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Japanese Linguistics: Exam II


undefined, object
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Adectival noun diagnostics
Copulas (unlike adjectives), -na (unlike nouns)
Adjective diagnostics
Modify nouns, use inflectional paradigms (-i, -katta, -ku)
Adverb diagnostics
No case marking; -ku
Are all Japanese verbs optionally transitive?
No.  An implied object e.
Elements specified in subcategorization fram for head
Neither A nor B dominates the other, and the first branching node that dominates A also dominates B
Closed class category
New morhemes can not be added
Configurational; evidence for
Distinguishes different constitutents, for example subjects and objects, on the basis of a structural (=configurational) difference; VP, mov't
Maximal set of words dominated by a common node in a syntactic tree
Constituent diagnostics
Can move as a unit; can be deleted as a unit; can be replaced with other constituents of the same ype
Evidence for a VP node
Numeral quanifiers (mutual c-command), an object pronoun can be coreferent with a subject modifier (blocked by non-config - no VP)
Evidence for mov't
From scrambling.  SOV (Empahsis of natives on scrambles from SOV; rarity of OS langs); Scrambling changes object to hihger config (NQ c-command rule "exception" due to trace; when an NP containing the antecedent of an object pronoun is scra
Expressing politeness toward interlocutors; copula, mas-u
o+V(+i)+suru; used when 1)anything under the VP or 2) the theme/recipient/etc. deserves respect
Intransitive, transitive, ditransitive
0, 1, 2 NPs internal to VP
Lyman's law
Don't use rendaku on the second word of a compound if a voiced obsturent is already present in that word
Formal non-past
Individual units of sound carrying meaning
Study of word structure
Informal negative non-past
Noun conjugation paradigm; types

Copulas - means "is" or "="

da, zya nai, datta, zya nakat:a, daroo 

Noun diagnostics
no, to (and), det
Numeral quantifier (NQ)
a numeral and the classifier that agress with the type of entity being counted
Involves significant blockage of the vocal tract
Prescriptive vs. Descriptive Grammar
How it "should" work vs. how it does work
Rendaku: when, what, why not?

1. Compounding

2. Voice first consonant of second word (h-->b)

3. Conjunctions, Lyman's law

o+V(+i)ni naru; used when the head N of the syntactic subject NP deserves respect
Informal non-past
Subcategorization Frame
Specificationfor what types of phrases must co-occur within a phrase headed by a certain morpheme ([__NP])
Informal past
Thematic roles
agent (instigator), theme (undergoer of state change/transfer), goal (endpoint), source (startpoint), experiencer (undergoer of psych state)
Verb diagnostics
Conjugate, -(i)ta-
Verbal noun diagnostics
Pass noun tests (kono, ga, no), occur w/ suru
Why do we think there is subcategorization?
Seems that certain phrases are required in some VPs, and that subcategories may determine case markers
Why is /-kunai/ really /ku/ + /nai/?
/arimasen/ and /ha/
Informal inchoative

Deck Info