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World History II SOL Review


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Which religion is concentrated in Europe and the Middle East?
Which religion dominates parts of Asia, northern Africa and the Middle East?
4 Beliefs of Martin Luther
salvation by faith alone
Bible is the ultimate authority
All humans are equal before God
Indulgences should not be sold
What is the dominant religion of India?
Where is Buddhism predominant?
East and Southeast Asia
This action began the Protestant reformation
Luther's Posting of the 95 Theses
Taught predestination, righteous life, work ethic in Geneva
John Calvin
Causes of the Protestant Reformation
selling indulgences and Church corruption
German and English nobility hated the power of the Church (their "money" going to Rome)
Church prohibited usury angering merchants
Reasons for the formation of the Anglican Church
King Henry VIII wanted a divorce but the Catholic Church refused
Church of England
Royal family of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire
War of religion, which turned political, and was fought in Europe
Thirty Years' War
French Cardinal who increased the power of the monarchy and entered the Thirty Years' War
French protestants/Calvinists
Granted Huguenots freedom of worship
Edict of Nantes
Organization founded to spread Catholic doctrine
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Catholic Church mounted a series of reforms and reasserted its authority
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
Developed the European printing press
3 results of the Reformation
religious tolerance
Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa to India
Vasco da Gama
Prince who developed a school to teach new navigational techniques
Henry the Navigator
Motives for Exploration
Gold, spices, natural resources
political and economic competition
improved navigational arts (astrolabe, caravels, etc.)
conquistador/conqueror of Mexico and the Aztecs
Hernando Cortez
ships were the first to circumnavigate the world
Ferdinand Magellan
English sailor, pirate who sailed along America's coast
Francis Drake
French explorer who sailed to Quebec
Jacques Cartier
Conquistador who defeated Incan civilization
Francisco Pizarro
Impact of Exploration on the Americas
influenced by Catholic and Protestant religions
killing of native populations
destruction of native economies
rigid class system in Latin America
These agricultural estates led to an increase in slavery and destroyed native economies
Exchange between Eastern and Western hemispheres because of the discovery of the Americas
Columbian Exchange
Products introduced to the Americas as a result of the Columbian Exchange
horses, cattle, diseases (smallpox)
Products introduced to Europe as a result of the Columbian Exchange
corn, potatoes, tobacco
trade between Africa, Americas, and Europe
Triangle of Trade
economic sytem adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficiet based on the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country
developed the heliocentric theory
discovered planetary motion
Johannes Kepler
used telescope to support heliocentricism
discovered the laws of gravity
Isaac Newton
William Harvey
disovered circulation of blood
Characteristics include centralization of power and rule by divine right
Absolute monarchs
Divine right
belief that kings were chosen by God to rule on his behalf
Sun king, built Versailles palace, supreme example of absolutism
Louis XIV
Prussian monarch who emphasized military power
Frederick the Great
Russian tsar who attempted to expand and westernize Russia
Peter the Great
leader of the Puritan Revolution
Oliver Cromwell
Magna Carta
limited the power of the English monarch over taxes; signed by King John
name for when William and Mary came to England's throne
Glorious Revolution
Writer of Leviathan who believe that state must have central authority to manage behavior
Thomas Hobbes
wrote Two Treatises on Government stating that people are sovereign and that monarchs are not chosen by god; supported the Glorious Revolution
John Locke
wrote the Spirit of Laws which stated that governments should separate their powers (executive, judicial, legislative)
wrote the Social Contract which stated that government is a contract between a ruler and the people
Jean Jacques Rousseau
philosophe who said that religous toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of Church and state
era of applying reaons to the human and natural world which helped fuel democratic revolutions
Influence of the Enlightenment
Influence of the Amer. Revolution
abuses of the Old Regime
Bankrupt royal treasury
Causes of the French Revolution
Period in which the Committee of Public Safety ruled France and killed all possible opposition (internal enemies)
Reign of Terror
event that marked the symbollic beginning of the French Revolution
Storming of the Bastille
2 Outcomes of the French Revolution
end of absolute monarchy
Rise of Napoleon
led successful slave revolt in Haiti against the French
Toussaint L'Ouverture
led many South American countries to independence; the great liberator
Simon Bolivar
name for the laws of Napoleon which greatly influenced future laws of Europe
Napoleonic Code
What happened to Europe as a result of Napoleon?
increased nationalism
Congress of Vienna
led by Klemens von Metternich it established a balance of power and restored the monarchies of Europe. It also redrew Europe's map
Congress of Vienna
restoration of monarchs following Napoleon
two competing philosophies following Napoleon
lead the Red Shirts; use of military helped unify norhtern and southern Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi
area controlled by the pope that was the last portion of Italy to be unified
Papal States
unified northern Italy and desired to build up Italy's industries
Count Camillo Cavour
Led Prussian unification movement; accomplished through warfare and nationalism
Otto von Bismarck
the ends (achieving and holding power) justify the means;Bismarck's policies, for example
war between France and Germany that led to German unification
Franco-Prussian War

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