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PR Test 1: 1-3 and 6-7


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Building corporate and product identities.

Weighted media costs- An alternative to AVE that employs a comparative index created over time.
The logical grouping of qualities that describe a particular attribute. Variables must be exhaustive (incorporating all possible qualities) and mutually exclusive.
Univariate analysis
Analysis of research data that examines just one variable.
Units of analysis
What or whom a researcher is studying to create a summary description of all such units.
Systematic sampling
A probability sampling technique that uses a standardized selection process to create a sample that is both representative and easy to develop. At its most basic level, systematic sampling involves the selection of every Kth member of a sampling frame.
Survey research
Formal research conducted through the use of carefully selected population samples and specifically worded questionnaires.
Stakeholder research

Research that focuses on identifying and describing specific publics important to the success of an organization.
Simple random sampling
A basic and often impractical form of probability sampling that involves assigning a number to every person within the same sampling frame, followed by random selection of numbers.
When used in the context of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence, the process of presenting an audience with a solution to a problem that has already been identified. When used in the context of measuring the strength of relationships, a reference to the degree to which the benefits of the relationship outweigh is cost.
Sampling frame
The actual list from which a research sample, or some stage of the sample is drawn.
In a research context, the segment of a population or public being studied to enable researchers to draw conclusions about the public as a whole.

Return on investment. A business concept for getting more out of something than the original cost.
Representative sample
Population sample selected by procedures that ensure that all members of the population or public being studied have an equal chance of being chose for the sample. A representative sample must also be sufficiently large to allow researchers to draw conclusions about the population as a whole.
Rating scale questions
Questionnaire items designed to measure the range, degree, or intensity of respondents’ attitudes on the topic being studied.
Problem-opportunity research
The gathering of information to answer two critical questions at the outset of any public relations effort: What is at issue, and what stake does our organization have in this issue?
Probability sampling
The process of selecting a research sample that is representative of the population or public from which it is selected.
Measures of activity associated with implementation of a particular tactic or program.
The actions of a targeted public generated as a result of a tactic or program.
Nonprobablity sampling
The process of selecting a research sample without regard to whether everyone in the public has an equal chance of being selected.

Multivariables analysis
Analysis of research data that examines three or more variables.

In the context of issues management, the sustained scrutiny and evaluation of an issue that could affect an organization.
Issues management
A form of problem-opportunity research in which an organization identifies and analyzes emerging trends and issues from the purpose of preparing a timely and appropriate response.
Informal research
Research that describe some aspect of reality but does not necessarily create an accurate representation of the larger reality.
Formal research
Research that uses scientific methods to create an accurate representation of reality.
Feedback research
The examination of evidence-- often unsolicited -- of various public’s responses to an organization’s actions. This evidence can take many forms, such as letters and telephone calls.

Exchange relationship
A relationship characterized by the giving of benefits to one party in relationship in return for past benefits received or for the expectation of future benefits.
Evaluation research
Fact-gathering designed to help a practitioner determine whether a public relations plan met its goals and objectives.
Due diligence
A term originating in legal and financial circles that, in a public relations context, means the expectation that practitioners will conduct adequate research, analysis, and evaluation.
Dichotomous Question
In a questionnaire, either/or questions such as yes/no and true/false items.
Convenience sampling
The administration of a survey based on the availability of subjects without regard to representatives.
Control Mutuality
The degree to which parties in a relationship agree on and willingly accept which party has the power to influence the actions of others.
Contingency Questions
Questions that are asked on the basis of questionnaire respondents’ answer to earlier question.
Confidence levels

The statistical degree to which one can reasonably assume that a survey outcome is an accurate reflection of the entire population.
Components of a relationship
The six key components that should be used in measuring the strength of a relationship; control, mutuality, trust, satisfaction, commitment, exchange relationship, and communal relationship.
Communication grid

A tool used during communication audits to illustrate the distribution patterns of an organization’s communications. The various media used are listed on one axis, stakeholders important to the organization on the other.
Communication audits
Research procedures used to determine whether an organization’s public statements and publications are consistent with its values-driven mission and goals.
Communal relationship
A relationship characterized by the provision of benefits to both members of the relationship out of concern and without expectation of anything in return.
The extent to which each party in a relationship thinks that the relationship is worth the time, cost, and effort.
Cluster sampling
A sampling technique used to compensate for an unrepresentative sampling frame. It involves breaking the population into homogeneous clusters and then selecting a sample from each cluster.
Client Research
The gathering of information about the client, company, or organization on whose behalf a practitioner is working. This information includes the organization’s size, products or services, history, staffing requirements, marketers and customers, budget, legal environment, reputation and mission.
Survey of every member of a sampling frame.
Bivariate analysis
Analysis of research data that examines two variables.
Characteristics or qualities that describe an object or individual, such as gender, age, weight, height, political affiliation, and religious affiliation.
Advertising value equivalency
A calculation of the value of publicity based on the advertising rates and the amount of media coverage received.
Veil of Ignorance
A term concept created by philosopher John Rawls. The veil of ignorance strategy asks decisions makers to examine a situation objectively from all points of view, especially from those of the affected publics.
A philosophy developed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that holds that all actions should be directed at producing the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Potter Box
A tool designed by professor Ralph Potter for ethical decision making. Using the Potter Box involves defining an ethical issue and then identifying competing values, principles, and loyalties.
Golden mean
A concept created by Aristotle and Confucius. In Aristotelian ethics, the golden mean is the point of ideal ethical balance between deficiency and excess of a quality- for example, between deficient honest and excessive honesty.
Fully functioning society theory
In public relations, the premise that organizations should help address important social needs, using two-way communication to build consensus, discover shared goals, and help societies reach their humane potentials.
Ethics audit
A process through which an organization evaluates its own ethical conduct and makes recommendation to improve it.
Ethical imperialism
The belief that a particular set of ethics has no flexibility and no room for improvement.
Cultural relativism
The belief that no culture or set of cultural ethics is superior to another.
Civil disobedience
Peaceful, unlawful action designed to affect social discourse and charge public policy.
Cause marketing/cause branding
A concerted effort on the part of an organization to address a social need through special events and perhaps other marketing tactics.
Categorial imperative
A concept created by Immanuel Kant; the idea that individuals ought to make ethical decision by imagining what would happen if a given course of action were to become a universal maxim, a clear principle designed to apply to everyone.
Vox Populi
Latin for “voice of the people”. The phrase refers to the importance of public opinion.
Seedbed Years
A term coined by public relations historian Scott Cutlip that refers to the period during the late 19th centuries in which the modern practice of public relations emerged.
The use of communications for the purpose of persuasion. In some of its applications, the practice of public relations is a rhetorical activity.
Publicity Bureau
The first public relations agency, founded by George V.S. Michaelis and two partners in 1900.
Progressive Era
Running from the early 1890s until the start of WW!, a period in which a series of political and social reforms, primarily in the United States, occurred in reaction to the growth of business and industry during the Industrial Revolution.
A systematic effort to disseminate information in an attempt to inference public opinion. A propagandist advocates a particular idea of perspective to the exclusion of all others.
Office of War Information (OWI)
An agency created by FDR to disseminate government information during WW!!. Headed by former journalist Elmer Davis, it was a training ground for future public relations practitioners. It evolved after the war into the United States Information Agency.
Industrial Revolution
The period in the 19th and 20th century during which the United States and other western nations moved from an agricultural to manufacturing economy.
Four-minute men
A speakers’ bureau use by the Committee of Public information (Creed Committee) during WWI. Its members would make short presentations in support of the U.s. War effort during the four-minute intermissions between reels at movie theaters.
First amendment

The constitutional guarantee of freedom of expression, freedom of press, and freedom of religion. Its ratification in 1789 is considered the most significant event in the development of public relations in the United States.
Federalist Papers
Papers written by John Hamilton in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Finest public relations effort in history.
Reduction in an organization\'s workforce. Because of economic globalization and technological advances during the last quarter of the 20th century, organizations were forced to do more with fewer employees to remain competitive.
Declaration of Principles
Ivy Lee’s 1906 articulation of an ethical foundation for the yet-to-be named profession of public relations. In his declaration Lee committed his publicity agency to a standard of openness, truth, and accuracy- one that was not met
Crystallizing Public opinions
Book authored by Edward Bernays in 1923, in which the term public relations counsel first appeared. Became the first to articulate the concept of two-way pubic relations.
Crisis planning team (CPT)

A broad-based internal task force that develops an organization’s crisis communications plan.
Resource dependancy theory
The premise that organizations form relationships with publics to acquire the resources they need to fulfill their values.
PR technicians
Practitioners whose job responsibilities are more tactical than strategic in nature. Their primary role is to prepare communications that help execute the public relations policies of others.
PR managers

Practitioners whose job responsibilities are more strategic than tactical in nature. They solve problems, advise others, make policy decisions, and take responsibility for the outcome of a public relations program.
PR agencies
A company that provides public relations services for other organizations on a per-job basis, by contract or on retainer.
Public information officers
The individual given the responsibility to speak for and handle media inquires on behalf of government agency.
Public affairs officer
The person responsible for maintaining mutually beneficial relations between a government agency or official and important publics. The term public affairs is also used by some nongonverment organizations as a synonym for government relations or community relations.
Press secretary
The individual given the responsibility to speak for an handle media inquiries on behalf of a political or government official.
Media Relations
The maintenance of mutually beneficial relations between an organization and the journalists and other media people who report on its activities.
Investor relations
The maintenance of mutually beneficial relations between publicly owned companies and shareholders, potential shareholders, and those who influence investment decisions.
Independent PR consultant
An individual practitioner who is a one-person public relations agency providing services for others on a per-job basis, contact, or retainer.
Government relations
The maintenance of mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the local, state, and federal government agencies important to its success.
Employee relations
The maintenance of mutually beneficial between an organization and its employees.
Consumer relations
The maintenance of mutually beneficial communication between an organization an the people who use or are potential users of its products and services.
Communications relations
The maintenance of mutually beneficial contacts between an organization and key publics within communities important to its success.
Communications specialist
Job title given to some public relations practitioners, whose job usually entail the preparation of communication.
Boundary spanning
The function of representing a public’s values to an organization and conversely representing the values of the organization to that public.
Account supervisor

The individual at a public relations agency with the responsibility for managing a client’s account and the people working on that account.
Account executive
A supervisory individual at a public relations agency when assists the account supervisor in the management of a client’s account.
Values statement
A written declaration of the principles that an organization will strive to follow in all its actions.
Values Driven PR
The values-driven management of relationships between an organization and the publics that can affect its success.
Universal Accreditation Program
The availability of PRSA accreditation to members of eight additional public relations organizations; established in 1998
A formal approach to decision making based on a system of rules or principles developed through scientific research.
Stake holders
A public that has an interest in an organization or in an issue potentially involving that organization.
The first step of the public relations process. Can occur at any time.
Relationship Management
The use of public relations strategies and tactics to foster and enhance the shared interests and values of an organization and the publics important to its success.
Reflective Paradigm
The belief that the most important role of public relations practice is to obtain and sustain the societal legitimization of organizations.
The world’s largest public relations professional association, with approximately 21,000 members. Founded in 1947, it is headquartered in New York, and has 10,000.
The management of relationships between an organization and the publics that can affects its success. Coined by Edward L. Bernays in 1923.
In a public relations context, any group of people who share a common interest, value, or values in a particular situation.
The second step in the four-step public relations process. Can occur at any time.
In the social sciences, a term describing the ideal standard or model.
Mission Statement

A concise written account of why an organization exists; an explanation of the purpose of an organization’s many actions.
The process of researching, creating, refining, and promoting a product or service to targeted consumers.
The coordinated use of public relations, advertising, and marketing strategies and tactics to send well-defined, interactive messages to individual consumers.
Hunt and Grunig Models
A theory of public relations that categorizes the actions of practitioners into one of four models: press agentry/publicity, public information, two-way asymmetrical, and two-way symmetrical.
An informal, practical, trial-and-error problem-solving approach that often results in reaching satisfactory, but not necessarily optimal, solution.
The fourth step of the public relations process. However, because public relations involves a dynamic process, evaluation can occur at any time.
Cutlip, Center, and broom Models
A theory of public relations that categorizes the actions of practitioners into one of the four models: expert prescriber, communication technician, communication facilitator, and problem-solving process facilitator.
The exchange of information, verbal and nonverbal, between individuals. Also the third step in the four-step public relations process. Because the process is dynamic, however, communication can occur at any time.
Self-recognized or universally recognized truths.
The process of creating and sending a persuasive message through controlled media, which allows the sender, for a price, to dictate message, placement, and frequency.
Accredited in Public Relations (APR)
Designation given to accredited members of the Public Relations Society of America.
Accredited Business Communicator (ABC)

Designation given to accredited members of the International Association of Business Communicators.

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