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Key Terms for Art, Pop Culture, and High Culture in Enlightenment


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Henry Fielding
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling---writer whose book was about a young scoundrel, but its deeper meaning was attacking the hypocrisy of the age
"Messiah"---Ironic because he was hightly secular, but is best known for his religious piece. He wrote huge, unusual-sounding pieces
Joseph II
Toleration Patent of 1781---leader of Austria that supported religious toleration. In the Toleration Patent, he allowed Calvinists, Lutherans, and Greek Orthodox to worship privatley. He also later gabe the Jews some rights and advised them to learn German so that they could assimulate easier.
"Oath of Horatii"---was a propogandist for the French revolution
Addison and Steele
"Spectator"---wrote a short-lived magazine that's goal was to intruct and entertain at the same time. It had a strong appeal to women.
ethics and morals
showed the importance of man, and a good example is David.
Jewish massacres that were used as emotional outlets
new artistic style that was highly secular and emphasized grace and gentle action
celebrated for weeks leading up to the beginning of Lent. It was a time of great indulgence and ended on Marti Gra (Fat Tuesday).
"Mass in B Minor," "Saint Matthew's Passions"---used music as a way to worship God
"He who wishes to comprehend God with his mind becomes an atheist."---leader of Moravin Brethren. Opposed rationalism in religion and wanted a personal experience with God. Mystical.
Voltaire (as Historian)
The Age of Louis XIV---Initiated the modern ideal for social history. Wrote of how Louis XIV was the greatest monarch, but also criticized
seeking out Church holiness and also helped spread the Catholic church
"The Creation" and "The Seasons"---He wrote 104 symphonies and when he visited England, he wrote concerts for the public. "The Creation" and "The Seasons" are both dedicated to the common people.
Gin and Vodka
Gin was in England and vodka was in Russia. They were both cheap, and so drunk by the poor.
a system of state-supported primary schoold in the Habsburg Austrian Empire.
Toleration Patent
made by Joseph II, and gave Lutherans, Calvinists, and Greek Orthodox the right to worship privatley. Now, all subjects were equal.
an important revival of Christianity that people need a spiritual experience
"The Marriage of Figaro," "Don Giovanni," and "The Magic Flute"---child prodigy whose successful life started at six and he wrote his first opera at age 12. He excelled, but died at age 36.
Edward Gibbon
Decline and Fall of Roman Empire---blamed the fall of the Roman Empire on Christianity. This is NOT true.
Samuel Richardson
Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded---writer whose book is about a girl who is actually useful. This showed the value of women.
Sephardic Jews
they were expelled from Spain. They were the rich jews who were invovled in commercial and banking activities.
Methodism---converted to ideas of Moravin Brethen during storm. Protestant Revivalism brought through emotion. All can be saved by experiencing God.
Balthasar Neumann
a Rococo artist whose two masterpieces were the pilgramage church of the Vierzehnheiligen (The Fourteen Saints) and the Bishop's Palace
a school that offered modern languages, geography, and bookkeeping to prepare young boys for careers in business. (in Germany)
Moravin Brethren
founded by Zizendorf and they wanted a personal experience with God
On the Crimes and Punishments---believed there should be no death penalty or capital punishment. Was not rational beause that is what we do today in America.
Ashkenazic Jews
the biggest group of Jews in Eastern Europe

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