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MMG Power of Plagues


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What brought about plagues?
-changes in human population and lifestyles!
What affect did the agricultural revolution have on "plagues"?
-led to animal domestication and therefor zoonotic diseases
EX: measles from DHPP, SARS from civet cats, HIV from Chimps
What affect did the industrial revolution have on plagues?
-led to crowding of pepole together with carriers (ie; rats), polluted water and air, and poor public health measures
What was the plague of Athens?
-typhus caused by bacterium Rickettsia spp.
-lead to defeat of Athens by Sparta- turning point in Western civilization!
-430 BC, about 25% of population killed
What was Roman fever?
-malaria (bad air) caused by protozoan Plasmodium
-prevalent in marshlands and swamps around rome
-believed to have stopped Attila the Hun and other attacks on Rome!!
What is the Black Death also known as?
What is the bacterium that caused it?
How many people died between 1346-1353?
-bubonic plague
-Yersinia pestis
-20 million people in Europe
How long did it take for the population to return to the former size in Europe?
150 years
How many people would die daily in populations of about 500,000?
-500 a day!
In 1860's how many Chinese died?
-200 million people
What was the result of the Black Plague?
-led to public health measures of quarantine (40 days: either dead or recovered) and restriction of travel
-discrimination; Jews accused of poisoning wells and 900 were burned alive, in Italy they were forced to wear yellow star of David, others emigrated to Poland with tolerant king Casimir
Today, how many cases of the Black Death occur?
Deaths from this?
Across how many countries?
-28,570 cases
-2,331 deaths
-24 countries
What is war fever known as?
What agent causes it?
How is it transmitted?
-Typhus Fever
-Rickettsia prowazekii (relative of Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever)
-transmitted by body lice
Who are some good examples of Typhus fever?
-Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain fought the Moors over Granada (17,000 of 20,000 died from Typhus fever)
-Napolean's Army of 500,000 invaded Russia (220,000 died from typhus and 100,000 from disease)
What did the Germans contribute to Typhus fever?
-German chemists synthesized Zyklon-B, a cyanide derivative, to fumigate and delouse railroad cars
-Germans also used this to murder Jews in "delousing stations" in concentration camps
What plague has been estimated to have killed more than half the people who have ever lived?
What protozoan causes it?
-protozoan Plasmodium spp.
Currently, how many cases of Malaria are seen yearly?
Who is famously alleged to have died of malaria at age 32?
-300 to 500 million cases yearly (2-3 deaths/yr)!
-Alexander the Great
What bacterium attacks water most commonly as well food-borne?
What does this bacterium cause?
-Vibria cholerae
What disease is the greatest epidemic of the 19th century?
What groups of peoples are carriers?
-cholera (currently ongoing)
-Irish emigrants
How was Smallpox introduced to the "New World"?
-Spaniards brought it over from the Old World
What was the greatest epidemic of the 18th century?
What causes it?
-Smallpox (Spotted Plague)
-virus (actual one not listed)
What cuased the start of slave trade?
-British in French and Indian War used smallpox to attack Indians
-It was so devastating to Natives that colonists were forced to import slaves from Africa to do work
What is the Peoples Plague?
What causes this?
-bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Who went to Africa to recover from TB and changed the face of Africa forever?
-Cecil Rhodes
Today, how many people are infected with TB?
-1 person every second
-death every 18 seconds
-over next decade, predicted 30 million people will die
Who was the first person to actually see microbes?
-Dutch tailor Antoni van Leeuwenhoek in 1674
-constructed crude microscope capable of seeing "wee animalcules"
-plaque between teeth
How was spontaneous generation disproved and by whom?
What resulted from this finding?
-Swan Neck Flask
-Louis Pasteur
-the Scientific Method
What is the Scientific Method?
1) Observe
2) Question
3) Hypothesis
4) Observations
5) Accept, Reject, Modify hypothesis
6) Theory or Law
Who developed Germ Theory Postulates?
What is the purpose of it?
-Robert Koch
-Tests to determine if a disease can be attributed to an organism
What are the stages of Koch's Postulates?
1) Suspected germ must be present in every case of the disease
2) Germ must be isolated and grown in pure culture
3) Cultured germ must cause disease when inoculated into a healthy susceptible experimental host
4) Same germ must be reisolated from the diseased experimental host
What are the three domains of life?
Who came up with these??
*Carl Woese
What are the majority of bacteria?
-non-bacterial microbes that have many similarities to animal cells
What are Archeae?
-primitive prokaryotes that live in extreme environments such as in extreme salinity or temperature
What are 4 criteria for classifying microbes?
-size and shape
-cell structure
-mode of propulsion
What are the two categories of prokaryotes?
What are the cellular morphologies for cocci?
-strepto (chain)
-sarcina (round cluster)
-staphylo (large random cluster)
What other shapes are there besides cocci?
How many cells constitute a typical colony?
-10^6 to 10^8 cells per colony
What is the famous term associated with viruses that you can never remember? :)
-obligate intracellular parasites
What category do yeasts and molds belong to?
Which one is multicellular?
How do they reproduce?
-multi= molds (hyphae: sexual and asexual spores)
-single= yeasts (budding, some have sexual spores)
What are Protozoa's?
Describe them and how they move.
-single celled eukaryotes that are similar in their nutritional needs and cellular structure
-typically live freely in water (some in hosts)
-most reproduce asexually (some sexually)
-use pseudopodia, cilia, flagella to move
Describe Algae and how it's categorized?
-unicellular or multicellular
-simple reproductive structures
-categorized on basis of pigmentation, storage products, and composition of cell wall

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