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Anthropology Chapters 10-13


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Belief in souls or doubles
cargo cults
Postcolonial, acculturative, religious movements common in Melanesia that attempt to explain Euopean domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior.
communal religions
In Wallace's typology, these religions have in addition to shamanic cults communal cults in which people organize community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and rites of passage.
In Wallace's typology, these religions have in addition to shamanic cults communal cults in which people organize community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and rites of passage.
leveling mechanism
Customs and social actions that operate to reduce differences in wealth and thus to bring standouts in line with community norms.
The critically important marginal or in-between phase of a rite of passage.
Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims.
Sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian religions.
Worship of an eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being.
Olympian religions
In Wallace's typology, develop with state organization; have full-time religious specialists professional priesthoods.
Belief in several deities who control aspects of nature.
Beliefs and rituals concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces.
revitalization movements
Movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society.
rites of passage
Culturally defined activities associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another.
A part-time religious practitioner who mediates between ordinary people and supernatural beings and forces.
Prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions.
One of Karl Marx's opposed classes; owners of the means of production (factories, mines, large farms, and other sources of subsistence).
Wealth or resources invested in business, with the intent of producing a profit.
capitalist world economy
The single world system, which emerged in the sixteenth century, committed to production for sale, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs.
caste systems
Closed, hereditary system of stratification, often dictated by religion; hierarchical social status is ascribed at birth, so that people are locked into their parents social position.
Dominant structural position in the world system; consists of the strongest and most powerful states with advanced systems of production.
A policy of extewnding the rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies.
indigenous people
The original inhabitants of particular territories; often descendants of tribespeople who live on as culturally distinct colonized peoples, many of whom aspire to autonomy.
Industrial Revolution
The historical transformation (in Europe, after 1750) of traditional into modern societies through industrialization of the economy.
open class system
Stratification system that facilitates social mobility, with individual achievement and personal merit determining social rank.
Weakest structural position in the world system.
Structural position in the world system intermediate between core and periphery.
The most extreme, coercive, abusive, and inhumane form of legalized inequality; people are treated as property.
vertical mobility
Upward or downward change in a person's social status.
working class (proletariat)
Those who must sell their labor to survive; the antithesis of the bourgeoisie in Marx's class analysis.
The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
development anthropology
The branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development.
green revolution
Agricultural development based on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, twentieth-century cultivation techniques, and new crop varieties such as IR-8 (miracle rice).
increased equity
reduction in absolute poverty and a fairer (more even) distribution of wealth.
intervention philosophy
Guiding principle of colonialism, conquest, missionization, or development; an ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions.
Characteristic of development projects that require major changes in people's daily lives, especially ones that interfere with customary subsistence pursuits.
Planning fallacy of viewing less developed countries as an undifferentiated group; ignoring cultural diversity and adopting a uniform approach (often ethnocentric) for very different types of project beneficiaries.
cultural imperialism
The rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys usually because of differential economic or political influence.
The offspring of an area who have spread to many lands.
As used by Antonio Gramsci, a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing its values and accepting its naturalness.
hidden transcript
As used by James Scott, the critique of power by the oppressed that goes on offstage in private where the power holders can't see it.
Modified to fit the local culture.
A style and movement in architecture that succeeded modernism. Compared with modernism, postmodernism is less geometric, less functional, less austere, more playful, and more willing to include elements from diverse times and cultures; postmodern now describes comparable developments in music, literature, and visual art.
Condition of a world in flux, with people on-the-move, in which established groups, boundaries, identities, contrasts, and standards are reaching out and breaking down.
public transcript
As used by James Scott, the open, public interactions between dominators and oppressed the outer shell of power relations.
The acculturative influence of Western expansion on other cultures.

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