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Anthro exam 2


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conflict resolution in foraging societies
based on informal sanctions. can include fissioning, ridicule and authority by elders
reverse dominance
the control the whole group has over a leader who tried to assert political power or control over them.
political organization in foraging societies
leaders do not control economic resources or exercise political power. band societies are egalitarian. bands have reverse dominance
Gender and the division of labor
in foraging societies the men hunt a get meat while the women gather most of the non-meat foods.
reasons for the division of labor
male are stronger and have more endurance females bear and nurse children restricting their mobility gathering is safer
Divorce among foragers
divorce is easily accomplished in hunter-gatherer societies and is a simple matter characterized by cordiality and cooperation.
male resides for a specified amount of time with his wife's parents' band
wife exchange
practice of forming partnerships with other males aimed at having sex with each other's wives.
cross-cousin marriage
male marries he father's sister's daughter or his mother's brother's daughter
Patrilocal residence rule
the newly marries couple resides with the husband's father
Marriage and kinship in band societies
mostly monogamous but there is some polygamy. marriages are arranged in 'betrothals.' girls are usually younger than the men they get married to.
Social organization in foraging societies
made up of nuclear family and a band. a band is a cluster of nuclear families ranging in size from 20-100 members
the belief that spirits reside in all inorganic and organic substances
australian aborigine concept that dreamtime represents the time of the birth of the universe and the time of the unification of all substance and spirit. they believe that dead ancestors live in dreamtime and intervene in daily human activity.
the belief that when people or animals die, their souls enter into newly born humans and animals to live life anew. belief is held by inuit eskimos
Soul Loss
the theft of a person'e soul from his body by spirits resulting in mental and physical illness. belief held by inuit eskimos.
Slash and Burn
aka. swidden. the practice or cutting down the ground cover and buring it to enrich the soil with nutrients before planting.
Pastoral lifestyle
raising and pasturing domesticated animals.
practice of following heards of animals as they migrate with the seasons.
the practice of moving animals up and down the hill of mountains according to the seasons.
Agrarian or agricultural lifestyle
aka. intensive agricultural society. started in the Tigris and Euphrates valley 6000 years ago. they use technology to produce a lot of food surplus. after it started there was a rapid expansion of knowledge and the invention of writing systems and legal codes.
A system of symbols with standard meanings
Language features
Absolute, a commonality, universal, distinguishing feature of humans, central element of human though, integral component of human cultures
Language functions
distinguishes cultural groups, gives identity, stores values and symbolic meanings, unites people, "social glue"
act of transferring information to others. enables us to know where we have been, what we have been, where we are now and what we are, and most inportantly where we still must go and what we still must be.
scientist whostudy the behavior of primates in their natural setting
Jane Goodall
spent 30+ studing primate behavior at Gombe Stream Nation Park in Tanzania
Dian Fossey
Gorilla expert
chimpanzee who learned ASL
Chimpanzee who learned to type using a color coded keyboard
famous gorilla who learned ASL and scored just slightly below a normal human child on an intelligence test
Gombe Research center
animals learned to wash their sweet potatoes?
Difference between animal and human communication
human communication has: productivity, displacement, and arbitrariness
Bowwow theory
language started when humans started mimicking the sounds of nature
ding dong theory
language started when people started making sounds that were related to the ideas or behavior they represented
Call Systems theory
Charles F. Hockette, most widely accepted, evolved in 3 stages (single vocalization, blending and duality of pattern phase)
Broker's Area
Left side of brain, used for production of sounds
Wernicke's Area
Left side of brain, used for interpretation of sounds
Adam's Apple
voice box, used for the production and control of sounds, unique to humans
relates to the production of sound patterns in language, how sounds and combined and used
relates to the arrangement of sound patters in language
relates to the arrangement of words, phrases and sentences
refers to the meaning of words, phrases and sentences in language
Noam Chomsky's theory of language learning
language in innate and universal. Language learning is natural and part of all humans
John Locke's theory of language learning
(Habit Formation Hypothesis) Children only learn language through habit. child's mind is blank slate, or Tabula rasa, at birth
E. B. Skinner's theory of language learning
(stimiulis and response theory) children learn lauguage through positive and negative stimiulus like reward when the child learns or punishment when the child does not.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
language reflects culture and environment.
Nonverbal Communication
kinesics, proximics, and paralanguage.
Body language
study of the meaning and manipulation of space (ex. how close people stand when having a conversation)
sounds that accompany speech such as laughing, crying, tone of voice, tempo, exclamations
Body size manipulations
reduction or increase in body size to demonstrate superior or inferior status (bowing to reduce one's size, standing on a platform to increase)
Ranking in Language
In hierarchical societies the most dominant group generally claims that its own speech and grammatical pattern is the 'proper' language while branding the speech patterns of micro-cultural groups as 'dialects'
African American vernacular English (AAVE)
language mostly spokern by african americans of working class background
Arthur Jensen
racist who argues that AAVE symbolizes the genetic inferiority of african americans
language used by poor or less powerful groups in a society. "language is a dialect with an army behind it, dialect is a language without an army"
Code switching
translating, interpreting
the different ways in which men and women speak in public and private
an advances technique by which linguist separate out languages for study
total stock of words in a language
smallest meaningful unit of a language
language which emerges when people combine terms from a least two languages and develop a simple grammatical structure to communicate with one another
accepted and adopted language that evolves from pidgin
the oldest language in a given linguistic context; a parent language for ancient and modern languages (ex. latin is a protolanguage of western european languages)
Universal grammar
set of principles, conditions, and rules that underlie all language
the process by which children respond to the world around then and begin to learn their culture, is a cultural universal or characteristic of all cultures
related concepts to Enculturation
psychological anthropology, child rearing, personality development
how enculturation takes place
conciously or overtly as formal education and unconscoiusly or socially as found within the family, peer group or society in general
When is the child recognized as human?
varies from culture to culture but is an important time for each child
Lohorung Rai
Eastern Nepal. Introduced to ancestors at 5 or 6 years and then considered human. both mother and child are isolated until the rite of passage is performed.
American southwest. newborns are considered soft and unripe like an unfinished clay vessle and kept inside. at 8 days they are safe to expose to the outside world.
Naming children
an important even linked with recognition of the child as a person. methods of naming children differ from culture to culture
Rite of Passage
ritual that marks culturally significant transition throughout the life cycle including birth, puberty, marriage and death
initial ritual
activity that marks a person's transition from childhood to adulthood
The Kpelle
Liberia. groups of boys are isolated in 'bush schools' for 4 years to learn how to be an adult. they go through poro ceremony and are physically transformed by beatings, verbal harassment, circumcision and scarification.
native american rites of passage
tribes of the midwest and plains send boys and sometimes girls too on lonely individual quests for visions. they learned how to interact with spirits, endurance, self control, self reliance and courage
Functions of Enculturation
makes one human, gives individuals a personality, gives individuals a social identity, permits internalization (process by which individuals learn the values, attitudes and practices of their group members so wells that they no longer question then but simply accept them as correct.) permits individuals to identify and bond with significant people, exposes individuals to important social events
Genie the wild californian girl
13 year old girl found after total isolation for most of her life. couldn't learn to speak and physical and mental development was stunted (similar to victor, example of what happens without enculteration)
Culture and Personality theory
relationship between psychology and culture. ruth benedict and margaret mead were prominent people in this area of research.
Ruth Benedict
Studies native americans and came up with personality types in culture
Apollonian personality
pueblo indians, rarely induldent in violence, drugs, alcohol to transcend their senses
Dionysian personality
plain indians, involved in warfare and violence and ritual behavior included the use of drug, alcohol, fasting and bodily self-torture to induce religious ecstasy.
megalomaniac personality
Kwakiutl indians, characterized by childish feelings of omnipotence
Paranoid personality
Dobuan indians, characterized by fear and hatred for one another.
Margaret Mead
studied samoan girls and concluded that biology has little influence on human behavior.
the six culture project
proved the validity of the culture and personality approach initiated by margaret mean. revealed that there is a great diversity in the ways children are raised in different societies of the world.
Japanese Child enculturation
(Joy Hendry)upheld culture on personality. Japanese attach extreme importance on child enculturation
uchi behavior
japanese indoor behavior associated with safety, security and cleaniness
Soto behavior
japanses outdoor behavior associater with danger, big dogs, strangers, demons and ghosts
japanese age behaviors
0-2 child plays with siblings and cousins 2-4 child allowed to play in the immediate neighborhood if it is safe 4-5 child is introduces to group life with outriders in kindergarten or nursery school
Japanese vs. american enculteration
Japan-does not emphasize individuality like the US but still learn to respect ones talents. Japanese are no passive recipients of their culture but are active contributors
Kaluli child enculturation
papua new guinea. Ade relationship. older sisters raise the younger children. the sisters learn to be mothers.
Sigmund Freud
psychologist. created psychoanalytical theory of enculturation which focuses on drives.
Id force
natural, unconcious, irrational, animal or selfish force. impulse to seek pleasure and gratification
Ego force
restraining force. represents norms and values learned through socialization. controls the Id force.
Superego force
moderating force, voice of conscience. mediated between the Id and Ego. allows individual to make mature decision.
Eros, thanatos, sublimation
same as Id, Ego and superego??
Nancy Chodorow
Object Relations Theory-individuals personality or behavior is the product of the primary people and objects which individuals encountered in their early childhood days. personality is strongly attached to the primary care-giver.
Asymmetrical division of Labor
Mothers do more and fathers do less for the child. allows children to bond more with their mothers than their fathers. (chicano families are proof against this theory)
Jean Piaget
responsible for Childhood Cognitive Theory- development of identity is closely related to a child's cognitive ability.
Sensory Motor stage
birth-2 years. children experience the world through the 5 senses
Preoperational stage
2-7 years. children begin to use language not no capable of abstract reasoning.
Concrete Operational stage
7-12 years. children learn to use logic and manipulate a wide variety of symbols. also begin to use abstract reasoning.
Formal Operational stage
12+ years. children gain complete abstract reasoning and complex analytical skills
culture and mental illness
mental illness considered abnormal in western sociect is rampant in specific regions of the world and considered normal.
mental disorder in east and southeast asia. hysteria that affects women.
culture specific disorder found in southeast asia. found in middle-aged males. after provacation, the man goes violently crazy.
found in the chippewa and cree indians of canada. characterized by deep depression and cannibalistic tendencies.
found in the eskimos of greenland. more serious form of cabin fever more frequent among females.
Subsistence Patterns
methos of obtaining food using available land and resources, available labor and energy, and technology
people whose subsistance patter is hunting and gathering. foragers live in band societies, hunting-gathering societies, paleolithic societies or old stone age societies.
people who do not have permanent home but travel to resources of food as the becomes seasonably available.
a subsistence pattern in which people raise and care for large herds of domesticated animals
a subsistence strategy that focuses on small-scale farming using relatively simple technology.
refers to the principles of mutual gift giving
perception of contemporary hunting-gathering societies by modern anthropologists
contemporary anthropologist don't think that modern hunting-gathering societies are similar to paleolithic hunting-gathering societies because: modern day h-g societies live in marginal environment and modern day h-g societies have been altered by near by agricultural societies and modern technology
Marginal Environments
environments that are not suitable for intensive agriculture. Marginal environments include: deserts, tropical rain forests, and cold arctic deserts
the Inuit and Inupiat
are cold desert foragers. hunt seals in winter, caribou in fall. men hunt and women gather
Inupiat whaling leader. receives a larger portion of the kill. the hunter who kills the animal also get a large portion or the hide.
John Yellen and Richard Lee
studied the Kung San or Ju/Hoansi
Kung San or Ju/Hoans
Kalahari Desert example of arid and semi-arid desert foragers over 11,000 years old population is around 100,000 people diet: 60-80% nuts, roots, fruit, melons and berries 20-30% meat from hunting Kung San adults spent only 2-3 days a week hunting and gathering food.
Tropical rain forest hunter-gathers
Inturi pygmies of the central african tropical rain forest studied by collin turnbull and the Semang of the malaysian and thai peninsula.
african rain forest people who participate in group hunting and have a division of labor similar to other hunting-gathering groups.
main characteristic of hunter-gatherer societies. most be able to follow the food
demographic conditions of foragers
populations of forager societies are limited by the environment. Methods of population control are: fissioning, infanticide, and breast feeding to lower fertility rates
the movement of people from one group to another when population begins to increase and food or other materials become scarce.
the deliberate killing or abandonment of infants, usually immediately after birth.
technology in hunter-gatherer societies
technology is highly related to the ecological condition in which a society lives. example of technology are: extensive knowledge of plants and animals, small bows and arroes and spears, trap, snares and nets, and blowguns
Generalized reciprocity
a pattern of exchange in which an immediate return is not expected. ex. american parents paying for food, clothing and shelter.
Balanced Reciprocity
more direct form of reciprocal exchange that has an explicit expectation of immediate return. ex. paying correct value for goods and services.
negative reciprocity
the attempt to get something for nothing. ex. bargaining, haggling, gambling, cheating, theft, or the outright seizure of goods.

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