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Jesus and the early christians


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The Samarians (or Samaritans) only accepted which books of the bible?
They accepted only the first five books of the old testament, or what is commonly refered to as the Torah (or as it is called in Greek, the Pentateuch)
_____was the langua franca of the Roman Empire.
"Herod the Great" ruled from...
37 B.C.-4 A.D.
The destruction of the second temple happened in...
70 A.D.
The Maccobean Revolt occured in....
167 A.D.
The Markan priority or the priority of Mark holds essentially that...
the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Mark's Gospel as one of their sources.
Samarian means literally...
Keeper or watcher of the law.
Antiochus IV
Also known as Epiphanes (Gk. for manifest). A Seleucid emperor who organized an expedition against Jerusalem, which he destroyed, as well as putting vast multitudes of its inhabitants to death in a most cruel manner. He also defiled the Temple in Jerusalem through unacceptable acts, such as offering pigs to the Greek gods.This reign of cruelty led to the Maccabean revolt in 167 A.D. It was this year that Aristobulus had outlawed all forms of Jewish worship with the penalty of death.
Griesbach hypothesis
Theory proposed by German scholar Johann Jakob Griesbach holding that the Gospel of Matthew was the first of the gospels and source of the other two synoptics. His theory is therefore a theory of dependence, making the order Matthew, Luke, and Mark (making Mark dependent on both). This has also been known as the Augustinian hypothesis.
The Hasmonean Dynasty
A dynasty founded by the Maccobee family after their defeat of the Seleucid army. It would rule from 140 BCE to 37 BCE.
John Hyrcanus
A Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC, son of Simon Maccabaeus and hence the nephew of Judas Maccabaeus, Jonathan Maccabaeus and their siblings. He represented in some ways the high point of the Hasmonean Dynasty. He forced Idumeans to convert to Judaism and destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mt. Gerizim.
A Jewish priest who sparked the Maccobean revolt by refusing to offer sacrifice to pagan gods.
Judah the Maccabbee
Known as Judas Maccabeus (from the Syriac word maqqaba for hammer)was the third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias. He led the Maccabean revolt against the Seleucid Empire
Coptic is...
the ancient egyptian language, only written in Greek letters.
Ancient Modi'in was...
the place of origin of the Jewish Hasmonean dynasty which ruled Judea in the first and second centuries BC, and it is where the Maccabean revolt against the Seleucid Greeks started.
Aristobulus II
was a king of Judea from the Hasmonean Dynasty. Quarelled with his older brother Hyrcanus II for the thrown. After nearly vanquishing Hyrcanus II at Jericho, both went to Rome, each of them to make appeals against the other for power, as General Pompey told them to stay in Rome he conquered Jerusalem in 163 B.C. The Romans than put Hyrcanus, the weaker brother in power.
Hyrcanus II
was the Jewish High Priest from about 79 to 40 BCE. In 40 BCE with the help of the Parthians, Antigonus the Hasmonean, Aristobulus' son, was proclaimed king and high priest, and Hyrcanus was seized and carried to Babylonia. 4 years later Herod the Great, and fearing the Hyrcanus might challenge his power, had him executed (30 B.C.E.)
The Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin, Chapter 11 states that...
Just as the blindman and the lameman who conspire together to steal figs from their masters tree should be judged together as one, "likewise the Holy One, blessed be he, takes the soul and places it in(its)body and judges them as one."
Psalms of Solomon 17:1-4 (1st cent. B.C.E.) states...
"And the kindom of our God is forever over the nations in judgement. Lord, you chose david to be King over Israel, and swore to him about his descendants forever, that his kingdom should not fail forever."
Mark is the shortest of the gospels overall, but often...
the longest with regard to individual pericopes.
An extract or selection from a book, especially a reading from a Scripture that forms part of a church service.
Mark's Gospel is known as...
the Gospel of Suffering
Papias speaks (ca. 110) of...
a certain Mark, who having become the interpreter of Peter, set himself to write down these things accurately, "for he made it his one care not to omit anything that he heard, or to set down any false statement therein." Quoted from Eusebius (C.E. 324) Eccl. Hist. iii.39.
Acording to Irenaeus (ca. 180), the first Gospel to be written was...
The Gospel of Mathew, during the ministries of Paul and Peter in Rome. Only after their deaths, he reports would the Gospels of Mark and Lukebe written.
Redaction Criticism
Redaction criticism is a historical discipline which is concerned to discover the intended purpose of the final author/editor of a book. It focuses on how the author/editor has shaped and molded the material in his sources to express his literary goals for the work, i.e., the reasons he is writing his work. Redaction criticism sees the author/editor not as a mere "cut-and-paste" collecter of stories, but as a theologian who is trying to meet his theological agenda by shaping the sources he uses.
Papyrus P52
A fragment of the Gospel of John dated from 125 C.E., acquired by Bernard Grenfell in Egypt in 1920, this small papyrus is generally accepted to be the earliest extant copy of New Testament canonical writing.
Which Gospel is noted for its distended travel narrative?
Form Criticism
A method of biblical criticism applied as a means of analyzing the typical features of texts, especially their conventional forms or structures (e.g. parables, genealogies, etc.), in order to relate them to their sociological contexts. Form criticism begins by identifying a text's genres or conventional literary forms, such as parables, proverbs, epistles, or love poems. It goes on to seek the sociological setting for each text's genres, its "situation in life" (German: Sitz in Leben).
John Dominic Crossan describes Jesus as...
A peasant Jewish Cynic. Crossan places a strong emphasis on Jesus' itenerancy.
E.P. Sanders portrays Jesus as...
an eschatological prophet. Sanders also maintains that it is likely that Jesus did not view "messiah" as the best term to refer to what he was.
Ben F. Meyer maintains...
that even if Jesus did not refer to himself as Messiah in his lifetime, this by no means suggests that the conclusion drawn by Peter (namely, that he was the Messiah) was wrong. For, as Meyer notes, "Even to recognize him as Messiah, was only the first step in coming to know who he was, for the secret of his identity was bound up with the secret of his destiny."
In which of the gospels do the Wisemen visit Jesus after his Birth?
After his birth, Jesus is visited by shepards (instead of wisemen) in which gospel?
The "silent years" or the "lost years", refer to...
The eighteen years in between Jesus 12th year and his 30th that left unaccounted for in the Gospels.
Reference is made to a temple tax in which of the synoptics?
Matthew 17:24-27
The Miraculous catching of fish occurs in...
Luke 5:1-11
The Parable of the lost sheep occurs in which of the synoptics?
Matthew 18:10-14 and Luke 15:3-7
Teachings on reproving a brother as well as the teaching on the presence of Jesus are located only in...
Matthew 18:15-20
The Parable of the unforgiving servant appears only in which gospel?
Matthew 18:23-34
The Parable of the laborers in the vineyard occurs in...
Mathew 20:1-16
Jesus' traveling to Capernaum, his teaching there, as well as his healing of a demoniac in this same town occur in which gospel(s)?
Mark 1:21-38 and Luke 4:31-43
Which gospel stresses most the inclusiveness of Jesus' ministry?
Which gospel speaks of Jesus as the "Son of God"?
Beloved Disciple
A phrase used several times in the Gospel of John. It is the Beloved Disciple who asks Jesus during the Last Supper who it is that will betray him. During the crucifixion, Jesus indicates the Beloved Disciple and tells his mother "Woman, here is your son." To the Beloved Disciple he says, "Here is your mother." When Mary Magdalene discovers the empty tomb, she runs to tell the Beloved Disciple and Simon Peter. The Beloved Disciple is the first to reach the empty tomb, but Simon Peter is the first to enter. It is generally thought that the "beloved disciple" refers to the apostle John.
These two brothers, both of whom became apostles, were the sons of Zebedee.
James and John
The only miracle found in all 4 gospels is...
the feeding of the five thousand.
Adolf Julicher
German biblical scholar who challenged the prevalence of naive allegorical readings of the parables; authored "the parabolic speech of Jesus."
______ is known as the most "Jewish" of the Gospels.
Matthew. It is most likely the case that the author of Matthew was a Jew writing for a Jewish community; hence the emphasis on Jesus as being the "new Moses.
Appollonius of Tyana
A philosopher and Mathematician of Greek origin who is said to have performed an exorcism on boy possessed by demonic forces in 1st century C.E.
Honi the Circle Drawer
a Jewish miracle worker of the first century BCE, who was famous for his ability to successfully pray for rain. On one occasion when God did not answer his prayer, he drew a circle in the dust, stood inside it, and informed God that he would not move until it rained. When it began to drizzle, Honi told God that he was not satisfied and expected more rain; it then began to pour.
Jesus Miracles can broken up into __ categories.
4 categories, which are comprised of, 1)healing, 2)Exorcisms, 3)resuscitations, 4)Nature Miracles
Hanina Ben Dosa
A Galileean Jew reknowned for the power of his prayers. Is rumored to have healed the son of the teacher Gamaliel, with whom Paul studied.
The Parthian invasion occured in....
41 B.C.E.
Herod Antipas
The son of "Herod the Great", who ruled from 4 B.C.E. to 39 C.E.
Herod's greatest ally in Rome was...
Mark Antony. After the battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E., in which Mark Antony was defeated, Herod sought council with Octavian and won him over.
Under the Hasmoneans...
the preistly and kingly lines became one.
Diatessaron of Tatian
One of a number of harmonies of the four Gospels, that is, the material of the four distinct Gospels rewritten as a continuous narrative resolving all conflicting statements. It contained most of the gospels' material, with the notable exception, according to Theodoret, of the two apparently irreconcilable genealogies of Jesus (one in the Gospel of Matthew and one in the Gospel of Luke). Although by being essentially an amalgam of the canonical texts it was not considered heretical, it was nevertheless considered part of the New Testament apocrypha since it had nothing to add.
How many people lived in Rome during Jesus' time.
1 million
The name given to the council of seventy-one Jewish sages who constituted the supreme court and legislative body in Judea during the Roman period. The make-up of the council included a president (Nasi), vice president (Av Beit Din), and sixty-nine general members who all sat in the form of a semi-circle when in session. The constitution of seventy-one was to preclude the possibility of a tie.
What percent of the Roman Empire was Jewish?
11-12 %
______said there were 4 gospels to carry the good news to the four corners of the earth.
A ritual bath, whereby pilgrims would purify themselves before entering the temple.
Pontius Pilate
The governor of the small Roman province of Judea from AD 26 until around AD 36. An inscription found at Caesarea refers to him as prefect, while Tacitus speaks of him as procurator of that province.
Olivet Discourse
The Olivet discourse is a passage found in chapter 24 of the Gospel of Matthew and chapter 13 of the Gospel of Mark that prophesy the Second Coming of Jesus. Other prophecies are: Jerusalem and the Temple will be destroyed;
The Jews will be scattered among the nations "until the times of the Gentiles" are fulfilled; There will be an upheaval among the nations;
Cosmic signs will be revealed; Jesus will return to set up His Kingdom. It must be noted that Chapter 21 of the Gospel of Luke is not part of the Olivet discourse, as its setting is on the Temple Mount.
Swoon Hypothesis
Holds that Jesus didn't die on the cross, but merely fell unconscious ("swooned"), and was later revived in the tomb in the same mortal body. Although this hypothesis is disputed by most secular scholars, who largely find it more plausible that the events described in the Gospels were simply fabricated, and by most Christian scholars, who believe as part of their faith that Jesus died and was subsequently resurrected, it has had noteworthy advocates for hundreds of years. Early proponents of this theory include German theologian Karl Friedrich Bahrdt, Karl Venturini, Heinrich Paulus, Friedrich Schleiermacher.
The Son of Man
1) Human Being; as in Ezek. 2:1 (Hebrew: Ben Adam; Aramaic: Bar Enash),human race.

2) As a Periphrasis for "I", this view was put forth by Vermes.

3)As Messiah, 1 Enoch (A Jewish apocolyptic writing) as eschatological figure. Note: in Qumran we found all of Enoch accept for the part that refers to the son of man.
Adolf deissmann
German Scholar who interpreted the Son of Man was the equivalent of the Latin "filius divi" or Son of God. Augustus was known as such during the prosperous years of the empire, thus the Christian idea of the Messiah was a Roman heritage.
Romans and Greeks; appelation used by the people of Qumran to refer to them.
To change or falsify (a text), by introducing new or incorrect material.
The war scroll
A scroll found in Qumran which foretells a war between the forces of good and evil. The good forces were to be led by Melchizidek (king of righteousness) against the forces of darkness headed by Melchiresha (“king of wickedness/wicked king”) also known as Belial.
J.T. Milik
British Scholar who claimed that "the Son of Man" was a Greek King. He suggested that that "the Son of Man" might have been Alexander Balas (Son of Antiochus epiphanes).
David Flusser
A Jewish scholar, held that jesus resurrected from the dead, and the "the Son of Man" would be an anti-Christ figure at the end of times.
Garcia Florentino Martinez
Believed that the Son of Man was the most high, thus an angel like figure such as Michael or Melchizedek.
John Collins
Author of "The Scepter and the Star," says the Son of God figure is the Messiah.
The Jerusalem Council
(48 c.e.)concerned the matter of whether Gentiles should be brought into the Church. Traditional Jewish Christians argued that, to become a Christian, one must first convert to Judaism and become circumcised. Members of the Nazarence sect were probably worried that incoming Gentile converts would jeopardize the Jewish Christians' relationships with non-christianized Jews.
After his dispute with Barnabas in Antioch...
Paul and Barnabas separate, Paul heads out separately on his second and third missionary journeys
The debate betw. Jesus and the Pharisees regarding the Law concerned...
1) Sabbath, what to do, and what not to do, e.g., can one heal on the Sabbath.

2) Dietary Laws, and table fellowship, the washing of hands etc.

3) Tradition

Note: It is said of the Galuleans that they weren't the most observant Jews, hence the saying, "How could something good come out of Nazarene."
Also Halakhah, Halacha; the collective corpus of Jewish rabbinic law, custom and tradition. Like the religious laws in many other cultures, Judaism classically drew no distinction in its laws between religious and non-religious life. Hence, Halakha guides not only religious practices and beliefs, but numerous aspects of day-to-day life.
From the Hebrew, kašrut, is the name of the Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed kosher in English, from the Hebrew term kasher, meaning "fit" (in this context, fit for Jewish consumption).
The Tradition of the Elders stressed that...
Jll Jews should not eat unless they carefully wash their hands.
"The Torah in the Messianic Age" was written by...
W.D. Davies; the book puts forth the hypothesis that there occured a change in the Messianic age whereby Jesus would have authority to modify the Law of Moses.
Jesus' statement, "I did not come to do way with the law, but to fullfil it." (Matt. 5:17) can be inerpreted as meaning either...
1) He wished to abolish the ritual aspects of the law, but affirm those moral aspects.

2)he wished not to challenge the law, but only to affirm that it is alright to do good on the Sabbath, e.g., to heal.
Levirate Marriage
Marriage with a brother's widow. This custom is found among a large number of primitive peoples, a list of which is given by Westermarck ("History of Human Marriage," pp. 510-514). In some cases it is the duty of a man to marry his brother's widow even if she has had children by the deceased, but in most cases it occurs when there are no children, as among the Hindus ("Institutes of Manu," v. 59-63). Among the Hebrews marriage with a brother's widow was forbidden as a general rule (Lev. xviii. 16, xx. 21), but was regarded as obligatory (Deut. xxv. 56) when there was no male issue, and when the two brothers had been dwelling on the same family estate.
The Triumphal Entry refers to...
Jesus' entry into Jerusalem on a Donkey, fullfilling the prophecy of Zech 9:9.
By making reference to "the cleansing of the Temple" Jesus is critisizing...
the actual leadership of the temple.
High priest of the Temple in Jerusalem (6-15 c.e).
High priest of the Temple in Jerusalem (18-36 c.e).
Reference to a "Suffering Servant" is made in...
Isaiah 52-53
Jesus is arrested in...
...the Garden of Gethsemane. (1)He is brought to Annas,father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year. Annas orders
Jesus to be taken to Caiaphas. (2)Jesus is then questioned, insulted,
mocked, and tortured before the Sanhedrin. Jesus is sentenced to death for the charge of blasphemy.
Peter denies Jesus how many times?
three times
A secretary or scribe
How many boks of the New testament appear in Letter form?
21 of 27.
Luke-Acts comprises what percent of the New Testament.
In Acts it is asserted that Paul studied with...
Pauls Conversion occured on the road to...
When Paul began preaching in Damascus, he was threatened and...
had to escape from the city over a wall.
The most important key to developing a chronology for paul's life is...
the date of his appearance before Gallio, a Roman proconsul, and younger brother of the philosopher Seneca, in Corinth, at the end of Paul's second missionary Journey. (Circa 51-52 C.E.)
Paul spent __ years in Arabia.
Prior to his his missionary journaeys Paul headed a...
Ministry in Tarsus and Antioch.
Paul was arrested in Jerusalem in what year?
57 CE
Prior to being sent to Rome Paul was imprisoned in what city.
What are the three acts that set the stage for Christ's Crucifixion?
1) The triumphal entry

2) The Cleansing of the Temple

3)Jesus' prediction of the destruction of the temple.
Upon being questioned by Caiaphas, Jesus quotes...
Daniel 7:13-14, "In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. 14 He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.
Who wrote "The Medical Language of St. Luke"?
W. Hobart
"The Style and Literary Method of Luke" was written by...
Henry Joel Cadbury
Arguments against Lukan authorship of Acts
1)Chronological inconsistencies betw. Acts and the Letters of Paul.

2)The speeches all have the same tone, they sound the same.

3) Paul's speeches do employ Paul's typical vocabulary.
Acts has been characterized as belonging to which Genres?
1) Historical Novel

2) History of the early Church

3) Apologetic/Kerygmatic
Father of Ancient history
Wrote "The Pelopenesian Wars"
Author depicts Acts as a historical novel
Richard Pervo in his "Prophet of Delight"
Author says that the descrepansies betw. Acts and the Pauline Letters are to great to allow any claim of historical accuracy to acts.
John Knox in his "Chapters in the Life of Paul"
Acts is dated generally...
betw. 60-80 CE, most likely 70 CE.
F.C. BAUER (From the University of Tubingen) dates Acts...
from 140-160 CE;
Who coined the term "early catholicism" was coined by...
F.C. Bauer, to support his claim that Acts was written later on, in order to bring unity to the Church.
In his "The Apostolic Fathers," _______ noted that the writing after the Gospels are not suggestive of any division in the early church.
J.B. Lightfoot
The term utilized by Paul in in his letters as well as in acts refering to Jesus' second coming.
Thw Parousia
Pentecost falls on the ____ day after Passover.
Did the apostles look on as Jesus Ascended in Acts?
Yes sir!
Passover celebrates...
The redemption of the Jews from their exile in Egypt.
They sold their property but withheld half from the church, and thus were struck down.
Amanias and Sapphina
It was in which city were Christians first referred to as such?
filius divi
Son of God
Paul and Barnabas disagreed about...
John Mark
Paul set out with ____ on his 2nd missionart journey.
In Corinth Paul came into contact with...
Priscilla and Aquila
"The Macedonian Call" refers to...
Paul and Silas' journey into Phrygia and Galatia.
Pastoral Epistles
Refers to I and II Timothy & Titus
Paul was imprisoned in Rome for __ years
During his third missionary Journey Paul goes...
Back to Phrygia and Galatia, and then to Ephesus (2-3 years)
In all Paul makes __ journeys to Jerusalem.
Latin word for stone (Peter)
Pauls Letters have a five-fold structure which includes...
1) Greeting

2) Thanksgiving

3) The Body of the Letter

4) further

5) The Benediction
Thessalonica is in....
Refered to Christians as Children of Light.
Paul writes the thessalonians from...
_____ was Paul's host in Thessalonica.
Episcopus means...
Pastor means...
Agrippa II
The seventh and last king of the family of Herod the Great. In 60 CE when Paul of Tarsus appeared before him at Caesarea (Acts xxv, 13).
Deacon comes from...
The Greek Diakanos, which means to serve.
In all likelihood Paul's Letter to the Romans was written from...
An expression of praise to God, especially a short hymn sung as part of a Christian worship service.
Paul wrote ___ letters to the Corinthians.
4, possibly 5.
Of the twenty-seven books in the New Testament, _____ have traditionally been attributed to the great missionary Paul of Tarsus.
The Jewish Talmud claims that Jesus died by ______.
Early on ______ emerges as a leader in the church.
Term used to refer to Greek speaking Jews within the Community of believers.
In _____ Paul was scoffed at by Epicureans and Stoics.
The longest single letter in the New Testament.
Paul's Letter to the Romans.
1 Corinthianswas written to...
reprove the Christian community in Corinth for its internal divisions and for its immoral sexual practices.
______was the last written of the seven New Testament letters that modern scholars attribute to Paul
At the time when he wrote Romans had Paul visited Rome?
In ______ Paul warns of “those who cause dissensions and offenses”
His Letter to the Romans
Paul's collaborator, with whom he writes I Corinthians.
Peter and James are more or Less conservative than Paul with regard to adhering to Jewish law.
II Corinthians was written...
by Paul and his disciple Timothy.
Simon Magus
In the Acts of the Apostles 8:18-24. Simon Magus offers the disciples of Jesus payment for the power to perform miracles. Hence, the term simony, which refers to the ecclesiastical crime and personal sin of paying for offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church
In Acts, the first order of business is to elect ______ as the twelfth apostle, replacing the traitor Judas Iscariot.
During the ________, the Holy Spirit descends upon the apostles. As a result of the Holy Spirit’s presence, they begin speaking in tongues.
The first sermon in Acts is preached by________.
When the high priest imprisons the apostles...
they are miraculously freed by an angel, and they continue their preaching.
he early church was divided into twwo groups...
One group is the Hellenists, Christians who were born Jewish but who have a Greek cultural background. The other group is the Hebrews, the Christians who, like the apostles, were born into Jewish cultural backgrounds.
______dines with the family of a Roman centurion named Cornelius, and they become the first Gentiles baptized.
was in Syria
When Paul and Silas are imprisoned in Macedonia...
An earthquake shakes the prison cell, and the missionaries are quickly released.
Paul must leave this city after a mass riot instigated by the silversmiths, who are concerned that his preaching against pagan idolatry will ruin their trade.
On the way to Rome...
Paul’s ship is wrecked.
He was one of the seven deacons chosen by the early Christians to evangelize and to serve the poor. Like Stephen, he may have been a hellenized Jew, someone who had been educated in the Greek language.
In Acts, ______ baptizes an ethiopian Eunuch.
49 C.E.
According to the Roman historian Suetonius (70-122) in his The Twelve Caesars, Claudius “expelled the Jews from Rome since they rioted constantly at the instigation of Chrestus.”
While in Rome Paul wrote the epistles to...
Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians and Philippians.
Kandake (Candice)
Ethiopic name for queen
W. Schmithals wrote:
Gnosticism in Corinth
Paul attacking the Law?
1) Paul did not understand Judaism himself

2)He knew but set up a straw man to make it acceptable.

3)Paul was not systematic about the law, not that he saw the law as useless in itself, but that it was secondary to life in Christ.

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