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Muslim Empires: Umayyads, Abbasids, and Spanish Umayyads

This is a great social studies unit on the Muslims! I've been enjoying it, and this is my last test! Thnx Ms. B!

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Which Islamic Empire, in your opinion, was the most successful and why?
In my opinion, the most successful Islamic Empire was that of the Spanish Ummayads. This is because they came back to power, in an even better location. Cordoba was a magnificent spot for a capital and it had many great achievements. (See above.) The Spanish Ummayad Empire lasted the longest of the three Islamic Empires, also. The Great Mosque was another great achievement Muslims in Spain had. The mosque is a great tribute to the world, being the third largest.
empire
a number of people or provinces ruled by one central authority
bureaucracy
many different departments managed by works appointed by the caliph
Why did the Umayyads move the capital to Damascus?
The Umayyads did this because it was a central location and Muawiya's family was there.
calligraphy
the art of fine handwriting
legacy
something handed down from an ancestor; something of the past.
What were the threats to the Umayyad Empire in Spain?
The threats to the Umayyad Empire in Spain were the Christians to the north, and the Abbasids in the Middle East.
dissent
disagreement-weakened empire
Arabic was declared the official language of the Muslim Empire. What were the positive and negative effects and why?
This was a good thing and a bad thing. First of all, it gave the empire unity, and provided a way for everyone to be able to speak to one another and to deliver messages without a language barrier. The bad thing was that many people had to learn a new language, and the languages people grew up with were no longer spoken.
Who are the Fatimids?
These people fled to North Africa because they thought the Abbasids were corrupt. (Descendants of the prophet Muhammad's daughter.
Why did they move the capital to Baghdad?
The capital was moved because the location of Baghdad was more central, it was between the Tigris and the Euphrates, which meant a great trade route and transportation system, as well as water!
the Reconquest
This was the period in which the Christians from the north reinvaded Spain and captured it for themselves.
emir
governor/ someone to enforce rules
Abd al Rahman
the one person who escaped Abdullah's deadly dinner and fled to Spain to become the leader of the Spanish Ummayads and make Cordoba his capital
faction
opposing groups
How did Abd al Malik unify the empire?
Abd al Malik changed the language so that everyone spoke Arabic, he created a common coinage, and built a mosque in every land he conquered.
Battle of Tours
European armies defeat Muslim armies and stop the spread of Islam in Europe, in 732, Charles Martel, the Hammer
What are the great achievements of Cordoba?
Some great achievements of Cordoba are the Great Mosque, public plumbing, lighted streets, and 60,000 palaces.
Ferdinand and Isabella
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were the king and queen of Castille who married and combined forces, driving the Muslims out of Spain entirely in 1492.
Who conquered the Abbasid Empire?
the Seljuk Turks from Asia, until the Mongols invaded in 1258
Describe the Great Mosque.
It was decorated in gold that was imported from Africa. It was the largest of Cordoba's 3,000 mosques, it became the third largest in the world, it was open to the courtyard to allow Muslims to feel Allahs presence at all times, many people, including Abbasids were attracted to it, and the pillars were made from the many different Roman buildings.

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