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Page six


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The right of foreign residents in a country to live under the laws of their native country and disregard the laws of the host country. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, European and American nationals living in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right.
Gama, Vasco da (1460-1524)
Portuguese explorer. IN 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Five-Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. They succeeded in making the Soviet Union a major industrial power before World War II.
People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects.
An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries A.D. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of souther Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysion isthmus.
Aristocratic family that dominated the Japanese imperial court between the ninth and twelfth centuries.
European Community (EC)
The European Economic Community, an organization promoting economic unity, became the European Community in 1967, cnsolidating earlier, more limited, agreements. Replaced b the European Union (EU) in 1993.
ethnic cleansing
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. Ethnic cleansing was used by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.
In medieval Europe, land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service.
free-trade imperialism
Economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while mainting the legal independence of the weaker state. In the late nineteenth cetury, free-trade imperialism characterized the relations between the Latin American republics, on the one hand, and Great Britain and the United States, on the other.
First temple
A monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by King Soloman in the tenth century B.C. to be the religious center for the Israelite god Yahweh. The Temple priesthood conducted sacrifices, received a tithe or percetage of agricultural revenues, and become economically and politically powerful. The First Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 B.C., rebult on a modest scale in the late sixth century B.C., and replaced by King Herod's Second Temple in the late first century B.C. (destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D.).
Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790)
American intellectual, inventor, and politician. He helped negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Faisal (1885-1933)
Arab prince, leader of the Arab Revolt in World War I. The British made him king of Iraq in 1921, and he reigned under British protection until 1933.
Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939)
Austrian psychiatrist, founder of pyschoanalysis. He argued that pyschological problems were caused by traumas, especially sexual eperiences in early childhood, that were repressed in later life. His ideas caused considerable controversy among psychologists and in the general public. Although his views on repressed sexuality are no longer widely accepted, his psychoanalytical methods are still very influential.
Gandhi, Mohandas K. (Mahatma) (1869-1948)
Leader of the Indian movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. After being educated as a lawyer in England, he returned to India and became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920. He appealed to the poor, led nonviolent demonstrations against British colonial rule, and was jailed many time. Soon after independence he was assassinated for attempting to stop Hindu-Muslim rioting.
Fascist Party
Italian political party created durig World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922-1943.
Fourteen Points
A peace program presented to the U.S. Congress by President Woodrow Wilson in January 1918. It called for the evacuation of German-occupied lands, the drawing of borders and the settling of territorial disputes by the self-determination of the affected populations, and the founding of an association of nations to preserve the peace and guarentee their territorial integrity. It was rejected by Germany, but made Wilson the moral leader of the Allies in the last year of World War I.

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