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Cold War Terms

Terms

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Strom Thurmond
Governor of South Carolina; known for his segregationist views; was the States Rights ("Dixiecrat") candidate in the 1948 election. He had 39 Electoral College votes and won for states in the south.
Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
originally known as the Labor-Management Relations Act; outlawed many practices approved by the Wagner Act (1935); called the "slave labor bill" by union activists because it made it more difficult for workers to establish unions in their industry or trade
Bernard Baruch
American financier, failed to win approval from the Soviet Union with his drafted plan for the United Nations to control atomic power
Executive Order 9835
in March of 1947 Truman signed this which established the federal employees loyalty and security program. This program barred members of the communist party as well as fascists and anyone guilty of sympathetic association with either- from federal government. It also outlined procedures for investigation current and prospective federal employees
Nuremberg trials
the trial of top Nazi officials by the International Court of justice. Proved to be a high point of postwar international cooperation. 21 of the 24 defendants were determined guilty of war crimes and atrocities. Resulted with the Nuremberg principle that stated no soldier or civilian could be required or should obey an order whatever its source that conflicted with basic humanitarian tenants.
Death of a Salesman
written by playwright Arthur Miller (The Crucible); sketched an exacting portrait of self-destructive individualism; the play's hero, Willy Loman, is obsessively devoted to his career in sales but nevertheless, a complete failure; he trained his sons to excel in personal presentation and style, making them shallow and materialistic
Walter Lippman
Critic that complained of Kennan's explanation. Described the position as a "strategic monstrosity" requiring an endless diffusion of American resources for military operations around the world.
George Kennan
foreign policy advisor. In 1946 sent an 8000 word "long telegram" to the state department insisting that soviet fanaticism could be quelled only by ongoing military and diplomatic pressure. Reaffirmed his believe in July 1947. Wrote under the pseudonym "X" in Foreign Affairs. Explained that the future of democracy depended on two possibilities; "either the break up of communism or the gradual mellowing of Soviet power".
Internal Security Act
this was also known as the McCarran Act and the subversive activities control act and this was legislation that provided for the registration of all the communist and totalitarian groups and authorizing the arrest of suspect persons during a national emergency
United Nations
represented all member nations through its General Assmebly, which met for the purpose of deabte but not adjucation. The Security Council had the "primary responsisbilty for the maintenance of international peace and security". During its first decade, the UN operated strictly along lines dictated by the cold war
The Best Years of Our Lives
one of the most acclaimed Hollywood films of the era and winner of nine Academy Awards; followed the stories of three returning veterans as they tried to readjust to civilian life; the former soldiers found that the dreams of reunion with family and loved ones that had sustained them through years of fighting now seemed hollow; women and children had become self-dependent and no longer needed the assistance of the men
Berlin Crisis
june 1948, Stalin stoped all traffic to West Berlin, which was formally controlled by the Western Allies. This crisi made a U.S. led military alliance against the soviets attractive to Western European nations.
Catcher in the Rye
J.D. Salinger; explored the mental anguish of a teenage boy estranged from the crass materialism of his parents
Margaret Chase Smith
Liberal Republican of Maine. Appealed to fellow senators for support in a declaration of conscience against McCarthy. She got only 9 votes
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act
aka the GI Bill of Rights, 1944, offered stipends covering tuition and living expenses to veterans attending vocational schools or college. By the 1947-48 academic year, the federal government was subsidizing nearly half of all male college students. Between 1945 and 1950, 2.3 million students benefited from the GI Bill, at a cost of more that 10 billion dollars
Richard Nixon
Eisenhower's vice president candidate. Was accused of accepting gifts of money from wealthy people, defended himself on television in front of Americans.
Immigration and Nationality Act
this was also known as the McCarran-Walter Immigration Act and in 1952 it reaffirmed the national origins quota system but tightened immigration controls, barring homosexuals and people considered subversive from entering the United States
Alger Hiss
a communist who was a veteran of Roosevelt's state department, Roosevelt's advisor at Yalta and at one point, president at the Carnegie Endowment for international peace, et after he denied any affiliation with the communist party and proceeded to sue his accuser for slander, a star witness- Whittaker Chambers, revealed a cache of microfilms and secret documents that Chambers claimed he passed to him
National Security Act 1947
this was passed by congress and developed the department of defense ( to coordinate the three armed services), the National Security Council (to advise the president on security issues) and the central intelligence agency (to gather and evaluate intelligence data)
NATO
April 1949, 10 European nations, Canada, and the US formed this organization which was a mutual defense pact
cold war
"icy relations" between the US and Soviet Union, who now viewed each other as archenemies, it demanded pledges of absolute loyalty from citizens in every institution from the university to trade unions
Billy Graham
One of the most popular evangelical ministers of the era. Star of the first televised "crusades" for religious revival. He believed that all doubts about the literal interpretation of the bible were traps set by Satan. He supported Republicans and a large increase to money in the military.
Harold Ickes
Secretary of the Interior; was fired by Truman because he was a New Dealer (Truman considered New Dealers to be "crackpots and the lunatic fringe.")
Joseph R. McCarthy
Republican senator; held lists of communists serving secretly in government agencies; this information showed that the U.S. had already fallen prey to subversive influences
International Monetary Fund
helped rebuild war-torn Europe and to assist the nations of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Stabilized exchange rates to permit the expansion of international trade, detered currency conflicts and trade wars and was also seen as a means for blocking any rivals to US economic leadership
Whittaker Chambers
TIME magazine editor and former communist. Confessed to spying for the Soviet Union during the 1930's. Named fellow spies, some of them in Roosevelt's cabinet.
Richard Hofstader
wrote the prize-winning American Political Tradition; described in detail the uniquely American faith in "the economic virtues of capitalist culture as necessary qualities of man"; historians like Hofstader portrayed earlier critics of this consensus, such as the populists, as mentally unbalanced and dangerous to the American democracy.
International Court of Justice
oversaw the trial f the top Nazi officials in 1945 and 1946, which proved to be a high point of post-war international cooperation.
The Rosenbergs
Ethel and Julius were accused of stealing and plotting to convey atomic secrets to Soviet agents. A jury found them guilty of espionage, Albert Einstein, the pope, and the president of France all pleaded for clemency. They died in the electric chair on June 19, 1953.
Dean Acheson
Secretary of the State, issued a 1054 page "White Paper", explaining that the situation of the Cold war in Asia was "beyond the control of the government of the United States"
Election 1948
D-Harry S. Truman; R-Thomas E. Dewey (governor of NY); Truman defeated Dewey with 303 Electoral College votes to189. Also, Strom Thurmond was the running candidate in the States Rights Party
containment policy
a doctrine uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to turn back communism and to secure for the United States the leading role in world affairs. Became the linchpin of US foreign policy.
Fair Deal
Truman's policy that exalted economic growth—not the reapportionment of wealth or political power—as the proper mechanism for ensuring social harmony and national welfare; it insisted on the expansion of foreign trade while relying on the federal government to encourage high levels of productivity at home
Roy Cohn
McCarthy's staff assistant. Used his power to heighten fear of Communism.
Dumbarton Oaks
estate in D.C. where the Allies met to shape the United Nations as an international agency that would arbitrate disputes among members as well as impede aggressors, by military force if necessary
Marshall Plan
Introduced in a commencement speech at Harvard June 5 1947 by George C Marshall. The plan aimed to reduce "hunger poverty desperation and chaos" and to restore "the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a whole. IN effect it brought recipients of aid into a bilateral agreement with the United States. It also created the climate for a viable capitalist economy in Western Europe. It drove us away form the Soviet Union.
Korean War
conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives. The war reached international proportions in June 1950 when North Korea, supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People's Republic of China came to North Korea's aid. After more than a million combat casualties had been suffered on both sides, the fighting ended in July 1953 with Korea still divided into two hostile states. Negotiations in 1954 produced no further agreement, and the front line has been accepted ever since as the de facto boundary between North and South Korea.
Truman Doctrine
1947 pledged the United States to the containment of communism in Europe and elsewhere. The doctrine was the foundation of Truman's foreign policy. It impelled the United States to support any nation, whose stability was threatened by communism or Soviet Union.
Samuel E. Morison
leading historian who insisted that fellow scholars shape their interpretations of the nation's past to highlight traditional values, especially the sanctity of private property.
Hollywood Ten
The Cold War hit the movies in 1947 when the House Un-American Activities Committee descended on Hollywood armed with the names of leading film folk suspected of being communists or left-wing sympathizers. HUAC's hearings resulted in 10 filmmakers going to jail for contempt of Congress and hundreds of actors, writers and directors being put on an unofficial industry blacklist.
Atomic Energy Act
1946, congress granted the Atomic Energy Commission control of all research and development under the strictest standards of national security

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