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history midterm cards


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how did napoleon tame forms of political expression to organize Europe's first popular dictatorship?
-inclusion/presence of the common/public at revolutionary tribunals and public executions
-expanded military service
what were montesquieu's main ideas?
-separation of powers among judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government
-checks and balances-each banch of government is equally powerful
this was the place that settled the pacific islands after long plans for expansion
"The best way to preserve freedom is to divide authority."
What was the first force of change?
-New ideas about power and authority in government
-people questioned old ideas of structure of society
-success of American revolution is encouraging
Napoleon won support of the peasantry and middle class by arguing two basic principles:
-equality in law
-protection of property
*discrimination towards women incresed by this civil code.
-denied or restricted many individual rights
-free speech and expression were limited
-depended on success of french arms and french diplomacy
napoleonic system
what were locke's main ideas?
-he favors self-government
-positive view of human nature;humans are reasonable and can learn from experience
-government's role is to protect citizens' natural rights; if unprotected, it's ok to rebel
How did popular authoritarianism begin?
the convention began to undo radical reforms
this was where portuguese and spanish expeditions ended the isolation of the Americas and increased global interaction after it began a maritime revolution.
the iberian peninsula
"all people are born free and equal with natural rights. Life, liberty, property."
French national legislature, called because of a political revolution
estates general
this became the headquarters of portugal's west african trade
slave coast
What happens when France is fighting Austria and Prussia and austria and prussia want louis xvi back on the throne?
Legislative assembly declares war in fear of being attacked:
1. storming tulleres
-first time is peaceful
-second time mob is captured and so are the king's children and wife, 900 of his swiss guard are killed
2. September massacres
Georges-jacques-danton are involved
In 5 days, over 1000 people are murdered
3. National Convention
4. Louis XVI executed
Legislative assembly
1791 constitution
national assembly created a limited monarchy and handed power over to a new assembly for the creation of laws
king and ministers still have the power to enforce laws
[factions split france]
san culottes-extreme left
emigres-extreme right- they were emigrants and had left the country
-confiscated/took church lands
-put church under control of state
-made clergymen swear an oath to the new consitution
national assembly's civil constitution of the clergy
-men are born free and equal
-they have natural rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression
-they are guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech, religion
National assembly's declaration of the rights of man
1. storming the bastille
2. "great fear", peasants revolt in the countryside; burning nobles' homes and documents and obligations
3. women's march on versailles
they ask the king for bread after marching 14 miles in the rain
the popular/people's revolt
-Austria, Russia, Prussia for separate alliance to more actively confront revolutionary and activist energies released by the French revolution
-defeated by french revolutions in spain and italy
holy alliance
what did the french revolution do?
it expanded the involvement of political life
-gave french catholics rights to freely practic their religion
-recognized French governments authority to nominate bishops and retain priests on the state payroll
concordat of 1801
denis diderot
french man who, in enlightenment, worked with others to make a collection of human knowledge called the 35 volume Encyclopedie.
mariners from this peninsula in southeast asia explored and settled island chains of east indies and were basically the starting point for all expansion.
malay peninsula
the rulers of this empire believed they controlled most of the world worth controlling
this was a great empire with highly productive agriculture, exquisite stone cities, rich gold and silver mines
inca empire
what were voltaire's main ideas?
-fought for tolerand, freedom of religion and speech
-against superstition, intolerance, prejudice
what distinguished the French and Indian war and the 7 years war from the other wars?
-traditional taxes no longer were enough
-the need for new revenues provoked debate and confrontation with a large, critical public
a complex and diverse intellectual movement that applied methods and questions of the scientific revolution to the study of human society
describe the french society//social classes during the enlightenment
clergy ---> first estate
-owned 10% land; 2%income as
Nobility--->second estate
-owned 20% land;almost no taxes
both these scorn enlightenment ideas which scorn status and power
commoners--->third estate
-98% population; paid high taxes and had barely any rights
This empire's people conquered their empire and had POW's as subjects--forced labor, tributes, human sacrifices
Aztec Empire
this place had the first amerindians to encounter columbus
skilled at mining and working gold
"i disapprove of what you say, but i will defend to the death your right to say it."
-used sarcasm/humor to ridicule society and govt.
"Let woman share the rights and she will imitate the virtues of men;for she must grow more perfect when emancipated."
mary wollstonecraft
-most people in the western society remained loyal to cultural values from the past-->these traditions made an expression of the mutual rights and obligations connecting people and rulers.
-european monarchs made "reforms", the commoner
common enlightenment;popular protest to enlightenment
what was the second force of change?
-heavy tax burden
-bad weather-->crop failures
-extravagant spending by king and queen=debt
what was the third force of change?
-king louis xvi pays no attention to coming crisis
-his wife marie antionette was called madame deficit because she spent so much
"Dare to think! Have courage to use your own reason."
kant (motto of enlightenment)
what were kant's main ideas?
we must release ourselves from the fear of thinking and making decisions without the help of others
"in a state of nature, without governments, life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
this is the place where the ming and qing were; it had a diverse society; geographical, occupational, linguistic, and religious differences that grew as the qing empire expanded
forced labor was common
social structures
what were hobbes' main ideas?
-humans are naturally selfish and wicked
-strong government is needed to keep order
-social contract: people give up rights to a strong ruler who, in turn, provides law and order
-absolute monarchy is the best government because a strong monarch imposes order and demands obedience
what were beccaria's main ideas?
-laws exist to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes
-against cruel and unusual punishment/treatment of suspects or convicts
-right to speedy trial
-punishment should fit the crime
"punishment is justified only to defend the social contract, and to ensure that everyone will be willing to abide by it. the method of punishment should be that which serves the greatest public god."
this was the place where its people enjoyed military advantage at sea, but on land had no decisive advantage against those not weakened by disease.
iberian peninsula
what caused the american revolution?
cost of wars fought among europe's major powers over colonies and trade precipitated
who were the central actors in the american revolution?
britain, france, and spain were all central actors but others were affected as well
what were mary wollstonecraft's main ideas?
women need to become virtuous and useful
right to become doctors and participate in politics
how did enlightenment thinkers and writers set the stage for revolutionary movements?
new ideas about government encouraged people to rebel and demand their rights.
what were the opinions of europeans/intellectuals on the enlightenment and the americas?
some dismissed america as inferior, others used accounts of the new world to support critiques of european society
many resisted the enlightenment, seeing it as a dangerous assault on authority of the church and monarchy
-American writer and inventor who came to symbolize both natural genius and vast potential of america
-retired to work on writing,science, public affairs. wealthy
-contributions were practical and theoretical
-invented: bifocal glasses, li
benjamin franklin
portugal was trading with britain, and Napoleon sends his army to stop them but in spain his army goes wild.
the 3rd of may-goya
describe the role of women in the enlightenment
-educated middle-class women bought and some discussed books and pamphlets of the era
-some were writers and important commentators raising issues like women's rights
-made their homes the centers of debate, intellectual speculation, free inquiry
salons were in paris
these women were from paris and england
what effect did the expansion of british sea power have on african sea trade?
-dutch attacked spanish treasure fleets, took parts of portugal's colonial empire in brazil and angolia. great britain attacks spanish fleets and seaports in americas.
-this expansion of british sea power ended the dutch monopoly of slave trade and began a struggle bw britain and france for political dominance in western europe and land-trade outlets in the americas and asia
what happened after prussia and austria deserted napoleon and entered an alliance with england and russia?
napoleon was forced to abdicate the throne and he was exiled to elba and the french monarchy was restored
reps of britain, russia, austria, prussia met to reestablish political order in europe. (napoleon escapes)
they work to make peace settlement that would safeguard conservative order
central objective-
-reestablish french monarchy
congress of vienna
what were rousseau's main ideas?
civilization and society corrupts natural goodness of the people;were are undeveloped in our reasoning powers, sense of morality and responsibility
social contract-->people will have protection and acquire sense of morality and civic duty
direct democracy;power comes from consent of the governed
"man is born free, and everywhere is in chains."
wrote "the social contract"--different than hobbes' [social con-agreement between ruler and ruled defining rights and duties of each]
-3rd estate wants changes in voting rules and wants to establish a national assembly, they vow not to separate until they create a new constitution
(finally the king forces the 1st and 2nd estates to join the new national assembly.)
the tennis court oath
this place was established by viking leif ericsson; short-lived settlement, declined after colder climate came back
tip of southern africa, passage around africa to the trade of the indian ocean
cape of good hope
what was the effect of the conflict between the French and English settlers in North America?
these conflictions helped ignite a long war that altered the colonial balance of power
known as french and indian war, this led to 7 years war
settled by the vikings after they settled iceland

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