a member of an elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire, made up of Christian slaves
Isma'il
In 1499, at the age of 12, seized most of what is now Iran, taking the ancient Persian title of Shah or king and establishing Shi'a Islam as the state religion. Known as a religious tyrant who had any citizen who did not convert, put to death
Galileo
Discovered other planets have moons
Charles
king charles 1 of england
voltaire
a foremost french writer and Philosopher in the age of Reason
ghazi
a warrior for Islam

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