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Anatomy Lectures 1b


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The supraspinous fossa and the infraspinous fossa are connected by the ____________.
spinoglenoid notch
What is the significance (landmark) of the coracoid process?
A few centimeters below lies the axillary artery, vein, and brachial plexus.
Where are the superior, lateral, and medial borders of the scapula?
Superior: top
medial: vertebral
Lateral: axillary
Where are the 3 angles of the scapula?
superior, inferior, lateral (near glenoid fossa)
The ________bridges the suprascapular notch.

The ___________ lies above this ligament, and the _______ lies below.
suprascapular ligament;

Army over Navy: suprascapular artery over nerve
The lateral tip end of the scapula is the ___________.
The _________ artery forms a circle arond the lateral surface of the scapula.
circumflex scapular


Lateral rotation of the scapula is moving the _____ angle laterally. This elevates the ________ (what part of the scapula?)

glenoid fossa
Medial rotation of the scapula is moving the inferior angle _____. This turns the glenoid fossa _______.

The ___________ muscles are responsible for elevation of the scapula.
Trapezius (superior)

levator scapulae
The ___________ muscles are responsible for ADDuction (retraction) of the scapula.
Trapezious (middle)
Rhombooid major
Rhomboid minor
The ___________ muscles are responsible for ABDuction (protraction) of the scapula.
serratus anterior (boxer's muscle)
The ___________ muscles are responsible for medial rotation of the scapula.
trapezius (inferior)

serratus anterior (superior)
The ___________ muscles are responsible for lateral rotation of the scapula.
serratus anterior (inferior)

trapezius (superior)
The ___________ muscles are responsible for depression of the scapula.
trapezius (inferior)

pectoralis minor
The 2 necks of the humerus are the :
_____________ & ____________.

The _________ neck is the most frequently fractured part of the humerus.
anatomical; surgical

The surgical neck is ______ to the greater and lesser tubercles.
DISTAL (farther down the arm)
Which nerves may be in danger when the surgical neck of humerus is fractured?
AXILLARY (associated)
The radial nerve runs in the ___________ groove of the humerus.

(radial groove is posterior on humerus)
The head of the humerus articulates with the __________________.
glenoid fossa
The ____________divides the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus.

The __________________ lies here.

long head of the biceps tendon.
The anatomical and surgical heads of the humerus are 'separated' by the ________ & ___________.
greater and lesser tubercles
Between the greater and lesser tubercles lies the______________________.
intertuburcular groove
The deltoid muscle inserts at the ____________.
Posterior fibers of the deltoid allow for _________ of the shoulder joint and ________ rotation.

Anterior fibers of the deltoid allow _________ and ________ rotation.

Middle fibers of the deltoid are the most powerful ABduction component of the _______________________.
The deltoid and ______ have the same attachment sites.

What are they?
spine of scapula, acromion, lateral 3rd of clavicle (anteriorly)
What are the 4 muscles of the rotator cuff?
supra & infraspinatus; teres MINOR, subscapularis
The rotator cuff is named such because _________ (which joint does it wrap around?).
The 4 muscles form a cuff around the GLENOHUMERAL joint, and thus together rotate the joint.
The rotator cuff does not protect the joint (choose 1):
inferiorly, superiorly, anteriorly, or posteriorly?
inferiorly (therefore most shoulder dislocations occur inferiorly).
The supraspinatus (part of cuff torn most frequently) arises from the _______ & extends ________ to the ___________.
supraspinatus fossa;
laterally (post. to the glenohumeral joint);
upper fossa of greater tubercle.
Supraspinatus is useful in the first _____ degrees of aBduction. (if they don't have nerve there or it is atrophied, let gravity pull it out & then use deltoid.
THe infraspinatus passes ________ (anterior or post.) across the GH joint & attaches to ___________.

middle facet of greater tubercle
Which 3 muscles attach to greater tubercle (of humerus)
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres MINOR
The main LATERAL (external) ROTATORS of the r. cuff are _________ & ___________.
infraspinatus, teres MINOR
The subscapularis muscle arises from the _____ & passes across the ________ aspect of the glenohumoral joint.
subscapular fossa;

The subscapularis inserts into the _________.
It is a powerful __________.
lesser tubercle

internal rotator
THe serratus anterior attaches to the ___________.
(medial aspect of) scapula, & LATERAL SURFACES of upper 8 RIBS
The serratus anterior is iNNervated by the ___________ & Artery is ________.
loNg thoracic Nerve;
lAteral thoracic Artery
The reason the scapula can rotate laterally is because of __________.
This muscle can also help ABduction of more than 120.
serratus anterior fibers converging on inferior angle
THe serratus anterior holds the scapula against the ____________.
thoracic wall
To remove axillary lymph nodes, one must reflect which 2 nerves? ____ & ____.
Long thoracic & thoracodorsal
If you ask patient to push against wall and the scapula protrudes (like a wing), what does this mean?
Long thoracic nerve is not functioning (and therefore serratus anterior isn't either)
THe teres MAJOR comes from scapula and attaches at the medial crest of the ________ (greater or lesser) tubercle.
The teres MAJOR and the ______ have the same function.

powerful extensor, aDDuctor, & medial rotator
THe axillary nerve innervates the _____ & ______.
Teres MINOR & deltoid
The ________ & ________ come out of the quadrangular space.
What are the borders?
posterior circumflex humural artery & axilary nerve
lat. border-humerus
med. border-long head of tri
sup.border-teres MINOR
inf.border-teres MAJOR
THe 3 branches of the tricep:
________. Where are they located?
lateral, long, deep;

lateral-lat., long-medial (divides teres maj. & minor)
What are the contents of triangular space?

What are the borders?
Cutaneous branch of circumflex scapular artery;
Teres minor (sup.), teres major (inf), long head of triceps (lateral)
What are the borders of the triangular interval?
Lat. & long head of tricips, teres major (sup. border).
When viewing the triangular space from anterior, what are the borders?
teres major, long head of triceps, & SUBSCAPULARIS(instead of teres minor)
Subclavian aretery becomes AXILLARY at __________. Axillary becomes BRACHIAL at_________.
1st rib (outer surface)

teres major (distal surface)
The long thoracic nerve runs off the ________ root of the ventral rami.
C5,6,& 7
THe dorsal scapular nerve runs off the _______ root of the ventral rami.
There are _____ trunks in the brachial plexus.

What are they

superior, medial, inferior
The superior trunk of the brachial plexus is a combination of ___ & _____.
The middle trunk of the brachial plexus is composed of ______________.
The inferior trunk of the brachial plexus is composed of ____________.
There are ________ cords in the brachial plexus.
The LATERAL CORD in the brachius plexus is a combination of _____________.
anterior division of the superior trunk,
the anterior division of the middle trunk
The POSTERIOR CORD in the brachius plexus is a combination of _____________.
the anterior division of the inferior trunk
The lateral and medial cords in the brachius plexus form the _____________.
Where is the usual place for a fracture?
jxn b/tw lateral 1/3rd & medial 2/3rds
The 'true ribs' are ribs ___-___
The CLAVICULAR HEAD of the pectoralis major arises from______ &
inferior surface of the clavicle.
WHat nerve innervates the clavicular head of the pectoralis major?
lateral pectoral nerve
THe 2 heads of the pec major:
_________ & __________.
What nerves innervate them?
Clavicular-lat.pec nerve

Sternocostal-medial & lat pec nerves
The 3 components of the deltopectoral groove:
_________, _________, & ___________.
cephalic vein, thoracoacromial a,
lateral pectoral n.
The deltoid branch of the _________ runs in the deltopectoral groove.
THe __________ (branch of the ___________) runs along with the cephalic nerve.
deltoid a; thoracoacromial a.
The pectoralis minor inserts in the _________ & has its origin in the __________.
insertion: coracoid process

origin: ribs (usually 3,4,& 5)
The __________ nerve pierces the pec. minor and continues to innervate the pec major.
medial pectoral nerve
_________ fascia surrounds the pectoralis minor.
Clavipectoral fascia
THe shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket _________ joint.
THe synovial cavity is filled with _______, which has the viscosity of runny honey
synovial fluid (secreted by cells lining the synovial membrane)
The fibrous capsule and the synovial capsule together are called the ______.
articular capsule
__________are made of thickenings of fibrous capsule surrounding the (shoulder)joint.
Intrinsic ligaments
THe fxn of the extrinsic ligament is to ________.
support the joint, but it is not a thickening of the fibrous capsule
THe shoulder joint is supported mainly by the ________.
rotator cuff muscles.
SHoulder joint:
head of humerus

articulating bones of gleniod fossa
The shoulder is very mobile, but not very ___________.

example of hemiplegic patient
hemiplegic or anesthetized patients muscles are paralyzed, so if shoulder moves, you can dislocate it.
Cause of supraspinatus to wear & tear?
Undergoing contraction or excursion, it runs below the acromion and head of humerus Repitition of this causes supraspinatus tendon to tear
What lies b/tw acromion & supraspinatus as a protection mechanism?
bursae (friction decreasing device)
THe _________ is the 2nd largest synovial cavity in the body.
glenohumeral joint
THe fact that the glenoid cavity is ________ provides some stability to the shoulder joint.
THe _______ deepens the glenoid cavity.

What partially attaches here?
glenoid labrum;

long head of biceps tendon
In the rotator cuff, the ______ runs posteriorly, the __________ anteriorly, & the ________ superiorly.
infraspinatus & teres minor;
The most probable place to dislocate the shoulder is _______. THis is because ___________>
THere is no inferior border protecting the shoulder
How do you tell if shoulder is dislocated?
Pec major pulls it forward (if inferior dislocation) into subcoracoid. If head of humerus below coracoid process, it's dislocated.
The _________ connects head of humerus to coracoid process.
coracohumeral ligament
The coracohumeral ligament is formed from the ________, and runs _________.
thickening of the superior aspect of the fibrous capsule;
Anteriorly in the shoulder, there are__________ to provide stability.
glenohumeral ligaments (intrinsic ligaments)
Glenalhumeral ligaments are actually ____________.
Thickenings of the anterior part of the fibrous capsule.
_________ are thickenings of the anterior part of the fibrous capsule, while _______ are thickenings of the superior part.

THe coracoACROMIAL ligament helps prevent ____________o f the shoulder joint. (what direction of dislocation?)
upward dislocation
The coracoacormial lig. is _________, while the transverse humeral lig is _______ (intrensic/extrensic)

The _____ lies just inferior to the glenohumeral joint
axillary nerve
__________ may be affected during an inferior shoulder dislocation.
Axillary nerve (b/c it's just inferior to glenohumeral joint)
In a 'shoulder separation', what is affected?
Acromioclavicular joint

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