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First Exam Review Put Together

The combination of most of the sets for the First Exam Review by mostly Laura and Allen with small help from Zach.


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Royal governors sent by Spain to rule in the King's name.
Geocentric theory, prooved it with his science, one of the "Pillars of Knowledge"
Polish national diet.
Partition of Poland
the breaking up of a country between Austria, Russia, and Prussia
Babylonian Captivity
French King stole the Papacy in 1300's. (French wanted a pope so they made one)
powerful land owners in urban areas in England, House of Commons
War of Austrian Succession
caused by Prussian Invasion of Silesia, France and prussia(natural enemy) vs. England and Austria(historical enemy)
Spanish Netherlands
Seventeen provinces, (Belgium, Modern Netherlands, Luxemborg) which are basically the Low Countries. They are called low be cause they are below sea level, the are surrounded by dikes and wind mills.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
When the sister of Charle IX (the reinig king at that time) and Henry of Navarre (who was a leader in the Calvinist party) sought marriage. As soon as Church let out that day on August 1572, the Guise Family waiting at the doors of the churches slaughtered the Calvinists. During this attack, Protestants were able to cross the border into France to join the Calvinist side.
Swiss Civil War
(1531) Between the Swiss Protestant and Catholic cantons.
Correct Galen's error of blood circulations. "On the Motions of the Heart and Blood" 1628.
Known for surgery, and his "hands on" approach. He wrote "On the Fabric of the Human Body".
John Knox
said Geneva was "The most perfect school of Christ on Earth."
being poor, it affected lots of people, Poor law Commissioners might have observed it
Jethro Tull
invented the seed drill which allowed more plants to grow because they weren't being eaten by animals
Bank of England
provided easy access to capital for the Burghers and Merchants
Martin Luther
Found "Justification by Faith". Encouraged the Bible to be written in German vernacular. Cause of Lutheranism. Wrote The 95 Thesis, the three pamphlets: "Address to Nobilityof the German Nation" and "The Babylonian Captivity of the Church" and "On the Freedom of Man".
(1445-1510), Florence painter; Primavera, The Birth of Venus, inspired by Greek mythology, had a religious conversion and tried to burn all his older paintings
Cesare Borgia
younger son of Pope Alexander VI, prototype of Niccolò Machiavelli's Prince —intelligent, cruel, treacherous, and ruthlessly opportunistic
The Restoration of the Stuart Monarchy
Mercantile Colonies
helped nation-state become self-suffient, supposed to serve mother country
House of Medici
greatest bank in Europe, run by one family, bankers of the papacy, 1494- expelled from France due to bad loans and poor leadership
Sugar Factories
another name for sugar plantations in the carribean
Isabella d'Este
known as "The First Lady of The Renaissance", daughter of the Duke of Ferrara,Granddaughter of Ferdinand the I of Naples
High Renaissance
centered in Rome and the Popes provided tremendous patronage to the arts. It featured classical balance, harmony, and restraint
Council of Trent
initiated by Pope Paul III, it was a group that would use the critical mind to reform Catholic Theology, got rid of the selling of indulgances and simony
Edward VI
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
John Kay
Invented the Flying Shuttle, allowed one worker to work at a loom instead of two (first and last name)
had one of the most effective governments in Europe, oligarchy, located on the Adriatic sea
Diet of Worms
The Congress session held in Worms, by Charles V to establish a relationship with the Pope. When Luther was called to recant his beliefs, he gave his famous "Here I stand..." speach.
Leonardo da Vinci
(1452-1519 in Rome) Artist of the "The last Supper", ("The Mona Lisa" in Milan)
South Sea Bubble
sold shares but then went bankrupt, Walpole made Parliament give the investors their money back, created trust for the English economy
gold and silver
Prussian Militarism
"Prussian Blue", most powerful army which makes it a natural enemy of France, Frederick William I never used it
National Debt
_______ was very high in France because of the wars
Charles VII
After The Hundred Years War, he worked with the Estates-General to establish a royal army and to levy taille.
Diplomatic Revolution
the time of changing alliances between the war of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, France allied with Austria and Russia, while Prussia is allied with Great Britain
Great War for Empire
Britain vs. France on the imperial front, France's forces are too spread out, they lose
Mansa Musa
ruled Mali from 1312 to 1332; spread interest in Mali as he journied to Mecca
Robert Walpole
first prime minister, foreign policy-" Let sleeping dogs lie."
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
nothing was solved, prussia doesn't give Silesia back to Austria
Peace of Hubertusburg
ended the continental part of the 7 years' war, Prussia retained Silesia, Joseph II became HRE
Enlightened Despotism
using enlightened ideas to better your country including: religious toleration, freedom of speech, no arbitrary rules
becoming no longer about the community, now it is about bettering yourself
Thomas Moore
was an English writer, who wrote "Utopia"
Sir Francis Drake
Pirate who stole Spanish (Philip II) gold under Queen Elizabeth
Suleiman the Magnificent
Most powerful sultan(of the Ottoman Empire), captured Charles V's attention while Luther gained support.
Robert Clive
British general who helped strengthen British control of India at Calcutta commanded British forces in the Battle of Plassey
Seven Years' War
imperial and continental war, imperial- France vs. England, continental-Prussia vs. France, Austria, and russia,
Cosimo de Medici
ruled Florence from 1434-1464 (first and last name)
Renaissance States
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s; Africa sent slaves to America, America sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent weapons and rum to Africa
Universal Person
well-rounded personality who was capable of achievements in many areas of life ex. Leonardo Da Vinci
Northern Renaissance
Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Payments made to the pope and church that supposedly decreased the amount of time you or whoever you bought it for in purgatory before heaven.
The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War
Henry III
assassinated Henry of Guise, he was assassinated by a crazed monk
Line of Demarcation
Hundred Years' War
(1337-1453)England vs. France, England lost all its land in France, made France feel like they were on top of the world which caused them to join the Italian war (lost)
Leo X
A Medici. Best known for Renaissance culture.
South Sea Company
an English company granted a monopoly to trade with South America under a treaty with Spain, became the "South Sea Bubble"
Ottoman Empire
Muslims, that took over Constantinople in 1453.
British East India Company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch
Pope Paul III
started the Catholic reformation, council of Trent
Aztec Ruler, mistook Cortes to be god and welcomed him into the empire.
John Hus
Leader that called for elimination of The Catholic Church. Unfortunately the Great Schism came to an end with the Council of Constance, and he was burned a the stake. Lead the Hussites.
Black Hole of Calcutta
a dungeon (20 feet square) in a fort in Calcutta where as many as 146 English prisoners were held overnight
Lord Bute
arisocratic resurgence in England, Fishing and Game laws protect british lords' rights
Scientific Societies
Mary I
(Bloody Mary) Brought the Anglican Church back to Catholiscism. Killed all Protestants.
General Directory
took place of the commissariat, made Prussia more centralized, Junkers had to serve under the king
Chinese religion: merchants scum of earth, chinese above everyone else
Henry of Guise
he was assassinated by Henry III
William Pitt the Younger
restabilized England after the American Revolution
"Address of Nobility of the German Nation"
(1520) Played on Nationalism, nobility importance; asked for German princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a reformed church in Germany.
Henry of Navarre
became Henry IV and started the Bourbon dynasty, converted to Catholicism to save his dynasty, "Paris is well worth a Mass"
Qing Dynasty
Manchu tribe that overthrew the Ming dynasty. Brought China back to prosperity and stable-ness
Small Pox
Disease spread by Europeans in the Americas. Led to the deaths
Byzantine Empire
it was a buffer between the Muslim Middle East and the Latin West, it was weakened by the fall of Constantinople, it was over run by the Turks
Early Renaissance
Re-birth of culture, "...out of the slums of the dark ages"
found position of celestial bodies
Leader of Swiss Reformation. Agreed to disagree with Luther about communion. He thought it was only a symbol, and that it wasn't Christ's body or blood untill it touched your mouth, only symbolic. Found on the battlefield of the Swiss Civil War wounded and the Lutherans found him, cut him up into little pieces, then burn them and scattered the ashes over the land. Luther said Zwingli got what he deserved.
found longitude and latitude
Frederick the Wise
The elector(duke) of Saxony, Chose to protect Luther to proove that he had full rein over his lands, not Charles V.
Charles VI
made countries sign the Pragmatic Sanction, he was scared of the Austrian Habsburgs
Holy Roman Empire
group of german nation-states that each acted independent, under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor
Renaissance Slavery
used because the Black Death had made open jobs that could not be filled by skilled workers. Also, the slaves were used by the rich only.
Favorable Balance of Trade
process in which Britain charged more for exports rather than imports in an attempt to gain more profit
Pope Alexander VI
Spanish Borgia Family, spent his money on his son's army, very secular, nepotism
John Wyclif
Wrote literature disgusted about the Churches, influenced the Lollads.
Line of Demarcation
Issued by Pope Alexander VI; assigned Spain newly discovered lands to the west of the line and Portuguese newly discovered lands to the east
English goverment, established as the ruling body after the Glorious Revolution
Spanish Armada
Gargantouis fleet organized by Knig Philip II to invade England because of the death of Mary of Scotts, the last hope for him to gain economic control in England.
Christian Humanism
a movement that developed in Northern Europe during the Renaissance combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church
Observed the geographics of the moons and of other moons of other planets. He stated in the "The Starry Messanger" that there were more than just one moon in our solar system. Wrote the "Dialogue of the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemiac and Copernican" which he wrote in Italina and not Latin; the writing defended the Copernican system. Was invited to the Inquisition.
Gold Coast
southern coast of West Africa, found in 1471 to be a good source of gold
Francis Bacon
Didn't draw from the medieval scientists, wanted to use experiments to proove everything. Made it so modern science needed careful experiments and thorough observations. "Than human life be endowed with new discoveries and power". Wanted the sciences to contribute to the "mechanical arts" (industry, agriculture, trade)
Pocket Boroughs
voting districts where only one family wins, lines haven't changed in 300 years
Amerigo Vespucci
Florentine navigator who explored the coast of South America, America was named after him
Spanish conquistador, conquered Incan empire in Mexico
first English trading port established in Asia (1699), which increased trade with China. Chinese govt allowed them only to reside here from October through March
(1466-1536 Dutch) "Prince of Humanists" Wrote "Praise of Folly" (1509)
"The Book of the Courtier", described tree basic attributes for the perfect courtier, gentleman
Glorious Revolution
Inca Empire
Empire in Peru. conquered by Pizarro, who began an empire for the Spanish in 1535
July 14 1789
The Storming of the Bastille ( need month, day, and year; no commas)
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies until the british came and took over
extremely intelligent civilization, collapsed around 800
Hanseatic League
commercial and military association formed by GERMAN coastal towns, established settlements in England, Monoply in timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, and wine trade, unable to compete with the developing larger territorial states, had a monopoly in northern European trade for almost 200 years
Pugachevs Rebellion
1773, tried to restore traditional system with rights for peasants
city of strict theocracy, established by Calvin
Francis I
Valois Dynasty, didn't call the Estates General, fought against Charles V in the Italian wars
Trading port, after Jesuit disputes, only the Dutch were allowed to reside here, and only for 2-3 months at a time
(1483-1520 in Rome) "The School of Athens"
Portuguese Empire
"Turnip" Townshend
crop rotation, introduced turnips to the fields
Albrecht Durer
(1471-1528 in Nuremburg) Did not reject the use of minute details, characteristics of Northern artists. "Adoration of the Magi"
center of overland tradebetween Italy's seaports, gained wealth from agriculture and industry,ruled by the Sforzas after 1450
1st permanent English settlement in the Americas, founded in 1607
Union of Arras
The Unon that was with Spain. Later on becomes the Spanish Netherlands dominated by the Habsburgs.
Catholic Reformation
brought critical thinking...could also be called a counterrevolution because Paul IV made Index of Forbidden books
The Renaissance
the great rebirth of acrt, literature, and learning in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries which marked the transition from the medieval to modern periods of European history., A new way of thinking. Which laed to future reforms for the catholic church and ultamately different religons
First Estate, they ruled over everyone
Jacob Burckhardt
created modern concept of the Renaissance, failed to recognize the religious sentiment: (Extra!) wrote "Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy" he was an advocate of the Renaissance, he hated the Medieval Age
Portuguese, discovered New World for Spain but thought he had reached Asia (1492)
39 Articles
established by Elizabeth I of England...
Great Schism
The time when France had a pope and Italy had a Pope, they used all their time, focus, and resources to fight/kill each other.
Ming Dynasty
extended Chinese rule to central Asia and ruled during a period of prosperity and growth but slowly declined and was soon conquered
the seat of the German parliament
Spiritual Exercises
written by Ignatius of Loyola, described how to be a Christian
Leonardo Bruni
wrote "New Cicero" which has the idea that humanists believe that their studies of humanism should be put to the service of the state, were better than middle ages above new latin
American colonies depended on the mother country for help b/c the colonies could make everything themselves
Pope Pius II
(1458-1464) tried to preserve ancient Roman structures, issued Excrabilis to Martin Luther
Elizabeth I
Virgin queen who used marital status to bring stability to England (POLITIQUE)
Discovered calculus in 1666. Published the "Principia" in 1687. His three laws of motion, and that the planets actually traveled in an eliptical orbit around the sun. Believed the Universe was a machine and humans could not be glorified because they were only a part of that machine.
Spanish conquistador, conquered Aztec empire in Mexico
major center of textiles during 14th century, became an important banking industry, ruled by an oligarchy (medici)
Portuguese, led expedition to the Cape of Good Hope
Frederick II
1740 he invaded Silesia because he never signed the Pragnatic Santion, started the War of Austrian Succession
economic theory that the prosperity of a nation depended on how much bullion it had; encouraged government to get involved with economics
Richard III
The last York King, defeated in the War of Roses.
the capital of the Aztec Empire, founded on the site of present-day Mexico City
Blaise Pascal
"On the Freedom of Man"
(1520) A short treatis on the doctrine of salvation,"Good works do not make a good man, but a good man does good works"
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer, established settlement at Quebec (1608)
Mississippi Bubble
created by John Law, it failed so the ecomoy went bankrupt and the government didn't by the investors back the money they lost, no trust in the French economy
The Peace of Augsburg ends the German Reformation Wars
Mind over Matter"
That everything in the world, other than your mind, can't be proven that it is real.
Society of Jesus
Dutch Empire
competitive and agressive, Dutch traders drove off competition (British, Portuguese) in coastal trading towns and seized power elsewhere
simple but intelligent empire found in Mexico. capital: Tenochtitlan, ruler:Monteczuma. conquered by Cortes
Not only does Columbus sails the ocean blue, Ferdinand and Isabella end the Reconquista as well
Henry VII
Defeated Richard III in the War of the Roses; and started the Tudor Dynas
Ninety-Five Theses
95 statements against indulgences.
A rambunctious Dominican, hawked the indulgences in Germany with the slogan "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs."
Start of the Seven Years War
small sailing ship
Spanish Inquisition
The decision to remove all muslims from Granada.
family that ruled milan after the death of the Visconti's
Intstitutes of the Christian Relgion
written by John Calvin in 1536, said that the bible was the only source of christian doctorine, two sacraments, predestination
system that permitted conquistadors to collect a tribute from the narives and then use them as laborers
Northwest Passage
a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America
(1475-1564In Rome) "Creation of Adam", the superior "David", called himself the "Divine One"
Jaques Cartier
French explorer, found the St. Lawrence River and laid claim to Canada as a French possesion (1534)
Prester John
Myth that said there was a christian kingdom in Africa ruled by __________. Brought religious aspects to the AOD.
John Cabot
1497, 1498 made voyages along the northeast coast of North America, looking for a passage that led to Asia. employed by King Henry VII
Marco Polo
Wrote "the Travels" which espressed his experiences in Asia. Created explorers and curiosity of lands outside of Europe after the Crusades (cultural diffusion).
Prince Henry
"Prince Henry the Navigator" established Portuguese school of navigation in Lisbon
Catherine II
she became the Great because she defeated the turks and gained access to the black sea, married Peter III, tried to by enlightened with her Instructions
Agricultural Revolution
increase in food production, new inventions, end of open-field system, and parliament allowed farmers to enclose land
invented the Spinning Jenny which proved weak thread very fast ( last name)
Peace of Augsburg
Ended the religious wars. The division of Christianity was formally acknowledged, with Lutheranism granted equal legal standing with Catholicism.
Ingatius of Loyola
Leader of the Jesuits, tried to convert people to Catholicism rather than use violence, wrote Spiritual Exercises
Italian sculptor renowned as a pioneer of the Renaissance style with his natural, lifelike figures, such as the bronze statue David.
feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions
Start of Thirty Years' War, with the Bohemian Phase and the Defenestration of Prague
Spanish Armada
circumnavigated the globe but didnt live to tell the tale
Maximilian I
he controlled the HRE, Poland, and most of Europe; his only heir was Charles V
Elegances of the Latin Language; papal secretary; reinterpreted the Donation of Copnstantine and found out it was a fraud; papal authority was then questioned
Wrote "Discourse on Method". Explained that he was beyond doubt and that doubt was the starting point for new systems. Would only except things he could proove. "Mind over Matter"
the kingdom of two sicilies included Sicily and _____,it includes half of the Italian Peninsula but never became really powerful
Greek physician, there were to blood type circulations.
Charles VIII
Valois dynast, he was urged by Pope Innocent VIII to try and take naples from Ferdinand I. started a long series of Franco-Italian wars
Cardinal Fleury
wanted to isolate France to work on its economy, didn't work b/c they got involved in the war of Austrian Succession
William Pitt the Elder
prime minister,reason why britain won the 7 years' war
concered for more wordly things than for religious or spiritual things, example: Caring more about getting a Wii than what you learn in church on Sunday.
Philip II
"The Prudent King" refused to delegate power. Controlled every single law that was passed in his land. A Spanish Governer once said "If death come by way of Madrid, I shall live forever" which expressed the slowness of his delegation. Habsburg Dynasty, King of Spain, in 1556 he sees his land is to much to rein and gives his brother Ferdinand of Aragon Austria. His Economy was low since he had removed most of his merchants in the Spanish Inquisition, his only real export was wool, which he taxed and he lost his economy even more. He gains controll of the Medittaranean Sea with the coclusion of the Battle Of Lepanto where he defeated the Turks. He thinks he is great so he trys to unify his land under one religion (Catholiscism). He taxes the Netherlands (Spanish's) and they rebell.
the money, goods, or estate that a wife brings to her husband at marriage
(1460) made saying that there was a council over the pope heretical
Treaty of Lodi
peace agreement between Milan and Venice in 1454, established a BOP in Northern Italy
Lorenzo de Medici
also known as _____ the magnificent, ruled florence from 1469-1492 (first and last name)
John Calvin
went to the University of Paris; wrote The Institutes; known from the Genevan Theocracy
"Gold, Glory, God"
Slogan of the conquistadors during the AOD. Gold for the country, Glory to self, God so I don't go to Hell.
Grand Tour
the trip that children being educated would go on to see the other countries and their culture, it sometimes led to the boys getting in trouble over girls
Union of Utrecht
The union created for the Netherlands that were against Spain in effect of the Pacification of Ghent.
Charles V
Forced to focus on Turkish and French invasions while the Lutherans prosper. When it came time for him to fight the Shmalkaldic League he had already began to lose the battles.
The Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of Spanish Succession
Spanish Reconquista
The decision to remove all Moors and Jews from Granada.
86. Commercial Revolution
After the fall of Constantinople it was a search for alternate routes to Asia, new demands, JS companies. it aided the AOD, new money economy, artisans set price, more profit, more demand
Your favorite reformer (*wink*), Martin Luther, posts his 95 Theses in Wittenberg (which states his thoughts against the sale of indulgences), starting the Protestant Reformation
Fall of Constantinople, trade went from unlimited to very limited, competition between states, The end of the Hundred Years' War
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Arthur Young
wrote the Travels, which pointed out the failures of the French agricultural system
Bank of Amsterdam
1609, Amsterdam; deposit and transfer institution (modern bank)
Schmalkaldic League
An alliance is created between Norther German Lutheran princes and the Fench King Henry II (a Catholic) to revive the war in 1552.
Game Laws
Lord Bute, gave power to the nobility, it protected their rights
Justification by Faith
"Saved by faith alone", while reading the bible, Luther found this line. It basically said there was no need for a Pope or indulgences.
War of the Roses
The civil war between the Lancaster family and the York family. The last battle was at bosworth field were Henry Tudor (of Lancaster red rose) established the Tudor Dynasty.(defeats King Richard III of York white rose) Becomes King Henry VII.
Marburg Colloquy
(1529) The Protestants failed to make an alliance or agreement with the Lutherans, "shattering of Protestantism"
Axial Rudder
enabled ships to sail against the wind and engage in naval warfare
Cape of Good Hope
Southernmost tip of Africa
Julius II
He was known as the warrior pope and was more involded in war and politics
a group of many islands in a large body of water
Francis Xavier
first jesuit missonary, achieved to converting some of Asia's population to Christianity, which caused dispute
Treaty of Paris
1763, ended the imperial war, France lost everything except Haiti, they were in debt and Britain alone is the imperial power
A skilled manual worker; a craftsperson
Columbian Exchange
importing and exporting of plants and animals between Europe and the Americas
Peter Bruegel
was Flemish; works include "The Wedding Banquent", "Children at Play", "The Beggers", and "The Wedding"
Ferdinand and Isabella
Their marriage in a way united the two largest kingdoms of Spain; still remained divided; and in the end the country lost their rank as a world power
Cottage Industries
also known as the putting out system or domestic system,required skilled work called artisans and was run by the merchants
Belief that human beings had been created as divine creative power, but had freely chosen to enter the material world, created by Ficino who was commissioned by Cosimo de Medici
sugar cane in S.A and cotton in the southern N.A.; slaves were used here as labor
map making, moved Arabic Traders maps and the rejuvination of the study of Ptolemy.
Published the book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" which prooved the geocentrical theory worng. Luther was against his beliefs.
George I
german king of England, couldn't speak english, started hanover dynasty, Parliament had lots of power
Peter III
he pulled out of the 7 years war, possibly b/c he liked Frederick II
Spanish and German Imperial troops sack Rome; ending Renaissance
Feudal Dues
taxes that the peasants had to pay, Robot, Corvee, Banalities, and Tithes
Edict of Nantes
(1597) Was said it was sometihing like "... where Hugonots make a majority they have special political, religious, and military rights. MADE IT A STATE WITHIN A STATE.
The Edict of Nantes gives Huguenots special powers
was often called in times of financial crisis,only three votes, one for each estate, it was a consultative assembly
Council of Constance
brought an end to the Great Schism, tried to deal with the heresy problem by burning John Hus, caused the Hussite wars
Thomas a Kempis
Wrote "Imitation of Christ" (you are responsible for imitating God's Christ) In it he said, "Truly, at the day of judgement, we shall not be examined by what we have read, but by what we have done."
Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo
Peasant's Wars
(1525) The reaction of the peasants after a long time of oppresion, which was sparked by Luther's ex-followers, the radical Thomas Müntzer, who inflamed the peasants against their rulers with his fiery language: "Strike while the iron is hot!". Luther reacted with his pamphlet "Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants" which called the German princes to "smite, slay and stab" the stupid stubborn peasants. By May 1525, the German princes had supressed the peasant hordes.
united western Europe under the pope
Habsburg-Valois Wars
the Italian wars where Milan invited france into Italy to invade Florence, but then France also invaded milan. Spain wanted to check the power of France, making Italy a theatre of war.
Louis XV
king of France 1715, very lazy, which caused major financial problems, cardinal Fleury
Took thousands of hours of observatios tp proove Ptomlemiac system theory right, however he never took the time to calculate his data.
Act of Supremacy
Act passed by Parliament, after England broke away from the Pope, that stated the King was the supreme head of the Church.
association of people with the same interests, sometimes they acted as the ruling body over a city
Ivan III
"Ivan the Great"; ruled as great prince and first ruler of the independent state called Russia
Index of Forbidden Books
prevented Catholics from reading "bad" books, including books by Descartes, Hobbes, Hume, Voltaire, Luther
Act of Uniformity
restored the book of common prayer to church services
Believed that religion wasn't above politics and no civil war was worth a religious truth.
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
Began by Pope Paul IV was based on the Spanish Inquistion to discipline heresy.
War of Three Henries
After the massacre in 1572, King Henry III stood up and took rightful control of France, he formed an alliance with Henry of Navarre to defeat the Henry of Guise. This basically is a list of assassinations of the Guise Family members. At the end Henry III finally causes some stability, but is suddenly murdered by a crazed monk who was unhappy about the reiligious status.
18th Century Population Grawth
territorial expansion, decline of death rate b/c of more food, and end of bubonic plague caused ________
Joseph II
son of Maria Theresa, liked enlightened despotism, established religios toleration, "Here lies _____ who was unfortunate in everything he undertook."
"The Babylonian Captivity of the Church"
(1520) Different than French + Church, Church had stolen your spiritual experience; in Latin for theoligians to attack the sacrimental system, and the reform of the monasticism so cleregy could marry.
Thomas Cranmer
The new Archbishop of Canterbury, also an "in the closet Protestant" just like Crommwell.
Maria Theresa
1740, she became Empress of Austria and was soon attacked by Prussia
Sea Beggars
The Dutch pirates.
John Wilkes
MP and a journalist, he writes about liberties and almost sterts a revolution, proves that England is a stable country
Adam Smith publishes his WEALTH OF NATIONS
Frederick William I
Hohenzollern dynasty in Prussia, establishes the general directory and never uses his army
became the economic crossroads in Europe during the 14th Century, meeting place for the Hansa, woolen industries devastated, area along the coast of belgium and France, it was known for high-quality woolen cloth.
opinion contrary to popular belief; opinion contrary to accepted religion; ADJ. heretical; CF. heretic
Last ruling Incan emperor of Peru. Executed by the Spanish (Pizarro)
Charles the Bold
He controlled Burgandy until Louis XI allowed the Swiss to invade and in the process he was killed, and his land went to France
Papal States
where Rome and the pope are
House of Medici
Bankers in Florence during the 15th century, Giovanni, Cosimo, and Lorenzo the Magnificent
(1377-1446 in Rome) Interior of San Lorenzo.
Tried to use Brahe's observations to proove the Aristotelian-Potlemiac system but accidentaly prooved the Heliocentrical theory (prooved the Earth revovled around the sun)
Alexander VI
Of the Borgia family, encouraged his son (Cesare) to create Italian state by any means necessary
A Lutheran country of the age.
English group began to call for Church Reforms. Heavily influenced by the earlier writings by John Wycliffe, whose writings illustrated disgust aagainst the Catholic Church.
known for his sonnets to Laura,tried to imitate Latin by reading ancient texts, "father of humanism"
African Slave Trade
African peoples captured and taken as slaves to South America (sugar cane plantations) and North America (cotton plantations)
Liberal Studies
a set of educational subjects that provides a path of virtue and wisdom
showed the rue shape of landmasses. Near the equator, it was quite accurate, but the further away you went, the less accurate it became
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (p. 413), War between England and France. England loses and losses half of its land but that land was in France.`, negative impact- France became an absolute power. Positive impact- France formed a nation-state. Ended in 1453
May 5 1789
The Estates-General meets in France after about a century; you need month, day, and year (no commas)
Pope Paul IV
tried to counter the Protestant refromation with theRoman Inquisition and the Index of Forbidden Books
Reason of State
The Prince- rejected the traditional Christian veiw that the state is under divine right, he had a secular view on politics, Itailan Ren.
Third Estate, 85-90 percent of the pop.
Fall of Constantinople by the Turks. Ended Medieval Trade, forcing merchants to try to find another way to get to Asia.
(became The Omish and Mennonites) Hated because their thoughts of: Adult baptism (dunked underwater), Muntser became the new Jerusalem (had to overthrow Munster), no such thing as private property. In the end, Lutherans and Protestants united to slaughter the Anabaptists.
Family that established dynasty in the HRE.
made up the majority of the population and the 3rd estate
Henry VIII
Labled "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope. Needed a divorce, asked Cardinal Wolsey for an annulment from the Pope. He wasn't able beacuse of the Popes relationship with Catherine of Aragon (the soon to be X-wife). Wolsey is fired, and Cromwell and Cranmer are appointed as his advisers. They decide he should brake away from the Pope and Catholic Church. He succeeds and he grants himself a divorce.
Amerigo Vespucci
da Gama
Portuguese, sailed around Cape of Good Hope
Jan van Eyck
(1390-1441 in Flanders) Among The first to use oil paints "Giovonni Arnolfini and His Bride".
William the Silent
also of Nasau, and the Prince of Orange. Wished to unify the seventeen province
French Calvinists.
Charles I and V
Grandson of Ferdinand of Spain so he became _______, he was also the Habsburg heir to the HRE so he became _______, inherited Austria,Netherlands,Duchy of Burgundy, Spain and it empire, he fought withFrancis I, and Martin Luther (name and both #s)
Johannes Gutenberg
a craftsman from Mainz, Germany who reinvented movable type in 1440. He then invented the printing press and printed the first bible.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese ruler, completed the resoration of central authority (unification of Japan)
c.1266-1337; father of renaissance painting; The Ascension; Funeral of St. Francis; uses perspective/facial expressions
House of, was given a monopoly over silver, copper, and mercury mines in Habsburg possesion by Charles V. However, they soon went bankrupt.
invented the water frame, the first industrial invention, it was run by water
wanted to purify the English church of its remaining catholic elements

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