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History, Section 15


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Took place in Germany
Nuremburg Trials
What people were placed on trial in Germany?
Nazi leaders
The most important _______ ________ were placed on trial by an ___________ ________
Nazi leaders, international court
In Japan, _____ ________ wa splaced on trial-he was _________
Hideki Tojo, hanged
headquarters of United Nations is in _ ____
New York
UN has two major branches-name these two
1. General Assembly
2. Security Council
Made up of every nation that is a member of the UN
General Assembly
In the General Assembly, each nation recieves __ __
1 vote
today there are ____ nations in the UN
part of UN that handles most disputes between nations
Security Council
Consists of ____ permanent members (countries_ and ___ temporary members (countries)
5 permanent, 10 temporary
Permanent members are
britain, china, UnitedStates, Russia and France
If any of the 5 permanent members votes against a matter brought to the security councilthe matter ___ _______ _______
does not pass (veto)
most important official in the UN
Secretary General (kofi annan
_____ groups emerged after WWI
the noncommunist countries (led by the ___) were called the ____
U.S., west
The communist countries (led the the USSR) were called the __
did not usually take the side of either the east or the west
non aligned nations
non aligned nations are primarily found in
Latin America, Africa, Asia
non aligned nations were often _________ nations: called _______ _______ __________
underdeveloped nations: called Third World Countries
definition of cold war
conflict between the east and the west-particularly between the U.S. and U.S.S.R
name the 8 countries later called east germany
Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, and the Russian controlled zone of Germnay
called Russian satellites
Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, and the Russian controlled zone of Germnay
U.S.S.R and these countries became known as "____ ______" countries
iron curtain
the three baltic states _______,________ and _____ were no longer _________ ___________
estonia, latvia, lithuania, were no longer separate states
had been made a part of the U.S.S.R
estonia, latvia, lithuania
After WWII, the U.S. announced that its policy toward commmunism would be __________ (definition:
containment: stopping the spread of communism
Europe experienced tremendous ecomnomic problems after WWII-many Europeans began to think the solution was
the marshall plan was proposed by
George C. Marshall
Former WWII general
George C. Marshall
Now was President Harry Truman's ______ of ________
secretary of state
Gave U.S. money to European nations-this helped stop the spread of Communism
George C. Marshall (marshall plan)
_________ blocked all means of entrance by ground into the
Russia,western part of Berlin
This area of western berlin was controlled by _________,__________ and the ________
Britain, France, and the U.S.
Russia wanted to take over this area (what area?)
the part controlled by britain, france, u.s. (western berlin
_____._________ and ________ flew supplies into western Berlin until Russia reopened the entrances almost a year later
britain, france and u.s.
U.S., Britain and France combined their zones to form ___ _________ and __ ___________ (these were ______________)
west germnay and west berlin
in ___ _________ and ____ __________, Russia had set up a ____________ government
east germnay and east Berlin
NATO consisted of what kind of countires?
non communist
established by __ ______________ countries on both sides of the atlantic
non communist
NATO stands for
north atlantic Treaty Organizatino
U.S. is a memeber of
North Atlantic Treaty Organizatoin
These countries promise to help each other in case of attack
These countries promise to help in case of war
Warsaw Pact
maintains an army today
Today __ countries are members
Organized by USSR and most other _____ ______ ________
iron curtain countries
similar to NATO
Warsaw pact
the civil war that began resumed after ______ in what country?
WWII, china
___________ ld the commmunists (china)
mao zedong
_________ led the Chinese Nationalists (non communists)
Chiang Kai-Shek
U.S. gave money and military equipment to
chiang kai-shek
U.S. decided not to send troops to help
_____'s group won
_____ was the leader of _______ china until he died-country was also called
people's republic of china
mainland china
red china
________________ and his followers fled to _________
chiang kai sheck and his followers fled to taiwan
island off the coast of china
taiwan was also called
republicof China
After WWII, korea was
south korea was
north korea
North Korea _________ south korea in a attempt to make south korean _____________
attacked, communist
the _____ ____________ ________ voted to send troops to help ____ __ most ofthe troops were from the ___
un security council, south korea, us
U.S. General Douglas MacArthur was _________- of the ______ ________
commander of the U.S. troops
THe U.S. never declared war on _______ ___________
North Korea
__________ _______ sent thousands of troops to help _______ _______
Communist China sent thousands of troops to help North Korea
MacArthur wanted to ____ _________ _____
bomb communist China
opposed this idea
President Truman
Truman feared this could cayse a world war becuase ______might help ____________ _______
Russia,Communist China
Truman wanted a ___________ war
the lmited war would be limited to
__________ ignored Truman's ordersnot to discuss the matter publicly, ________ was fired
after the war
Korea remained divided
South Korea is noncommunist today
North Korea is communist today
us still has troops in korea today
After Joseph Stalin died, ________ was the new leader
In destalinization, K did 3 things
1. condemned his actions
2. tore down memorials to stalin
3. Renamed Stalingrad to Volgograd
def.. of peaceful coexistence
the east woould avoid war with the west
began the space race
the launching of the Russian satellite Sputnik
in __________, Khrushchev sent ________ and ______ and crushed a rebellion against Russia
Hungary, Khrushchev sent troops and tanks
Although this country appealed the UN and the West for help, none was given
thousands of hungarians were killed-thousands ___ the country
_________ built the Berlin wall to keep the ___ germans from fleeing to ____ ______
Khrushchev built the Berlin Wall to keep the East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin
The Cuban dictator was overthrown by this man
Fidel Castro
Still dictator today
Began placing nuclear missiles in Cuba
President _________ ordered the U.S. Navy to __________ Cuba to stop _______ _______ _________ shipments from reaching Cuba
Kennedy order the u.s. navy to blockade Cuba to stop additional military Russian
_________ ordered Russia withdraw the missiles
Said that if nuclear missiles were fired from Cuba, the U.S. would launch a _______ ______ on Russia
nuclear attack
For a few days, the US and USSR were on the verge of
nuclear war
_________ agreed to withdraw the missieles in exchange for _______'s promise that the U.S would not invade Cuba to ________ _________
Khrushchev, Kennedy's, overthrow Castro
Khruschev was ____________ by communist party officials in ________ becuase he had "_________ ___________"
removed, Russia, "backed down"
Died in office
Sent troops to Czechoslovakia
State the Brezhnev Doctrine
It said Russia would intervene with its European satellites if rebellions or threats of rebellions occured
__________ took contorl of Indochina
Indochina consists of
Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
Durin WWWI, _____ gained control of Indochina
French attempted to control Indochina after WWII...who drove them back out?
Vietnam was divided into two sections: name these
North Vietnam and South Vietnam
Leader of Communists/name part of vietnam that was communist
Ho Chi Minh, North
Noncommunist part of Vietname
_________ ______________ wanted elecetions for government leaders to be held
North Vietnamese
__________ vietnamese governement did NOT allow the elections
South. Even though this is weird for North to be wanting elections, this happened
2 groups in Vietnam wanted to make South Vietname Communist: name these
1. North vietnamese goverment
2. A group of South Vietnamese COMMUNISTS called the Vietcong
President while U.S. sent miltary supplies and miltary advisers to _____ vietname
Dwight D. Eisenhower, SOUTH
Reasons why U.S. sent these items: (2)
1. Containment
2. Domino theory
State the domino theory
Belief that if Sotuh Vietnam fell to Commmunism, so would other countires in the area
Trained the South Vietnamese troops
the military advisers
Announced that ________ vietnam had fired on two US ships
President Lyndon Johnson, North
located off the coast of North Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin
Gave the president the right to use the military as he saw fit in Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Johnson never mentioned that the U.S. ships supposedly attacked had been _______ the _______ _____ attack the North
helping the south vietnamese attack the north
The U.S. never declared war on _______ ________
north vietnam
Soon, hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops were fighting-no longer just advising
a few ______ sent troops to help _____ _____
countries sent troops to help south vietnam
Communist Vietnam recieved supplies from ____ and ________
Communist China and Soviet UNnion
______ ____________ demonstrations took place in the US
Anti war
some _____ their draft cards
many americans ___________ the war
Began Vietnamizatoin
Richard nNIxon
Define Vietnamization
the gradual withdrawal of US troops and the fighting turned over to the south vietnamese government
An agreement was reached whereby the fighting ended in Vietnam (2)
1. Remaining U.S troops were withdrawn
2. That South Vietnam would continue to elect its own government
However, the _________ vietnamese and _____ took over all of South Vietnam
North, Vietcong
Todya, all of VIetnam is
becayse the war was so controversial, viet vets recived little ______ on returning to the us
__ was taken over by the communist and is still communist today
Cambodian communists are called
Khmer Rouge
Took over Cambodia and killed millions
Khmer Rouge
leader of Khmer Rouge
Pol Pot
No longer communist today
hundreds of thousands fled _________
relaxation of tensions
_______ invaded Afghanistan
why did Russia invade Afghanistan?
to help the weak communist government there
To show US disapproval of this invason, President Jimmy Carter (2)
1. had the us boycott the summer olympics in moscow
2. stopped the sale of us grain to USSR
detente ended primarliy because of 3 things
1. Afghanistan invasion
2. election of reagan
3. Communist crackdown in poland
Reagan promised to (2)
be tougher with the soviets and greatly increase US spending
A labor union was organized in Poland- called ______, leader was ____ ___. Held _______ and ________ against the communist government
Solidarity, Lech Walesa, Held strikes and protests
Later, _____ and many other ________ leaders were jailed
Walesa and other solidarity
_________ said ____ might build a system called SDI (Explain SDI)
Reagan said US might build a system called Strategic Defense Iniative
Nickname of SDI
"Star Wars"
SDI could
shoot nuclear missiles
US announced it would not develop SDI-however US is
working ona different method of shooting down nuclear misslesq
New Soviet leader after Brezhnev
Mikhail Gorbachev
name Gorbachev's two important policies
1. Glasnost
2. Perestroika
Perestroika means
Gorbachev made major changes in the USSR, he tried to (3)
1. make economic changes
2. Allowed SOME free electoins
3. Fired those who opposed his reforms
Because of Glasnost, soviet government allowed more rights such as
freedom of speech and freedom to travel
Some in USSSR thought changes were too ____ while most thought the changes were too _____
fast, slow
Withdrew troops from Afghanistan
People in communist countires of ________ _______ began rebelling against their governments
Eastern Europe
Gorbachev did not send any troops to stop this
the rebellig of people in Eastern Europe
Said USSR wouldno longer follow Brezhnev Doctrine
for the first time since wwii, all communist countries in europe had ______ _____
free elections
________ _______- was dismantled
Berlin Wall
Elected President of Poland
Lech Walesa
__________ ______ fell apart
War saw pact
many republics within _____ wanted independence
a ____ took place in USSR
Done by communist
"hard liners" who thought Gorbachev had allowed too many changes
Gorc\bachev was placed under
house arrest
the coup ________ withing a few days
________ returned to power
USSR ceased to exist
and became seperate nations.
Cold war was over when
Gorbachev resigned

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