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Marshall Plan
american plan to help european nations rebuild their econimies after WW II
38 parallel
the line of division between south and north korea
Plessy vs. Fergusen
an 1896 court case in which the Surpreme Court ruled that segregation in public facilities was legal as long as the facilities were equal
Syngman Rhee
In 1948 Rhee became the first president of South Korea. He soon developed a reputation for authoritarian rule and his political opponents were quickly silenced. In June 1949 the United States Army began to withdraw from South Korea. Statements made by General Douglas MacArthur and Dean Acheson suggested that the United States did not see the area as being of prime importance. Acheson argued that if South Korea was attacked: "The initial reliance must be on the people attacked to resist it and then upon the commitments of the entire civilized world under the Charter of the United Nations."Kim Il-Sung, the communist dictator of North Korea, became convinced that the people in the south would welcome being ruled by his government. At dawn on 25th June 1950, the North Koreans launched a surprise attack on South Korea. Three days later, communist forces captured the South Korean capital, Seoul. The Security Council of the United Nations recommended that troops should be sent to defend South Korea. As the Soviet Union was boycotting the Security Council at the time, it was unable to veto this decision. Fifteen nations sent troops to Korea, where they were organized under the command of Douglas MacArthur. The surprise character of the attack enabled the North Koreans to occupy all the South, except for the area around the port of Pusan. On 15th September, 1950, Douglas MacArthur landed American and South Korean marines at Inchon, 200 miles behind the North Korean lines. The following day he launched a counter-attack on the North Koreans. When they retreated, MacArthur's forces carried the war northwards, reaching the Yalu River, the frontier between Korea and China on 24th October, 1950. Harry S. Truman and Dean Acheson, the Secretary of State, told MacArthur to limit the war to Korea. MacArthur disagreed, favoring an attack on Chinese forces. Unwilling to accept the views of Truman and Acheson, MacArthur began to make inflammatory statements indicating his disagreements with the United States government. MacArthur gained support from right-wing members of the Senate such as Joe McCarthy who led the attack on Truman's administration: "With half a million Communists in Korea killing American men, Acheson says, 'Now let's be calm, let's do nothing'. It is like advising a man whose family is being killed not to take hasty action for fear he might alienate the affection of the murders."
Soviet Union leader involved with the Cuban Missile Crisis
Truman Doctrine
stated that america will aid nations threatened by communist expansion
JFK's presidency was full of brave knights and was full of hope and beauty
Demilitarized Zone
area from which military forces are prohibited
Cuban Missile Crisis
major cold war confrontation in 1962 where cuba supposedly had missile pads in range of the us and many threats were made
government space agency that directs the american space program
Forgotten War
Korean war was known as the forgotten war because it was shadowed in one of the biggest wars in history
John F. Kennedy
youngest president ever in the office, first debates ever to be telecasted on t.v. won by less than 1% of the vote very political roman catholic he tried to bring visions to life had his life televised on t.v. in front of the nation was assasinated on november 22, 1963 by lee harry oswald, he brought many organizations on like nasa, peace corps, civil rights, and the alliance fro progress
What does NATO stand for?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
made a doctrine that stated that america will aid nations threatened by communist expansion also was the president during the korean war Thus far, he had followed his predecessor's policies, but he soon developed his own. He presented to Congress a 21-point program, proposing the expansion of Social Security, a full-employment program, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act, and public housing and slum clearance. The program, Truman wrote, "symbolizes for me my assumption of the office of President in my own right." It became known as the Fair Deal. Dangers and crises marked the foreign scene as Truman campaigned successfully in 1948. In foreign affairs he was already providing his most effective leadership.In 1947 as the Soviet Union pressured Turkey and, through guerrillas, threatened to take over Greece, he asked Congress to aid the two countries, enunciating the program that bears his name--the Truman Doctrine. The Marshall Plan, named for his Secretary of State, stimulated spectacular economic recovery in war-torn western Europe. When the Russians blockaded the western sectors of Berlin in 1948, Truman created a massive airlift to supply Berliners until the Russians backed down. Meanwhile, he was negotiating a military alliance to protect Western nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, established in 1949. In June 1950, when the Communist government of North Korea attacked South Korea, Truman conferred promptly with his military advisers. There was, he wrote, "complete, almost unspoken acceptance on the part of everyone that whatever had to be done to meet this aggression had to be done. There was no suggestion from anyone that either the United Nations or the United States could back away from it." A long, discouraging struggle ensued as U.N. forces held a line above the old boundary of South Korea. Truman kept the war a limited one, rather than risk a major conflict with China and perhaps Russia. Deciding not to run again, he retired to Independence; at age 88, he died December 26, 1972, after a stubborn fight for life
What is a popular toy in the 1950's?
hula hoops
After the war, he became President of Columbia University, then took leave to assume supreme command over the new NATO forces being assembled in 1951. Republican emissaries to his headquarters near Paris persuaded him to run for President in 1952."I like Ike" was an irresistible slogan; Eisenhower won a sweeping victory.Negotiating from military strength, he tried to reduce the strains of the Cold War. In 1953, the signing of a truce brought an armed peace along the border of South Korea. The death of Stalin the same year caused shifts in relations with Russia. New Russian leaders consented to a peace treaty neutralizing Austria. Meanwhile, both Russia and the United States had developed hydrogen bombs. With the threat of such destructive force hanging over the world, Eisenhower, with the leaders of the British, French, and Russian governments, met at Geneva in July 1955. The President proposed that the United States and Russia exchange blueprints of each other's military establishments and "provide within our countries facilities for aerial photography to the other country." The Russians greeted the proposal with silence, but were so cordial throughout the meetings that tensions relaxed. Suddenly, in September 1955, Eisenhower suffered a heart attack in Denver, Colorado. After seven weeks he left the hospital, and in February 1956 doctors reported his recovery. In November he was elected for his second term.
how many presidents fought in vietnam?
how long did france get aided by the us?
for 23 years from 1950-1973
Bay of Pigs
failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs
mixing of different racial or ethnic groups
Kim Il Sung
the dictator in North Korea June 25,1950 north korea attacks the south without support of russian military. U.S. helped citizens escape.
Cold War
after WW II, long period of intense rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States
Jackie Robinson
first black baseball player
Thurgood Marshall
fought in Brown vs. Board of Education case and was the first black to become a justice on the supreme court
organization founded in 1909 to work toward equal rights for African americans
What was the fashion in the 1950's?
poodle skirts, suits
What are some methods of civil disobedience?
sit-ins: sit down and refus to move, freedom rides: bus trip to test discrimination against interstate travellers in bus terminals was illegal, rioting: angry mob yelling, law suits: go to court, writing: write how horrible it is, marching: have a march for what you want, and boycott: refuse certain things
Alliance for Progress
economic aid program for Latin America developed by President Kennedy so communism would not take over
Jim Crow Laws
laws that separated people of different races in public places in the South
What does NAACP stand for?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Martin Luther King Jr.
formed SCLC to crusade for civil rights
Korean War
June 25,1950 north korea attacks the south without support of russian military. U.S. helped citizens escape. UN meeting that russia does not attend. Form a world militia and attack north korea Macarthur leads attack into the north. China then threatens to join if they dont stop. China comes in and we are pushed deep into the south. We fight back to the 38th parallel. Macarthur fired. US mad
Brown vs. Board of Education
case against letting daughter of mr brown go to a white school
Berlin Airlift
hundreds of american and british planes carried food to two million west berliners every day from 1948 to 1949
What was a pastime in the 1950's?
watching t.v. during dinner
What does NASA stand for?
National Aeronautics Space Administration
Rosa Parks
conducted a sit-in on a bus when she refused to give up her seat for a white person
United Nations
world organization established in 1945 to provide peaceful resolutions to international conflicts
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
who signed an agreement?
Nixon signed a peace agreement
Peace Corps
government organization that sends american volunteers to developing countries to teach or give technical advice
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
allowed president to repel any armed attack and take necessary actions
a group to help contain soviet influences a key goal was to defend western europe against any soviet threat

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