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Social Psychology Midterm 2


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idea that we focus in on our group as being good and others as bad
Robber's Cave studies
- brought a young group of boys together in a naturalistic setting
- separated the boys into 2 groups
- Phase 1: Ingroup formation - Eagles and the Rattlers
- Phase 2: Competition - pitted the 2 groups against one another; fostered an intense dislike of one another
- Phase 3: Superordinate goal - something that the boys all wanted but could not do by themselves, which forced them to cooperate
Realistic Group Conflict theory
- intergroup relations are driven by structures in the environment
- groups dislike each other because both want scarce resources
When does contact between groups reduce hostility?
- equal status: everybody needs to have equal standing to get along well with one another
- situation must involve cooperation
- situation must be informal enough to allow group members to get to know one another as individuals
- interaction must permit disconfirmation of negative stereotyped beliefs
- persons involved must view one another as typical of their respective groups
What is Social Identity theory? How does it explain group conflict?
- individuals strive to maintain positive social identity
- positive social identity is based on favorable comparisons between ingroups and outgroups
- when social identity is unsatisfactory, individuals will strive to leave the group and join some more positively distinct group or try to make their own group more positively distinct
Optimal Distinctiveness Model
- need for assimilation (belongingness, fitting in)
- need for differentiation (being unique)
- we want to stand out but we don't want to be the only one
What are social dilemmas?
- if everyone in a group acts in their own self-interest then the whole group suffers
- theory of the commons
BELIEFS about a certain group of people; cognitive component
ATTITUDES; having a negative attitude towards a person because they belong to a certain social group; emotional component
BEHAVIORS; putting stereotypes and prejudices to action
What are the origins of stereotypes?
Cognitive, motivational, social
Cognitive origins of stereotypes
- categorization: we very quickly pick up on race, age, gender, etc.
- stereotypes are basically cognitive shortcuts
- we're most likely to use stereotypes when we're tired, sick, busy, etc. and don't have time to get to know the person
- Bodenhausen nocturnal and diurnal collge students study
Motivational origins of stereotypes
- social comparison
- belief in a just world: bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
Social origins of stereotypes
- social roles: stereotypes can develop out of the social roles that people have ben assigned
- group conflict: putting people in competition sometimes creates negative stereotypes
- media portrayal
Social outgroup homogeneity effect
the perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in-group are
Social comparison
- upward social comparison: comparing ourselves to someone who is better off than us; can motivate us to improve but can also be a blow to our self-esteem

- downward social comparison: thinking about ourselves relative to others who are worse off; makes us feel better and boosts our self-esteem (we put others down in order to make ourselves feel better)
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
the case whereby people 1) have an expectation about what another person is like, which 2) influences how they act towards that person, which, 3) causes that person to behave in a way consistent with people's original expectations
Having different stereotypes based on the situation; ex: having one stereotype concerning women but having a different sterotype concerning women lawyers

2 views on subtypes:
- Weber and Crocker: maintains stereotypic belief; can put exceptions into a subtype and still protect the main stereotype
- Brewer: replaces stereotypic belief; if you break a stereotype down into several subtypes then you're getting closer to individualization
Automatic vs controlled processes
Devine's theory that stereotypes are automatic and personal beliefs are controlled

- people grow up knowing the stereotypes of their culture (automatic)
- people might know the stereotypes but not believe them (controlled)
How are stereotypes maintained?
- priming: effects our attitudes more if it reinforces our stereotypes
- attribution: we make attributions that help us protect our stereotypes
Consequences of stereotypes
- stereotype vulnerability
- tokenism/solo effects
Stereotype vulnerability/threat
- fear of confirming a negative view of your social group
- might lead to: 1) distraction from task, 2) poorer performance
Token/solo effects
- when there's only one of your "category" in a group (ex: only 1 woman)
- can lead to cognitive deficits because people feel the extra burden of representing their group
Models of stereotype change
- societal reforms or historical events
- bookkeeping model: gradual change as you have more and more positive experiences with the group you have stereotyped (can also happen in the negative direction)
- conversion model: abrupt change in views
Reduction of prejudice at the intergroup level
- decategorization/individuation
- recategorization
- cross-cutting identities

(illustrated through Robber's Cave study)
Basis for and effects of jigsaw classrooms
a classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class
Modern prejudice
outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes
Subtle sexism
2 types of subtle sexism:

- hostile sexism: stereotypical views of women that suggests that women are inferior to men

- benevolent sexism: stereotypical belief that women are the weaker sex but benevolent sexists tend to idealize women romantically and want to protect them when they do not need protection
Individualistic cultures
- view the self as independent
- "masculine" traits: assertiveness, uniqueness, etc.
- Western cultures
Collectivist cultures
- interdepent self; the self is shaped by relationships
- "feminine" traits: nurturing, empathy, etc.
- Eastern and Latin American cultures
Effects of individualism and collectivism
- basis of self-esteem: relationships vs achievements
- interdependent selves tend to be more sensitive to context and role obligations (less likely to show fundamental attribution error)
- emotional expression: independent individuals are more likely to feel and express strong emotions (interdependent individuals are less likely to do so because they do not want to create a social disruption)
- self-presentation: self-enhancement is less acceptable to interdependent individuals
Criticisms of the individualism/collectivism approach
- fosters prejudice by grouping masses of people together
- ignores within-culture differences
- globalization is diluting culture somewhat
- what people really feel vs what they tell you
- value spin: idea that one way is better than another (verges on negative stereotypes)
- research issues: translation
Culture of honor
- cultural complex that has an extreme concern with reputation and insults; male autonomy and freedom
- comparison between Northerners and Southerners in the US
- leads to a particular type of violence: violent response to insults
- evidence: archival - higher rate of passionate acts of violence in the South, field study - "job application letter", "insult" study
evaluations of people, objects, and ideas (the degree of like or dislike)
How are attitudes measured?
- self-report: just ask the person; bogus pipeline
- physiological measures
- behavioral measures: lost-letter technique
How do attitudes relate to behavior? When will attitudes predict behavior?
- principle of aggregation: a general attitude may not predict a specific behavior but it will eventually
- the more specific the attitude, the better at predicting the behavior
- strong attitudes succesfully predict behavior
LaPiere study
- LaPiere went to several establishments in the 1930s with a young Chinese couple (there was prevalent prejudice against the Chinese during this time period)
- only 1 establishment refused them service
- LaPiere wrote a letter to all of the establisments: "Would you accept people of the Chinese race in your establishment?"
- 92% said no yet only 1 establishment had actually refused them service
When does behavior determine attitudes?
if there is cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance theory
a drive or feeling of discomfort, orignally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions

- feel a motivation to reduce dissonance; uncomfortable feeling
Dissonance effects
- insufficient justification (Festinger and Carlsmith study with tedious tasks)
- spreading of alternatives: enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives
- severity of initiation (sex talks)
Self-perception theory
- people try to figure out what their attitudes are by looking at their behavior
- overjustification ("marker study")
Dissonance theory vs self-perception theory
- clear knowledge of atttitudes from the beginning
- attitude-discrepant behavior
- production of a motivational state

- vague attitude awareness
- behavior not very discrepant
- no motivational state produced
Yale Model
"Who says what to whom (and with what effect)?"

Attention (Source)
Comprehension (Message)
Yielding (Recipient)
Retention (Channel)
Is the source trustworthy? Is the source an expert?

- if a source is credible, it's more persuasive
Sleeper effect
- with time, credible sources become less persuasive
- with time, low credibility sources become more persuasive
One-sided vs two-sided arguments
in most cases, two-sided arguments are more persuasive; if poeple are NOT going to hear opposite arguments, however, then one-sided arguments work
When do fear appeals work?
- danger is serious
- dangerous outcome is probable
- response recommended will work
- target is able to make the recommended response (has to be able to do what you're asking)
Elaboration Liklihood Model
an explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments and are instead swayed by surfcae characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech)
Central route to persuasion
focus on main arguments (naive scientist)

- produce stronger attitudes
Peripheral route to persuasion
focus on peripheral cues; focus on things that don't really pertain to argument, only surface factors (cognitive miser)

- produce weaker attitudes
What determines whether a central or peripheral route to persuasion will be taken?
based on presence of motivation and ability; if have both then central route, if missing one then peripheral route
Resistance to attitude change
- forewarning: can have a response ready
- reactance: can occur when we feel that our freedom is being threatened
- inoculation: cultural truisms; making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
- selective perception: we have some control over what we're exposed to
Subliminal advertising
words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people's judgments, attitudes, and behaviors
Theory of planned behavior
the idea that the best predictors of a person's planned, deliberate behaviors are the person's attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
Political psychology
interface of psychology and political science
Sears critique of over-reliance on college samples
compared to older adults, college students are likely to have:
- less crystallized attitudes
- less formulated senses of self
- stronger cognitive skills
- stronger tendencies to comply with authority
- more unstable peer-group relationships

implication is that a broader set of people should be used in experiments
- expectation that you will have to justify your beliefs, feelings, or actions to others
- might shift our beliefs or make our argument more complex depending on the audience's beliefs
On-line vs memory based evaluation of candidates
- can evaluate candidates based on a running tally (running evaluation which we adjust as we encounter new information)
Media effects: hypodermic model, minimal effects, modern approaches
- hypodermic model: media is like a big needle that injects beliefs into its viewers
- minimal effects model: media does not tell us what to think; does not effect us at all
- modern approach: sophisticated techniques, subtle effects, agenda-setting
media can tell us what to think ABOUT; decides what the focus will be
Personalities of leaders (Winter study)
- looked at speeches and public announcements to find an underlying theme
- 3 motives: affiliation (concern for close relationships), achievement (concern for excellence), power (concern for impact and prestige)
- coded first inaugural address and matched it up with coding of cultural documents
- match of president and nation predicted popularity, electoral success
- mismatch predicted presidential greatness
Darwinian tradition of emotion
- emotions have adaptive functions: emotions come out of actions
- universality of emotions (at a certain level)
Display rules
culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
Basic emotions
Izard criteria for basic emotions:
- specific neural substrate
- characteristic facial expression or neuromuscular expression
- distinct subjective quality
James-Lange theory
Perception -> bodily response -> emotion

gives a lot of support towards biological basis of emotions
Schachter two-factor theory
the idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it

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