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World History People only - basic


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(35. Gamal Abdel) Nasser
35. (1950s) Egypt; set out to modernize; (1956) nationalized Suez Canal; 2 wars vs. Zionist state; turned to socialism - policies had limited success; (1960s) built Aswan High Dam; died in 1970
(33. Imre) Nagy
33. (1956) Hungary; communist reformer and nationalist; ended 1-party rule and withdrew Hungary from the Warsaw Pact; S.U. responded with force and no help provided; He was executed
(30.) Paul Klee
*30. Germany; with Kandinsky, started the abstract movement
(33. Willy) Brandt
33. (1969) W. Germany; chancellor who tried to ease tensions with neighbor through his policy of Ostpolitik; continued relations with the West;
(26. George Etienne) Cartier
26. (1800s) Canada; urged confederation of Canada's provinces; feared U.S. Domination; worked with MacDonald
(34.) Kim Jong Il
*34. N. Korea; son of Kim IL Sung; huge problems so finally accepted food aid from the U.S., S. Korea, and others;
(37. Salvador) Allende
37. (1973) Chile; a socialist man elected president; U.S. quietly lent military to over throw him
(35.Yitzhak) Rabin
35. Israel; prime minister; signed the Oslo accord with Arafat; some people opposed his peace policy; assassinated;
(37. Fernando Henrique) Cardoso
37. (1990s) Brazil; promoted economic growth and limited inflation; distributed a lot of land; often criticized by other powers
(35.) Osama Bin Laden
*35. Afghanistan; Saudi leader of a terrorist group called al-Qaida supported by the Taliban; (2001) behind attacks on NYC and DC
(31 General Bernard) Montgomery
31. (1942) Britain; In Egypt, he finally stopped Rommel's advance during the battle of El Alamein;
(35. Ruhollah) Khomeini
35. Iran; religious leader; speeches helped spur revolution in (1979); shah's foes rallied behind him; Ayatollah; set up theocracy; died near end of Iran-Iraq War;
(28.) Leon Trotsky
*28. Russia; another Marxist revolutionary and friend of Lenin; "Peace, Land, and Bread." Turned the Red Army into fighting force; rewards/killed every 10th man; skillful speaker; power struggle with Stalin and lost (1929 fled) ; 1940 - Murdered by Stalinist agent
(27.) Vera Brittain
*27. England; a nurse who wrote a diary about nursing in WWI
(34. Sir Stamford) Raffles
34. (1819) Britain, Singapore; leased the island from a local ruler; Singapore grew rapidly;
(27. Kaiser) William II
*27. Germany; assured Austria of full support and nudged into war;
(26. Jose) Rizal
26. (1800s) Philippines; a leader of resistance to Spanish rule;
(26. James) Monroe
26. (1823) U.S.; to avoid entangling alliances with Britain, Monroe Doctrine created; America can't be colonized henceforth;
(26. Louis )Riel
26. Canada; led a revolt of the metis, people of the mixed Native American land and European descent; government troops put him down and killed him;
(30.) Sigmund Freud
*30. Austria; suggested the subconscious mind drives human behavior, which may be reasoning behind mental/psychological illnesses; pioneered psychoanalysis
(31.) Fransisco Franco
*31. (1936) Spain; led a revolt that touched off a civil war; Hitler and Mussolini sent forces to help; 1939 - He succeeded and created a fascist dictatorship;
(35. General Pervez) Musharraf
35. (1999) Pakistan; military leader; stepped in over Kashmir;
(33. Leonid) Brezhnev
33. (mid-60s-82) Soviet Union; surpressed dissidents; Invested in military build up; Brezhnev Doctrine - asserted that the S.U. could militarily intervene in any Warsaw Pact nation; detente with U.S.; ended in 79 when invaded Afghanistan;
(27. General) Alfred von Schlieffen
*27. Germany; developed a Plan to fight the French;
(26. King) Mongkut
26. (1951-68) Siam/Thailand(now); great understanding of the west; had to accept some unequal treaties, Siam escaped becoming a colony; Him and son Chulalongkorn set Siam on road to Modernization;
(37. Jean-Bertrand) Aristide
37. (1990) Haiti; elected president; a former Catholic priest who supported liberation theology; overthrown by a military coup; restored when U.S. threatened action;
(29. Venustiano) Carranza
29. (1917) Mexico; a conservative president; reluctantly approved a new constitution;
(30.) Hans Arp , Max Ernst
*30. (2 Men) Dada painters; intended to shock and disturb middle-class, helped inspire surrealism
(36. F.W. ) de Klerk
36. (1989) South Africa; abandoned apartheid, repealed hate pass laws, and lifted ban on ANC; released Mandela;
(37. Daniel) Ortega
37. (1979) Nicaragua; Sandanistas president who overthrew Somosa reign;
(29.) Jiang Jieshi
*29. China; took over Guomanding; 1926 - marched into N. China and crushed warlords, then captured Beijing; mid-conquest, he strikes at the Chinese Communist Party (1927) Led a conquest against the Communist party (Long March to oppose); Japan strikes (1931 and 1937) - forced to form a united front with Zedong; Supported by the U.S.
(35.) Sonia Gandhi
35. India; current ruler of India; widow of Rajiv Gandhi;
(33. Vojislav) Kostunica
33. (Yugoslavia) Replaced Milosevic; democratic and strongly nationalistic; restored peace in Kosovo and all ethnic fighting in Balkan states;
(33. Josip) Tito
33. Yugoslavia; During WWII he was a fierce guerrilla warfare leader; he set up a communist government in Yugoslavia but pursued a path independent of Moscow; Refused to join Warsaw pact and neutral in the Cold War;
(37. Alberto )Fujimori
37. Peru; suspended nation's constitution to crush anti government guerrillas and engineered his own re-election before fleeing
(33.) Jacques Chirac
*33. (1995) Mitterrand successor; More conservative; cut government spending and helped France become 4th economy;
(31. Sugihara) Chiune
31. Japan/Lithuania; helped about 6000 Jews escape by writing exit visas until the Japanese government ordered him home;
(30. ) James Joyce
*30. Ireland; wrote 'Finnegans Wake' who explores the inner mind of a hero who remains asleep through the whole novel
(29.) Mohandas Gandhi
*29. India; was dubbed 'Mahatma' or 'Great Soul'; joined an Indian law firm in S. Africa and faced prejudice, decided to fight discrimination laws through 'satyagraha' (1914) - Returned to India; Believed in ahisma and civil disobedience; wore traditional dhotis; lead the Salt March on March 12-April 6, 1930;
(30. Leon) Blum
30. (1936) France; several leftist parties united behind this socialist leader; Popular Front government; strikes brought it down;
(29.) Marcus Garvey
*29. (1920s) Jamaican Born/Africa; inspiring leader of Pan-Africanism; demanded en to colonial rule and a message of "Africa for Africans"
(29. King) Faud
29. (1922) Egypt; Britain declared Egypt free, but still was real power behind him;
(29. Augusto Cesar) Sandino
29. (1920s) Nicaragua; mad about U.S. occupying Nicaragua and led a guerrilla movement vs. U.S.
(27.) Archduke Francis Ferdinand
*27. (1912) Austria-Hungary; visiting Serajevo, Bosnia on their independence day; attempted bombing and missed; visiting soldier in the hospital and shot
(37. Juscelino) Kubitschek
37. (1950s) Brazil; promised 50 years of progress; opened up Amazon and built new capital, Brasilia;
(33. Alexander) Dubcek
33. Czechoslovakia; introduced liberal reforms, and S.U. responded with force again; they ousted him and restored a communist dictatorship;
(35. Shah Muhammad) Reza Pahlavi
35. (1945) Iran; had western backing to end British control of Iranian oil;
(29. Yuan) Shikai
29. (1912-1916) China; powerful general; tried to set up a new dynasty with him as emperor; military didn't support him and divided nation; Presented with 21 Demands in 1915 by Japan; died in 1916
(28. Czar) Nicholas II Romanov
*28. Russia; last of the Romanov dynasty; weak and ineffectual; relied on secret police; During WWI he went to front to take personal charge, which was bad; Alexandra, wife, left in charge at home, and he wasn't very experienced; Bread Riots in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) - czar abdicated;
(28.) Gregory Rasputin
*28. Russia; Illiterate peasant and self-proclaimed 'holy man'; Alexandra (czarina) relied on him after he eased suffering of her hemophiliac son; 1916 - he chose officials, flatterers got top jobs; December 29th, 1916 - nobles killed him in fear for the monarchy
(36.) Robert Mugabe
*36. Zimbabwe; a leader of a nationalist group with Nkomo; After independence, power struggle and won; called for 1-party system to promote unity
(34.) Ho Chi Minh
*34. N. Vietnam; guerrilla against the French trying to re-seize Indochina; ruled N. Vietnam;
(30.) Charlie Chaplin
*30. U.S.; silent movie star in the 1920s; fans on every continent
(30.) Pablo Picasso
*30. Spain; with friend Georges Braque created cubism, helped inspire surrealism
(33. Slobodan) Milosevic
33. Yugoslav president; an extreme Serb nationalist; gave money to Bosnian serbs to set up their own autonomous regions; 1989 - ended limited self-rule that Muslims had in Kosovo; Ethnically cleansed Kosovo like he had in Bosnia; In Serbia opposition grew - military defeat; charged with warcrimes and violating rules;
(34.) Jiang Zemin
*34. China; succeeded Deng; continued his economic reforms;
(33.) Charles de Gaulle
*36. France; WWII hero; leader of France in 1958; released Algeria from colonial rule; Set up a 5th Republic with him as president; Forged ties with W. Germany, built nuclear forces, opened talks with China and Cuba (against the Cold War); Youth revolts in 1968, resigned 1 year later;
(30. Miriam) Ferguson
30. U.S.; Texas governor in the 1920s; female
(35.) Mother Teresa
35. India; a Roman Catholic nun who founded an order in Calcutta called the Missionaries of Charity;
(37.) Fidel Castro
*37. (1959-now) Cuba; led tiny guerrilla army vs. Batista regime and won; turned Cuba into a communist state and imposed harsh authoritarian rule;
(29.) Reza Khan
*29. (1925) Iran; army officer who overthrew the Shah and set up own Pahlavi dynasty; Rushed to modernization and try to make it independent; adopted writing, clothes, encouraged women, and eventually regained control of its oil.
(30.) Frank Lloyd Wright
*30. U.S.; reflected the Bauhaus belief that a function of a building should determine the form
(33. Boris) Yeltsin
33. Russia; president; change to a market economy was disastrous; 1998 Russia barely avoided financial collapse; Resigned in 1999
(31. Marie) Fourcade
31. France; directed 3000 people underground and helped downed Allied planes to safety
(36. Cecil) Rhodes
36. (1890s) Britain; businessman who took control of Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
(30.) Henri Matisse
*30. (early 1900s) Outraged public with his bold use of color and odd distortions; dubbed a fauves or 'Wild Beast';
(26.) Kawasaki
26. Japan; a family that soon ruled over industrial empires (zaibatsu) in Japan
(33.) Vladimir Putin
*33. Russia; a veteran of the Soviet secret police; brought Russian success in the war with Chechnya; more order and less corruption in gov. and some economic improvement; projected toughness and strength;
(26. Antonio Lopez) de Santa Anna
26. (1833-1855) Mexico; gained and lost power many times; first was liberal, then reversed his stand and crushed reform efforts;
(37.) Vincente Fox
*37. (2000) Mexico; The PRI lost majority in national legislature, so he won presidency; promised change - more rapid economic growth, reduction of poverty, and assault on corruption
(26. John) MacDonald
26. (1800s) Canada; urged confederation of Canada's provinces; feared U.S. Domination; worked with Cartier; Canada's 1st prime minister; (1885) built the Canadian Pacific Railway
(29. Francisco) Madero
29. (1910-1912) Mexico; liberal reformer who demanded free elections from Diaz; was imprisoned, and encouraged revolt; Diaz became president and 2 years later assassinated
(36. Thabo) Mbeki
36. (1999) South Africa; elected to presidency;
(37. Benedita) da Silva
37. Brazil; first black woman to be elected to Brazilian congress
(34.) Corazon Aquino
*34. Philippines; widow of popular politician Benigno Aquino; elected in 1986; Country enjoyed economic growth;
(30.) Louie Armstrong
*30. U.S.; African American trumpeter who combined western harmonies and African rhythms;
(35. Ariel) Sharon
35. Israel; succeeded Rabin; announced that there would be no more peace talks until all terrorism ceased;
(35. Anwar) Sadat
35. Egypt; Nasser successor; moved away from Soviet and closer to US; (1979) first Arab leader to make peace with Israel; (1981) Assassinated by Muslim Extremists
(36.) Ian Smith
*36. Britain; led conservative whites for independence (1965) in Zimbabwe
(26. Simon) Bolivar
26. Latin America; hoped to create strong ties among nations in Latin America;
(35. Zulfikar) Ali Bhutto
35. Pakistan; new civilian president, promised to make a prosperous Pakistan; overthrown, tried, and killed by military;
(37. Fernando) de la Rua
37. (1999) Argentina; elected president
(33. Lech) Walesa
33. (1980) Poland; shipyard workers on strike leader; Organized a solidarity with 2 million members; Poland had to outlaw the group and arrest leaders; 1990 - elected president of Poland;
(33.) Margaret Thatcher
*33. (1979-1990); Britain; Conservative prime minister; stressed individual responsibility, reduced social welfare; Iron Lady; retired in 1990;
(33. Vaclav) Havel
33. (1989) Czechoslovakia; elected president; dissident writer and human rights activist;
(29. Emiliano) Zapata
29. Mexico; southern Mexico, an Indian tenant farmer who lead a peasant revolt; followers called Zapatistas
(30) Virginia Woolf
*30. Britain; wrote 'Mrs. Dalloway'; used stream of consciousness to explore hidden thoughts
(29. Leopold) Senghor
29. Senegal; Poet part of the negritude movement; fostered African pride by rejecting negative views of Africa; Later is an activist in Senegal's freedom, and becomes 1st president
(33.) Pope John Paul II
*33. (1979) Poland; visited with Solidarity leaders and criticized communism; former archbishop of Cracow; Religious leader;
(31. Rudolf) Hoess
31. Germany; Nazi commander at Auschwitz; later admitted to the supervision of +2.5 million deaths; tried for 'war crimes'
(37.) Hugo Chavez
*37. Venezuela; centralized power in own hands to advance his populist and nationalist "Bolivarian revolution"
(26.) Benito Juarez
*26. (1855) a liberal who seized power and began an era of reform known as La Reforma; (1861) elected president; lead Mexicans against Napoleon III's troops and Austrian's archduke Maximilian for four years; (1867) Back in power; (1872) died in office
(26. William Lyon) Mackenzie
26. Canada; a leader of the Upper Canada Revolt;
(27.) David Lloyd George
*27. Britain; Prime minister; part of the Big Three; promised a post-war Britain 'fit for heroes'
(31. General Tojo) Hideki
31. (1941) Japan; ordered a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
(26. Commodore) Matthew Perry
*26. (1853) U.S.; Commanded American ships into Tokyo Bay with a letter from the President demanding Japan open its ports to diplomatic and commercial exchange; Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)
(36. Kwame) Nkrumah
36. (late 40s) Gold Coast/Ghana; impatient with Britain's gradual freedom policy; organized a radical political party; (1957) - Became prime minister of Ghana
(31. General Erwin) Rommel
31. (1940-42) German; The "Desert Fox" Mussolini sent forces from his N. African colony to Egypt; Hitler backed him up; very successful;
(27.) Alfred Nobel
*27. Sweden; Regretted military use of his invention dynamite - formed the Nobel Peace Prize;
(37.) Juan Peron
*37. (1946) Argentina; elected president and appealed to nationalism; his policies lead to huge debt and inflation; (1955 - ousted by military) returned in 1973, died 1 yr later and wife took over; 1976 military took back
(30.) Vasily Kandinsky
*30. Russia; with Klee, started the abstract movement
(33. Nikita) Krushchev
33. (xx-1956) Soviet Union; Stalin's successor; shocked when announced 'de-Stalinization'; eased censorship, freed some political prisoners; wanted a "Peaceful Coexistence" with the west; Set up the Warsaw Pact vs. NATO; 1961 - tried to build nuclear arms in Cuba;
(36.) Nelson Mandela
*36. South Africa; ANC vs. violence; went underground; helped organize ANC youths; parts in civil disobedience; (early 60s) arrested; 27 yrs in prison - still a big symbol; (80s) demand for his release went up; 1994 - with help of de Klerk 1st president in a multiracial election;
(33. Konrad) Adenauer
33. (1949-1963) W. Germany; chancellor who helped West Germany go through an "economic miracle";
(34. Deng) Xiaoping
34. (1981) China; after Mao; more moderate leader, practical reformer; Program called Four Modernizations; welcomed joint ventures; died in 1997
(29.) Muhammad Ali Jinnah
*29. (1930s) Pakistan; Leader of the Muslim League; threw support behind a separate state of Pakistan for the Muslims; Pakistan - 'Land of the ritually pure'
(37. Carlos) Menem
37. (1990s) Argentina; Cut inflation and enact government financial reforms urged by IMF; a lot of people stayed jobless
(37. Lazaro) Cardenas
37. (1930s) Mexico; took steps to fulfill promises of Mexican Revolution; distributed lands etc.
(31. Haile) Selassie
31. (1935) Ethiopia; appealed to League of Nations when Italy invaded - voted sanctions, but no real power;
(34. Ngo Dinh) Diem
34. S. Vietnam; non-communist government, supported by U.S.;
(29.) Ataturk
29. (1923-1938) Turkey; (Mustafa Kemal); "father of the Turks"; modernized Turkey and separate religion from government; swept away old tradition calendars, clothes, writing, schools, and traditions;
(29. Francisco) Pancho Villa
29. N. Mexico; a rebel from north; fought mostly for personal power but won some loyalty;
(36. Jomo) Kenyatta
36. (1950s) Kenya; leading spokesman of the Kikiyu; arrested by British to stop violence; eventually released (1963) 1st prime minister of Kenya; 1 yr later, became a republic w/ him as President
(29.) Theodor Herzl
*29. (1897) responded to anti-Semitism in Europe by founding the modern Zionist movement; goal to rebuild Jewish state in Palestine;
(34 Syngman) Rhee
34. S. Korea; non-communist, still authoritarian leader, backed by U.S.;
(35. Hosni )Mubarak
35. Egypt; Sadat's successor; reaffirmed peace w/ Israel and mended fences with neighbors;
(34.) Mao Zedong
*34. (1949) China; communist leader announced the birth of the People's Republic of China; beat Jiang by winning peasant population & women; boost agriculture - collectivization; one-party totalitarian state; health care, increase literacy; 2 Programs called the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution; died 1976
(31.) Benito Mussolini
*31. Italy; Fascist; Socialist in youth; fiery speaker, 'Black Shirts'; Nickname Il Duce 1935 Invades Ethiopia; 1939 - nonaggression pact with Hitler; 1940 - sent forces from N. African colony to Egypt; overthrown in 1943;
(30.) Marie Curie
*30. (early 1900s) France; Scientist, with others, experimenting with radioactivity; discovered they could change atoms of 1 element into atoms of another
(29. W.E.B.) Du Bois
29. African American; Scholar and activist ; Pan-Africanists tried to forge a united front and he organized 1st Pan-African Congress (1919) in Paris;
(27.) Francis Joseph
27. Austria; uncle of Francis Ferdinand; reluctant to go to war - imposed an ultimatum which wasn't met - Germany encouraged war; 1914 - Austria declare war on Serbia
(37.) Violeta Chamorro
*37. (1990) Nicaragua; a moderate woman who won presidency;
(30.) T.S. Eliot
*30. England; a poet; published 'The Waste Land' that portrays the world as spiritually empty and barren
(36. bishop) Desmond Tutu
*36. South Africa; a black Anglican bishop; won Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his nonviolent opposition to apartheid;
(35.) Saddam Hussein
*35. Iraq; Dictator; brutally suppressed opponents; 1980 - seized a disputed border from Iran, 8 years in stalemate; 1990, Invades Kuwait and U.S. saw Saudi Arabia threatened - Gulf War (1991);
(35.) Rajiv Gandhi
*35. India; Grandson of Jawaharlal, son of Indira, husband of Sonia; when assassinated, wife took place; (1980s) Sent troops to smash Tamil and Sri Lankans; attempt failed; (1991) Outraged extremists assassinated
(29. Emperor) Hirohito
29. (1926-1989) Japan; the emperor
(34. Lee Kwan) Yew
34. Singapore; 30 years - Singapore's autocratic prime minister; free-market economy; all successors continued his policies; Confucian values
(26. Emilio) Aguinaldo
26. (1899-1901) Philippines; lead battles against American forces; many died
(26. Captain James) Cook
26. (1770) Britain; Claimed Australia for Britain; (1769) Claimed New Zealand for Britain
(27. Vittorio) Orlando
27. Italy; prime minister; insisted the Allies respect their secret treaty
(29.) Mao Zedong
*29. China; a communist who escaped Jiang; looked to the large peasant mass; Organized peasants in SE China; Jieshi heard about it; to flee (1934) Long March - 100,000 followers, 6,000 miles, 20,000 survivors; forced being polite, no stealing, no damaging crops, etc. At the end, new base in northern China; Japan strikes (1931 and 1937) - forced to form a united front with Jiang; eventual win and move to impose revolutionary change
(34.) Pol Pot
*34. Cambodia; Leader of the Cambodian communist guerrillas called the Khmer Rouge;
(33.) Tony Blair
*33. (1997-now) Britain; Labour party Prime minister who focused on all citizens;
(37. General Augusto) Pinochet
37. (1973-1990) Chile; military ruler; tried to solve economic problems through capitalism; promoted foreign investment and privatized industries;
(30.) Salvador Dali
*30. Spain; surrealist - used images of melting clocks or burning giraffes to suggest chaotic dream state described by Freud
(37.) Eva (Duarte) Peron
37. Argentina; movie star wife; when husband died in 1974, she took over and faced bad situations
(31.) Adolf Hitler
*31. Germany; Nazist; 1919 - joined small group of rights; 1923 - failed attempt to seize power, sent to prison, wrote "Mein Kampf'; in power - 3rd Reich; 1938 - Kristallnacht;1936 sent troops to the demilitarized Rhineland; Guernica in 1937; 1938 engineered Anschluss; Gave Czechoslovakia autonomy; Munich Conference - Br and Fr asked him to stop; 1939- invaded rest of Czecho.; 'Brown Shirts' 1939 - nonaggression pact with Mussolini
(37. General Manuel) Noriega
37. (1989) Panama; removed from Panama, tried, convicted, and imprisoned for drug traffiking; U.S. helped overthrow him
(30.) Albert Einstein
*30. (1905) Germany; advanced his theories of relativity;
(35. Muhammad) Mosaddiq
35. Iran; Led nationalists in parliament to nationalize; in 1953 the US helped oust him from power;
(28.) Vladimir Lenin
*28. Russia; (Ulyanov); hated czar government; read works of Karl Marx and spread those ideas everywhere; 1895 - him and woman Krupskaya were sent to Siberia (got married there); Head of 'Bolsheviks' means 'majority'; 1917 - back and start takeover; 1918 - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; formed Comintern,1921 - full power, but Russia is in bad condition; "war communism", 1922 - democratic and socialist constitution; set up the U.S.S.R.; 1921 - New Economic Policy; death in 1924
(36. Joshua) Nkomo
36. Zimbabwe; a leader of a nationalist group with Mugabe; after independence, power struggle - lost
(27.) Husayn ibn Ali
*27. Arabia; Arab nationalist declared a revolt on the Ottoman empire
(34.) Douglas MacArthur
*34. U.S.; lead troops in the Korean war, World War I and World War II; successes alarmed China, so they allied with North; Led the battles of the Coral Sea, Midway Island, and began "island hopping" campaign;
(34.) Aung San Suu Kyi
*34. Burma/Myanmar; under pressured elections in 1990; she won and military rejected; Her father helped Burma win independence; House arrest, and while she was still under it, she won the Nobel Peace Prize for 'nonviolent struggle'; Released in 1995;
(37. Jacobo) Arbenz
37. (1952) Guatemala; overthrown by Guatemalan soldiers with help of U.S.;
(37. The )Somoza( family)
37. (1936-1979) Nicaragua; strong anti-communist (support of U.S.); looted Nicaragua; Overthrown by Sandanistas
(35.) Benazir
35. Pakistan; Bhutto's daughter; (1988-1996) Ruled as prime minister 2 times (ousted 2 times too)
(30.) Ernest Hemingway
*30. U.S.; novelist who wrote 'The Sun Also Rises' that shows the rootless wanderings of all young people who lack deep convictions.
(37. Getulio)Vargas
37. (1930-45) Brazil; dictator who allied with working poor; military toppled him;
(27. Georges) Clemenceau
27. France; "the Tiger" nickname; chief goal was to weaken Germany, never to threaten France again
(37. Archbishop) Oscar Romero
*37. (1960s-1970s) El Salvador; a priest part of the liberation theology and urged the Church to become a force for reform; assassinated by a right-wing death squad
(31. Lily) Litvak
31. Soviet Union; Shot down 12 German planes before she was killed
(35.) Yasir Arafat
*35. Palestine; headed the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO); signed the Oslo accord with Rabin;
(34. Ferdinand) Marcos
34. (1965) Philippines; Elected president, but became dictator, cracked down on free speech and killed opponent Aquino; Held elections in 1986;
(37. Dr. Francois) Duvalier
37. (1957-1971) Haiti; "Papa Doc"; Brutal secret police and terrorized;
(35.) Jawaharlal Nehru
*35. (1947-64) India; worked to build a modern, secular state to promote social justice; succeeded by daugher Indira and later grandson Rajiv; built dams for hydroelectric power, steel industries, education, Green Revolution,
(27. Gavrilo) Princip
27. (1912) Bosnia; shot Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife, Sophie
(31. Harry) Truman
31. US; took office after FDRs sudden death; issued the atomic bomb on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; (1947) Truman Doctrine - a promise to stop advance of Soviets in any part of the country; Marshall Plan - aid to hungry countries; supervised Berlin Airlift;
(27. Arthur) Zimmermann
27. Germany; foreign minister who sent a message to his ambassador in Mexico; promised to get land from U.S. back (Texas, Arizona, New Mexico) if they had support; intercepted by British (1917) and given to the U.S.
(37. John F.) Kennedy
37. (1962) U.S.; declared a naval blockade on Cuba and demanded Soviets remove weapons
(34.) Kim IL Sung
*34. N. Korea; communist ally of Soviet Union; state-owned industries and collective farms; Died, and son took over;
(29.) Sun Yixian
*29. (1900s); China; "father" of Chinese Revolution, overthrew the Qing dynasty; Wanted to rebuild China on the Three Principles of the People; (1912) Stepped down (1921) With his Guomanding he established a gov't. in south China; died in 1925
(30. Lady Nancy) Astor
30. Britain; first woman to serve in British Parliament
(28.) Joseph Stalin
*28. (Djugashvili); 1900 - joined Bolshevik underground; name means "Man of Steel"; spent time in Siberia; put his friends in top jobs and isolated Trotsky; (1928) Five-Year Plans, command economy, collectives, destroyed kulaks, (1934) - The Great Purge; used propaganda, terror, atheism, socialist realism, died 1953
(33. Hulmut) Kohl
33. (1989) W. Germany; chancellor; (1990) became a chancellor of a united Germany;
(27. Colonel ) T. E. Lawrence
*27. Britain; Sent 'Lawrence of Arabia' to aid Ali; led guerrilla raids against Turks
(31. Franklin D.) Roosevelt
U.S.; President; (1941) Lend-Lease Act, Atlantic Charter; declared war after Pearl Harbor
(29. General Reginald) Dyer
29. Britain; banned public meetings in India; opened fire on unarmed people killing 379 and wounding +1,100 - Called the Amristar Massacre
(30. Herbert) Hoover
30. (1929) US; stock market crashed, and he believed government shouldn't intervene in private business matters;
(29) Porfirio Diaz
*29. (1910) Mexico; succeeded Juarez; harsh rule, but many economic advances; rich were rich, poor = poor; many fell into peonage; uled 35 years; Discontent in the early 1900s; Madero revolted and he resigned in 1911;
(27.) Woodrow Wilson
*27. U.S.; president (1917) asked congress to declare war on Germany; (Lusitania) by 1918 - ready to fight and supply; wrote the 14 Points to try and be a peacemaker; favored self-determination; one of the Big Three, supported 14 Points and peace

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