# egtwtw

## Terms

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- Archival research
- When you use existing sources of information for research. Sources include statistics, surveys and records.
- Examples of non experimental studies are?
- Surveys, questionnaires and interviews
- Why are surveys used?
- To gather information, study relationships between variables
- What are the 3 types of survey questions?
- Attitudes and beliefs, facts and demographics, and behaviours
- Examples of probability sampling?
- Simple random sampling, Stratified random sampling, cluster sampling
- Examples of non-probability sampling?
- Haphazard sampling and quota sampling
- What are the two methods of administering surveys?
- Written questionnaires and interviews
- What does the 68-95-99 rule apply for?
- Normal distribution
- Sample size does what do the confidence interval?
- It increases or decreases the confidence interval
- What are the 2 ways to manipulate the independent variable?
- To vary it quantitatively and vary it qualitatively.
- How to reduce error variance?
- Hold extraneous variables constant, random assignment.
- What is the latin square formula for ABCDEF?
- A, B, L, C, L-1, D, L-2, etc. = ABFCED
- What is the simplest type of factorial design?
- 2x2
- Main effect is shown when?
- There is a big difference between the subgroups of a variable
- Interaction is shown when?
- It is shown when you draw the line on the bar graph from the top lefts and they cross
- What are the types of questions in surveys?
- Dichotomous, Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Filter
- What are dichotomous answers on a survey?
- Where you have two options for answers such as yes or no.
- What are nominal answers on a survey?
- Where the answers are categories
- What are ordinal answers on a survey?
- Where the answers are ranked on a scale
- What are interval answers on a survey?
- Where the answers are ordered based on strength
- What are filter answers on a survey?
- Where a question filters to see if the next question is suitable for you to answer.
- Case study
- A descriptive account of the behaviour, past history and other relevant factors concerning a specific individual.
- Coding system
- A set of rules used to categorize observations.
- Concealed observation
- A type of naturalistic observation in which the researcher assumes a participant role in the setting he or she is researching, but conceals the purpose of the research.
- Content analysis
- Systematic analysis of the content of written records.
- Naturalistic observation
- Descriptive method in which observations are made in a natural social setting. Also called field observation.
- Participant observation
- A type of naturalistic observation in which the researcher assumes a role in the setting he or she is researching. The researcherâ€™s participation may or may not be concealed.
- Qualitative approach
- An approach to research that emphasizes peopleâ€™s lived experiences in their own words, and the researcherâ€™s interpretation of those experiences.
- Quantitative approach
- An approach to research that emphasizes scientific empiricism in design, data collection, and statistical analyses.
- Reactivity
- A problem of measurement in which the measure changes the behaviour being observed.
- Systematic observation
- Observation of one or more specific variables, usually made in a precisely defined setting.
- Closed-ended questions
- Questions that offer respondents limited options. A multiple choice question is an example.
- Cluster sampling
- A method of sampling in which clusters of individuals are identified. Clusters are sampled, and then all individuals in each cluster are included in the sample.
- Confidence interval
- An interval of values that will capture the true population value a certain proportion of times (i.e. 95 percent) that the confidence interval is calculated in that way.
- Convenience sampling/Haphazard sampling
- Selecting participants in a haphazard manner, usually on the basis of availability, and not with regard to having a representative sample of the population; a type of non-probability sampling. Also called haphazard sampling.
- External validity
- The degree to which the results of an experiment may be generalized.
- Focus group
- A qualitative method of data collection in which six to ten people are interviewed together about a particular topic
- Graphic rating scale
- A type of closed-ended response where two words appear on either side of a solid line. Participants place a mark on the line indicating their relative preference for one or the other word.
- Interviewer bias
- Intentional or unintentional influence exerted by an interviewer in such a way that the actual or interpreted behaviour of respondents is consistent with the interviewerâ€™s expectations.
- Non-probability sampling
- Type of sampling procedure in which one cannot specify the probability that member of the population will be included in the sample.
- Open-ended questions
- Questions that offer respondents no restrictions as to how to respond to the prompt (i.e. an essay question)
- Panel study
- In survey research, questioning the same people at two or more points in time.
- Population
- The defined group of individuals from which the sample is drawn.
- Probability sampling
- Type of sampling procedure in which one is able to specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample
- Quota sampling
- A sampling procedure in which the sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population. A convenience sampling technique is used to obtain the sample
- Random sample
- When everyone in a given population is equally likely to have been selected to participate in the study, that sample is said to be random.
- Rating scales
- Closed-ended response options that enable participants to indicate the degree to which they endorse a particular statement
- Response rate
- The percentage of people selected for a sample who actually completed a survey
- Response set
- A pattern of individual response to questions on a self-report measure that is not related to the content of the questions
- Sampling
- The process of choosing members of a population to be included in a sample.
- Sampling error
- The degree to which the statistic calculated from a sample deviates from the true population value
- Sampling frame
- The individuals or clusters of individuals in the population who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample.
- Semantic differential scale
- A type of closed-ended response where two words appear on either side of a series of dashed lines. Participants place a mark on the sash indicating their relative preference for one or the other word.
- Simple random sampling
- A sampling procedure in which each member of the population has an equal probability of being included in the sample
- Standard error
- Spread of averages around the average of the averages in a sampling distribution
- Stratified random sampling
- A sampling procedure in which the population is divided into strata followed by random sampling from each stratum
- Survey research
- Questionnaires and interviews carefully designed to ask people information about themselves.
- â€œYea-sayingâ€ and â€œnay-sayingâ€ response sets
- The tendency for some survey respondents to agree or disagree with the vast majority of questions being asked, regardless of the question; introduces error into the measure.
- Confounding variable
- An uncontrolled variable that is impossible to separate from a variable of interest.
- Contrast effect
- In a repeated measures design, occurs when participantsâ€™ responses on a later condition are affected by a particular experience they had in an earlier condition.
- Counterbalancing
- A method of controlling for order effects in a repeated measures design by either including all orders of treatment presentation or randomly determining the order for each participant.
- Fatigue effect
- When participants perform worse over the course of a study simply because of effort or the passage of time, problematic in repeated measures design.
- Independent groups design
- An experiment in which different participants are assigned to each group. Also called between subjects design.
- Internal validity
- The certainty with which results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than to some other, confounding variable.
- Latin square
- A technique to control for order effects without having all possible orders
- Matched pairs design
- A method of assigning participants to groups in which pairs of participants are first matched on some characteristic and then individually assigned randomly to groups.
- Mortality
- The loss of participants who decide to leave an experiment. Mortality is a threat to internal validity when the mortality rate is related to the nature of the experimental manipulation.
- Order effect
- In a repeated measures design, the effect that the order of introducing treatment has on the dependent variable.
- Posttest-only design
- A true experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured only once, after manipulation of the independent variable.
- Practice effect
- When participants perform better over the course of a study simple because they are more experienced with the task; particularly problematic in repeated measures designs.
- Pretest-posttest design
- A true experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured both before (pretest) and after (posttest) manipulation of the independent variable.
- Random assignment
- Controlling for the effects of extraneous variables by ensuring that participants in an experiment are assigned to condition in a manner determined entirely by chance.
- Repeated measures design
- An experiment in which the same participants are assigned to each group.
- Selection differences
- Differences in the type of participants who make up each group in an experimental design, this situation occurs when participants elect which group they are to be assigned to.
- Behavioural measure
- An operational definition that involves directly observing and precisely recording a human or animalâ€™s behaviour.
- Ceiling effect
- Failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too easy.
- Confederate
- A person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actually part of the experiment.
- Debriefing
- Explanation of the purposes of the research that is given to participants following their participation in the research.
- Demand characteristics
- Cures that inform the participant how he or she is expected to behave.
- Double-blind procedure
- An experiment in which neither the experimenter nor the participant knows to which condition the participant has been assigned.
- Experimenter bias (experimenter expectancy effects)
- Any intentional or unintentional influence that the experimenter exerts on participants to confirm the hypothesis under investigation.
- Filler items
- Item included in a questionnaire measure to help disguise the true purpose of the measure.
- Floor effect
- Failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too difficult.
- Manipulation check
- A measure used to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has had its intended effect on a participant
- Manipulation strength
- The degree to which levels of an independent variable differ from each other. In a weak manipulation, conditions are subtly different; conditions are maximally different in a strong manipulation.
- Physiological measure
- An operational definition that involves observing and recording a response of the body.
- Pilot study
- A small-scale study conducted prior to conducting an actual experiment; designed to test and refine procedures.
- Placebo group
- In drug research, a group given an inert substance to assess the psychological effect of receiving a treatment.
- Self-report measure
- An operational definition of a variable that involves asking people to explicitly indicate something about themselves (i.e. personality, behaviour attitudes).
- Sensitivity
- The ability of a measure to detect differences between groups.
- Single-blind procedure
- An experiment in which participants do not know to which condition they have been assigned, but the experimenter does.
- Staged manipulations
- An operational definition that involves creating a situation in which the independent variable is manipulated; participants then experience the situation and their responses are recorded. Deception is often used to conceal the fact that the situation is a ruse.
- Straightforward manipulations
- Operational definitions that involve manipulating the independent variable using instructions or other stimulus materials in a simple way.
- Cell
- A term sometimes used to refers to one condition in an experiment, or to a combination of conditions in a complex factorial experimental design.
- Factorial design
- A design in which all levels of each independent variable are combined with all levels of the other independent variables. A factorial design allows investigation of the separate main effects and interactions of two or more independent variables.
- Interaction
- The differing effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable, depending on the particular level of another independent variable.
- IV x PV design
- A factorial design that includes both an experimental independent variable (IV) and non-experimental participant variable (PV).
- Levels
- Term sometimes used to denote conditions in an experimental design.
- Main effect
- The direct effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable.
- Mixed factorial design
- A design that includes both independent groups (between-subjects) and repeated measures (within-subjects) variables.
- Moderator variable
- A variable that influences the nature of the relationship between two other variables (an independent variable and a dependent variable). In a factorial design, the effect of the moderator variable is revealed as an interaction.
- Simple main effect
- In a factorial design, the effect of one independent variable at a particular level of another independent variable.
- Baseline
- In a single case design, the participantâ€™s behaviour during a control period before introduction of the manipulation.
- Cohort effects
- A cohort is a group of people born at about the same time and exposed to the same societal events; cohort effects are confounded with age in a cross-sectional study.
- Control series design
- An extension of the interrupted time series quasi-experimental design in which there is a comparison or control group.
- Cross-sectional method
- A developmental research method in which persons of different ages are studied at only one point in time; conceptually similar to an independent group design.
- History effects
- As a threat to the interval validity of an experiment, refers to outside events that are not part of the manipulation that could be responsible for the results.
- Instrument decay
- As a threat to internal validity, the possibility that a change in the characteristics of the measurement instrument is responsible for the results.
- Interrupted time series design
- A design in which the effectiveness of a treatment is determined by examining a series of measurements made over an extended time period both before and after the treatment is introduced. The treatment is not introduced at a random point in time.
- Longitudinal method
- A developmental research method in which the same persons are observed repeatedly as they grow older; conceptually similar to a repeated measured design.
- Maturation effects
- As a threat to internal validity, the possibility that any naturally occurring change within the individual is responsible for the results.
- Multiple baseline design
- Observing behaviour before and after a manipulation under multiple circumstances (across different individuals, different behaviours, or different settings).
- Non-equivalent control group design
- A quasi-experimental design in which non-equivalent groups of participants participate in the different experimental groups, and there is no pretest.
- Non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design
- A quasi-experimental design in which non-equivalent groups are used, but a pretest allows assessment of equivalency and pretest-posttest changes.
- One-group posttest-only design
- A quasi-experimental design that has no control group and no pretest comparison; a very poor design in terms of internal validity.
- One-group pretest-posttest design
- A quasi-experimental design in which the effect of an independent variable is inferred from the pretest-posttest difference in a single group.
- Program evaluation
- Research designed to evaluate programs (i.e. social reforms, innovations) that are designed to produce certain change or outcomes in a target population.
- Quasi-experimental designs
- Types of designs that approximate the control features of true experiments to infer that a given treatment did have its intended effect.
- Regressions toward the mean (statistical regression)
- Principle that extreme scores on a variable tend to be closer to the mean when a second measurement is made.
- Reversal design
- A single case design in which the treatment is introduced after a baseline period and then withdrawn during a second baseline period. It may be extended by adding a second introduction of the treatment. Sometimes called a withdrawal design.
- Sequential method
- A combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs to study developmental research questions.
- Single case experimental designs
- Research designs in which the effect of the independent variable is assessed using data from a single participant.
- Testing effects
- A threat to internal validity in which taking a pretest changes behaviour without any effect on the independent variable.
- Bar graph
- Using bars to depict frequencies of responses, percentages, or means in two or more groups.
- Central tendency
- A single number or value that describes the typical or central score among a set of scores.
- Cohenâ€™s d
- An standardized calculation of effect size that is appropriate for two-group experimental designs.
- Correlation coefficient
- An index of how strongly two variables are related to each other.
- Criterion variable
- The outcome variable that is being predicted in a multiple regression analysis.
- Descriptive statistics
- Statistical measures that describe the results of a study; descriptive statistics include measures of central tendency (i.e. mean), variability (i.e. standard deviation), and correlation (i.e. Pearson r).
- Effect size
- The extent to which two variables are associated. In experimental research, the magnitude of the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
- Frequency distribution
- An arrangement of a set of scores from lowest to highest that indicates the number of times each score was obtained.
- Frequency polygons
- A graphic display of a frequency distribution in which the frequency of each score is plotted on the vertical axis, with the plotted points connected by straight lines.
- Histogram
- A type of graph used when the variable on the x-axis is continuous. A key feature is that the bars touch, unlike bar graphs.
- Mean
- A measure of central tendency, obtained by summing scores and then dividing the sum by the number of scores.
- Median
- A measure of central tendency; the middle score in a distribution of scores that divides the distribution in half.
- Mode
- A measure of central tendency; the most frequent score in a distribution of scores.
- Multiple correlation
- A correlation between one variable and a combined set of predictor variables.
- Multiple regression
- An extension of the correlation technique; analysis that models the extent to which one or more predictor variables is related to one criterion variable.
- Partial correlation
- The correlation between two variables with the influence of a third variable statistically controlled for.
- Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
- A type of correlation coefficient used with interval and ratio scale data. In addition to providing information on the strength of relationship between two variables, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient indicates the direction (positive or negative) of the relationship.
- Pie chart
- Graphic display of data in which frequencies or percentages are represented as « slices » of a pie.
- Predictor variable
- The variable used to predict changes in the criterion (or outcome) variable in a multiple regression analysis.
- Regression equations
- Mathematical equations that allow prediction of one behaviour when the score on another variable is known.
- Restriction of range
- Occurs when the full set of a variableâ€™s possible values are not sampled, which can lead to incorrect inferences about that variable and its relationship to other variables.
- Scatterplot
- A graph in which individual scores are plotted based on their x-y coordinates; used to illustrate the relationship between two variables.
- Squared correlation coefficient
- A correlation coefficient (i.e. Pearson r) that has been multiplied by itself; can be interpreted as the proportion of variance shared between the two variables.
- Squared multiple correlation coefficient
- In multiple regression, the proportion of variance in the criterion that can be explained by that set of predictors combined.
- Standard deviation
- The average deviation of scores from the mean (the square root of the variance)
- Variability
- The amount of dispersion of scores about some central value.
- Variance
- Any event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies that has at least two values.
- Alpha level
- In a statistical analysis, the maximum probability that a result â€“ having been declared significant by exceeding this value â€“ has actually come from the null hypothesis sampling distribution. It is usually set at .05
- Analysis of variance (F test)
- A statistical significance test for determining whether two or more means are significantly different; also known as analysis of variance (ANOVA). F is the ratio of systematic variance to error variance.
- Conclusion validity
- The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining whether groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways.
- Degrees of freedom (df)
- A concept used in tests of statistical significance; the number of observations that are free to vary to produce a known outcome.
- Error variance
- Random variability in a set of scores that is not the result of the independent variable. Statistically, the variability of each score from its group mean.
- Inferential statistics
- Statistics designed to determine whether results based on sample data are generalizable to a population.
- Null hypothesis
- The hypothesis, used for statistical purposes, that the variables under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based on sample results is due to random error.
- Power
- The probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis.
- Probability
- The likelihood that a given event (among a specific set of events) will occur.
- Research hypothesis
- The hypothesis that the variables under investigation are related in the population â€“ that the observed effect based on sample data is true in the population.
- Sampling distribution
- A frequency distribution of the values of a statistic that would be obtained if a researcher took an infinite number of samples of a particular size, conducted the same study, and calculated the same statistic for each one. Used in inferential statistics to evaluate the likelihood of a given result if only chance is operating.
- Statistically significant
- Rejection of the null hypothesis when an outcome has a low probability of occurrence (usually .05 or less) if, in fact the null hypothesis is correct.
- Systematic variance
- Variability in a set of scores that is the result of the independent variable; statistically, the variability of each group mean from the grand mean of all participants.
- T test
- A statistical significance test used to compare differences between means.
- Type I error
- An incorrect decision to reject the null hypothesis when it is true.
- Type II error
- An incorrect decision to accept the null hypothesis when it is false.
- Conceptual replication
- Replication of research using different procedures for manipulating or measuring the variables.
- Exact replication
- Replication of research using the same procedures for manipulating and measuring the variables that were used in the original research.
- Literature review
- A narrative summary of the research that has been conducted on a particular topic.
- Meta-analysis
- A set of statistical procedures for combining the results of a number of studies in order to provide a general assessment of the relationship between variables.
- Replication
- Repeating a research study; a way of increasing confidence that the results of a single study represent the truth.