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Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration

Chapter 18; Traditions and Encounters

Terms

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Marco Polo
a Venetian that traveled extensively though central Asia and China in the late 13th century, when Mongol empires dominated Asia. His book of travel writing is an especially valuable source of information about the Mongol age. Among other things, he described the Mongol was of making war
Ilkhan Ghazan
he publicly converted to Islam and most Mongols in Persia followed his example
William of Rubruck
the flemish meissionary that visited Karakorum and during his sojourn there he encountered a French woman named Paquette who was an attendant to a Mongol princess, an artisan from Russia, an unnamed nephew of a French bishop, a Greek soldier, and an Englishman named Basil; these are examples of other Europeans that lived in the Mongol world' also Germans, Slavs and Hungarians as well as Chinese, Koreans, Turks, Persians, and Armenians
Mahmud of Ghazni
third ruler of the Turkish slave dynasty; gave Muslims a reputation for intolerance and aggression; also a zealous foe of Buddhism and Hinduism; he launched frequent raids
Yurts
are these things they lived in made out of wool
Mongols
established themselves as the most powerful people of the central Asian steppes and then turned on settled societies in China, Persia, Russia and eastern Europe; they ended up building the largest empire the world has ever seen
Tamerlane
the Turkish conqueror that built a central Asian empire rivaling that of Chinggis Khan himself; his empire, established after his death, influenced: the Mughal empire in India, the Safavid empire in Persia, and the Ottoman empire based in Anataolia
Nomadic Society
Nobles and commoners; nobles were just charismatic leaders that didn't do much leading; only during times of war
Kumiss
an alcoholic drink
Karakorum
the Mongol capital
Religions of the Turkish People
revolved around shamas who were religious specialists who possessed supernatural powers, communicated with the gods and nature spirits, invoked divine aid on behalf of their communities, and informed their companions of their god's will
Turkish
migrated to Persia, Anatolia and India
Osman
one of the charismatic leader that organized further campaigns of conquest; he attracted followers that began to be known as Osmanlis or Ottomans
Khan
means ruler; the rarely ruled directly, but rather through the leader of tribes
Temujin a.k.a Chinggis Khan
unifier of the Mongols, born about 1167 into a noble family; rivals killed his father and destroyed the alliance his father created; blah blah blah, stuffed happened, but eventually he began to be known as Chinggis Khan (universal ruler) and what he basically did was bring ALL the Mongol tribes into a single confederation
Mongols in China
didn't like the Chinese very much and resisted assimilation to Chinese cultural traditions, unlike the Mongols in Persia
Sultan
means "chieftain"
Golden Horde
mongols that overran Russia between 1237 and 1241 and then mounted exploratory expeditions into Poland, Hungary and eastern Germany in 1241 and 1242
Resettlement
moving people of skill around for the governments benefit
Uighur Turks
among the most important of the Mongols' allies were these people, who lived mostly in oasis cities along the silk roads; they were literate and often highly educated, and the Mongols needed that
Sultanate
country or territory ruled by a sultan
kamikaze
what the Japanese used to defend themselves from they Yuan dynasty; "divine winds"
Chinggis dies
after he dies, of course, his sons and grandsons fight for who is going to rule the vast realm Chinggis has acquired; they decide that they'll divide it into 4; great khans-China which was the wealthiest of the lands; some of his grandkids got central asia; and the rest are on 480
Khubilai Khan
the consolidation of Mongol rule in China came during the reign of this guy, one of Chinggis' grandsons; he actively promoted Buddhism and was a very talented leader; he eliminated resistance throughout china and named himself emperor and established the Yuan dynasty
Karakorum
Chinggis' capital
Hulegu
toppled the Abbasid empire and established the Mongol ilkhanate in Persia
Khanbaliq
"city of khan" served also as the Mongol capital in China
Chinggis Khan a.k.a Temujin
forged the various Mongol tribes into a powerful alliance that built the largest empire that the world has ever seen
Tughril Beg
by the mid-eleventh century the Saljuqs overshadowed Abbasid caliphs, so in 1055 the caliph recognized this guy as the sultan
Sultan Mehmed II aka Mehmed the Conqueror
captured the Byzantine capital, Constantinople; he made is his city and changed it's name to Istanbul; because of this, it only made it easier to gain control over all of Byzantine, and north africa and what-not
Lamaist Buddhism
held several attractions for the Mongols; it made a prominent place for magic and supernatural powers, and in that respect it resembled the Mongols' shamanism
Timur-i lang
a self-made Turkish conqueror; also known as Tamerlane; a charismatic leader and a corageous warrior, and he attracted a band of loyal followers
Rabban Sauma
a Nestorian Christian monk born in Khanbaliq, visited Italy and France as a representative of the Persian ilkhan
Guillaume Boucher
a goldsmith who lived during the early and middle decades of the thirteenth century; at one point went to Budapest from Paris; but then he got captured; they liked his talents and what-not, and decided to take him along with their various other skilled captives; he made a lot of pretty stuff and even though he was kind of a slave, he was still had servants and what-not; his wife was French
Khwarazm shah
the successor of Afghanistan and Persia; Chinggis Kan sought to open trade and diplomatic relations with the him but the shah despised the Mongols
Xiongnu
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these 'barbarians,' as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century. (168)

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