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social studies chpter 4 test

Terms

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gunpowder
gunpowder was used for both guns and making fireworks
Portuguese
in AD 1514 a fleet from Portugal came to china the Portuguese wanted to trade with them but the Chinese thought they were barbarians and by the 1600s they began to trade with them. the wanted to convert them to Christianity but only converted a few.
herding
the mongols herded cattle, goats, sheep, and horses
steel
traded by the chines, made of molten iron and carbon from the coal
japan
eventially buddhism spread to japan
warlodes
military leaders who run a government; the people who fought each other while nomads conquered parts of northern china
Grand canal
Ming rulers expanded the grand canal so that once again goods could be shipped southern to northern china
novels
a long, fictional story. during the Ming period chinese writers produced many novels
Yangchow
Marco Polo ruled this city for about three years
Baghdad
in AD 1258 the muslim city of baghdad fell under mongol control
song dynasty
AD 960 a military leader of china declared himself emperor. this time was a time of prosperity and cultural acheivment.
economy
an organized way in which people produce, sell, and purchase things
Barbarians
what the Chinese thought that the Portuguese were.
Yuan Dynasty
started by Kublai Khan. it means "beginning" and it showed that the Mongols were going to rule china for a long time yet to come. the yaun dynasty only ruled for about 100 years
Ghenis Khan
the name that Temujan was given when he was elected the strong ruler of mongolia. ghenis khan conquered many lands beyond mongolia
tang reforms
farmers improved irrigation and introduced new ways to grow there crops. they also doveloped new kinds of rice which grew well in poor soil, produced more per acre, and grew faster and was resistant to disease. the changes helped chinas population increase
tribes
groups of families loosely joined together
census
a count of the population. the Ming did a census
Hong Wu
the fofunder of the ming zhu yuanzhang took the name hong wi which means "military leader". he didn't trust anyone and accused many people of treason
treason
disloyalty to the government
Kublai Khan
ghenis khan's grandson. he continued the conquest of china. in AD 1264 he moved his capital from Karakorum to Khanbalique. then he started the Yuan Dynasty.
Tang dynasty
founded by one of Yangdi's generals in AD 618, was in power for about 300 years. Chang'an, Tang's capital, was a succesful city with about 1 million people living there
Khanbalique
in AD 1264 Kublai Khan moved his capital from Karakorum to Khanbalique in northern China. today Khanbalique is Bejing
farmers revolt
when the farmers revolted to Yangdi because he makes them pay too expensive taxes
steppes
whide, ruling, grassy plains that stretch from the black sea to northern china
mongols
the mongols lived in tribes in mongolia. the ruler of the mongols was ghenis khan
end of sea travel
after zheng he died in 1433 the confucian officials pursuaded the emperor to stop the voyages. because of this chinas trade declined
Buddhism to china
brought to china by traders and mission aries from india. people turned to buddhism at the time of suffering. it taught that people could escape suffering
Macao
where the Chinese eventually allowed the Portuguese to set up trading posts on in southern China
new ships
new ships were built with rudders and sails and the compass helped them sail farther from land
daoism
a religeon that some followed neo-confucianism. they beleived that a person cnnot know the whole truth about something, and that people are living in, but not controling nature . they are only a part of harmony of the natural setting
reforms
a change that brought improvements by the tang dynasty
Beijing
where Yong Le moved the capital north to
Tibet
in central Asia, invaded by the tang armies. in the time of the song, tibet broke away and nomads took control of much of northern china
wendi
a general who declared himself emperor of china after china reunited.wendi was a succesful fighter and reunited china by force, then he founded a new dynasty called the sui
Zheng He
the leader of the fleet that Yong Le. Zheng He's voyages had a total of 312 ships and almost 28,000 men
calligraphy
beautiful wrinting characters painted with black ink and a brush. often times there were poems written in calligraphy on chinese paintings
Jesuits
a special group of roman catholic priests. the missionaries who brought goods to china to try to get them to accept European ideas. the jesuits did not convert many chinese
Empress Wu
the only woman to rule china, she ruled in the AD 600's. she added more afficials to the government and strengthened to china's military forces
Du Fu
a famous chinese poet who wrote "spring landscape" and his poems were base on the suffering of his own life
poetry
chinese poets best expressed themselves by using poetry
gobi desert
the dessert where the meeting of mongol leaders was held . a vast dessert that covers part of mongolia and china
merit based system
a system that the tang and song neo-confucious rulers followed that said that people are accepted for what they can do and not on there riches or personal contact
Imperial City
city created by Yong Le, there was a large area of palaces and government buildings. the very center of the imperial city was the forbidden city
painting
chinese artists did not paint the exact paintings of landscapes, they wanted to portray the idea of landscape features. alot of there painting ideas were based on Daoist beleifs
Marco Polo
one of the most famous european travelors to go to china. kublai khan gave marco polo rule over the chinese city of yangchow for about three years and for 16 years he had a special status in the country. when marco polo returned to Europe he wrote a book of his adventures
Li Bo
a famous chinese poet who wrote "still night thoughts". hi poems were often about nature
chang jiang
a valley where people moved southward to, where rice grew abundantly
turks
a new group of nomads that drove the tang armies out of central Asia and took control of the silk roads. because of this chinas economy was damaged
monesteries
where Buddhist monks and nuns lived and worshiped/meditated
Silk
the ming encouraged the silk industry and encouraged farmers to start weaving cloth
cotton
the ming encouraged farmers to grow and weave cotton
Grand canal
built by Yangdi ; the system of water ways linked the chang jiang(Yangtze River) and huang he( the yellow river)
Silk Road
was first under the rule of the tang and later came under turk rule
what is needed to keep chinese dynasties together? and what is the reason why dynasties ended ?
N/A
Manchus
a people that attacked chinas northern border. they lived northeast of the great wall in an area today known as Manchuria. the manchus defeated chinese armies and defeated Beijing in 1644 they set up a new dynasty
civil service exam system
the exam that people had to pass to be a government official
Yangdi
Wendi's son took the Chinese throne. Yangdi sent an army to defeat the koreans but the koreans won. yangdi also rebuilt the great wall and built the grand canal. Yangdi died by the revolt of angry farmers because they had to pay expensive taxes.
Forbidden city
built by Yong Le and only top officials and emperors could enter the city because it was home to chinas emporers
Koryo
what the ruler of korea was known as. they remained in power because they accepted the mongo control.
goods china trded
silk fabric, tea, steel, paper, and porcelain
Ming dynasty
created in AD 1368 by a rebel leader named Zhu Yuangzhang who became the emporer. zhu reunited china and made Nanjing the capital. there he founded the ming or "brilliant" dynasty
trubute
a special kind of tax that one country pays to another to be left alone
compass
the compass was first used in in about AD 1150 and it helped ships sail farther from land
Han dynasty
the Han dynasty was weak so when so when Buddhism was brought to China so china had a civil war. Korea broke free of China when the Han dynasty fell in AD 220. the Han also introduced the civil service examinations
neo-confucianism
a new kind of confucianism made to reduce buddhisms popularity. it said that life in this world is just as important as the afterlife. it also said that if you followed confuianism you would find peace in mind and live in harmony with nature. the people that followed neo-confucianism were buddhist, doaist, and from the song dynasty
Chang'an
successful capital of tang with about 1 million people living there
Yong Le
in AD 1398 Hong Wu's son, became emperor, he moved the capital north to Beijing. he created the imperial City and the forbidden City
Mongolia
where the mongols lived. mongolia is noth of china
Handzhou
the capital of the song on the coast near the chang jiang delta
paper money
as trade increased in china, the gov'nt couldnt produce enough copper coins so they strtd o produce paper money also. the first paper money was printed in AD 1024
Taizong
the most powerful tang emperor, who restored the civil service exam system: he hired officials based on there test results and not on there families. he also gave land to farmers and stabilized the countryside
porcelain
traded by china, made of fine clay and baked at high temperatures
sui dynasty
a short-lived dynasty founded by Wendi
Mongols seperation from the chinese
the Mongols were different from the Chinese because they had different language, laws and costumes
printing
tang gov'nt printed bout 500,000 sheets of paper a year. printing led to printed books. the chinese began printing in the 600's. they used blocks of wood which they cut characters out of, then the ink was placed over the wooden block , then the paper was laid over the block to make a print. printing also caused the invention of paper money

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