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Research Design 2


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Theories proposed as alternative explanations
plausible rival theories
clusters of behaviors and/or motives that can be identified and classified and thus must be explained.

Ex: intelligence, anxiety, obedience
the process of converting constructs into observables
This theory is generally accepted. It says behaviors aren't caused by emotions, but emotions are caused by behaviors.
James-Lange Theory
This theory states that physiological changes induce a state of arousal, and that our felt emotion is determined by the label we assign to the arousal.
Schacter-Singer Theory
an argument in which the truth of the premises makes a false conclusion possible
Valid Deductive Argument
An example of a conclusion we aren't justified in making, because it contains information not included in the premises.
Invalid Deductive Argument
The function of this is to generate new theories from existing information.
Inductive reasoning
If P, then Q. Q occurs, therefore P.
Affirming the consequent
If P, then Q. Observe P, therefore not Q.
Denying the Antecedent.
If P, then Q. Observe not Q, therefore not P.
Denying the consequent
If P, then Q. P occurs, therefore Q.
Affirming the Antecedent
This is when a dimension has properties that can be described in quantitative or qualitative terms
when experimenters freely and independently choose the levels of a variable
The cause of some effect.

3 key features
1) The hypothesis is that variation in this variable is the cause of some effect
2)You can freely choose the levels of variation
3)You can randomly assign subjects to different levels of
Independent variable
This is what a variable that cannot be measured reliably, is.
When the vaiable is subject to unwanted extraneous influences.
random error variances
When observer ratings are collected as a part of a dependant variable, they are checked for reliability by comparing rater's ratings
inter-rater reliability
when the variable matches the hypothesis.
a variable that describes a characteristic or attribute
attribute variable
a variable that can influence the dependant v. in an experiment but is not hypothesized to be a theoretically important cause or effect. sometimes called "nuisance variables"
relevant variable
the presence of nonrandom error, or what occurs when uncontrolled relevant V's exert their influence in ways that make it impossible to tell results accurately
choosing members of a group so that each member has an equal chance of being selected
random selection
a technique employed before random assignment, where subjects are matched on known relevant variables.

*not a very good technique because results will have limited generalizability and it's difficult to find people for each criteria.
matching by constancy
a technique when relevant variables are built in to the overall plan of the experiment.
matching by factoring
a technique where S's in each grouping of the controlled attribute variable are assigned randomly to levels of the independent variable in a way that assures each grouping category of the attribute variable is equally represented in all levels of the I.V
randomized blocks
The influence that a particular order of presented stimuli has on judges' responses
sequence effect
the technique works by distributing the influence of sequence effects equally across all stimuli.
this form of counterbalancing works by randomly distributing the influence of order and carry-over so that all stimuli are effected equally.
randomized counterbalancing
this form of counterbalancing assures that every possible sequence is presented an equal number of times
complete counterbalancing
independent variables that involve participants receiving all levels of variation.
repeated measures factor
an alternative to complete counterbalancing, when there are more than 4 stimuli. This method employs a Latin Square.
Incomplete counterbalancing
this term refers to a variety of unintended influences including confounds in an experiment that may affect participants' responses and threaten the validity of the experiment.
when perceptions influence the behavior of a subject, experimental outcomes are difficult to interpret b/c the findings may be due to characteristics of the experiment rather than the deliberate manipulations.
demand characteristics
a "drug" incorporate used in a well-controlled experiment.
placebo group
the motivation of subjects to do what is asked of them.
evaluation apprehension
refers to an increase in performance that's simply a result of the attention gained from participating in an experiment
hawthorne effect
this term refers to the application of one general sentiment to be used on many things, even if untrue.
halo effect
He studied the correlation of pupil size and atmosphere.
Eckard Hess
He stressed the importance of formulating falsifiable hypothesis.
Karl Popper
He figured out that psychological processes can affect diseases - and used a geometric model to show it.
Jay M. Weiss
They theorized that awareness of emotion and awareness of physical changes in the body are independent event though they're caused by the same stimulation.
Cannon-Bard Theory
He created a study on obedience, where one subject was told to shock a recipient at the command of a scientist.
Stanley Milgram
They theorized that we have a dual-storing system for memory (long and short term)
Atkinson and Shiffron
He proposed balance theory, which is the theory that a state of balance exists in relationships.
Fritz Heider
He investigated conformity and hypothesized that the larger the size of disagreeing group, the more conformity, and the more supportive allies are, the less.
Solomon Asch
Their experiment dealth with visceral response and biofeedback. It involved thirsy dogs, salivation and water rewards. They investigated instrumental learning in the autonomic nervous system.
Miller and Carmona
Their experiment determined whether escape and avoidance responding behavior is due to the learning of ECS or adaptation to the shocks. - result formed "learned helplessness" theory.
Overmier and Seligman
Their study determined whether induced fear or interference with memory correlated with avoidance learning.
Madsen and McGaugh
He proposed that science is most effective when using strong inference.
John Platt

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