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History Final exam 2006


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Market Economy
Plenty of goods for lowest price possible
Economic Theorist that argued about old mecantalist ides about weath
Free trade
the flow of commerce in the world market wthout government regulation
quantity available
carried out laws of the state
made laws
judges of the court
seperation of powers
the division of power in to three branches
professor at the University of Edenburgh, devoted to philiosophical questions
french noble, devoted himself toteh study of political liberty, came up with the idea of seperation of powers
writer of essays, a social contract and a book on government
the period spanning the middle years of the eighteenth century (1720 to 1790), when scholars believed in the use of reason and the scientific method
'thinkers' that set forth the idea that people could apply reason in everyday life
social gatherings in paris
music of the late 1600's and early 1700's, it means 'odd' in french. noted for its drama and complexity
dscovered the law of gravity- his laws became the starting point for investigating everything in nature
francais marie arouet. He was a writer, didnt like the french monarchy. Much of his work mocked french laws and customs. He wrote Candide
Marie Therese Geoffrin
most influential of the Salon hostesses, also contributed a lot of money to the encyclopedia
Diderots books of the most current and enlightened thinking about science, art, literature, government...etc.
wrote the encyclopedia, 27 editions (banned after 27 but still made a 28th edition)
separated gas from air and breathed it (in england)
also separated gas from air (in france) but also named it oxygen
discoverd electricity and many other inventions (spectacles...etc.)
explored the south pacific, reached austrailia, tahiti, new zealand, and hawaii and charted them (killed by native hawaiians)
one of the greatest barouqe composers
another one of the greatest baroque composers
"father of the symphony" wrote superior symphonies for strings and woodwinds
child prodigy who began cfomposing at 5, played for the king at 8, wrote his first opera at 12, died at 35 of poverty
considered by many one of the greatest european composers of all time
enlightened despotism
priciples which included favoring religious tolerance, making economic and legal refors, and justifying their rule by its usefulness to society rather than by divine right
Frederick II
Granted religious freedom to catholics and protestants but discriminated against polish and prussian jews, he reduced but did not abolish the use of stsorture in his kingdom, he allowed freedom of the press, and agreed that serfdom was wrong but did nothin about it because he needed the support of the landowners.
Catherine II
wanted to help the common people and free the serfs, but she got impatient and also a revolt broke out and she needed the nobles so she stopped with that reform. She expanded Russia by conquering the crimean peninsula on the black sea. Prticipated in the first partition of poland (Aus. Ru. Pru. occupied poland), the second and third and then what was left.
Constitutional Monarchy
The power of the ruler is limited by law
an executive comitee that acted in the rulers name but in reality reorestented the majority party of parliament. this resulved te danger of a stalemate if the crown and the parliament disagreeed. Also becomes on of Britains most durable institutions.
Prime Minister
The leader of the majority party in Parliament that headed the cabinet
french classes
a city-dwelling middle class that belonged to the third estate, some were as well educated and rich as nobles, they wore tight knee breeches called culottes
the second group in the 3rd estate that was much more poor and poverty stricken so they wore baggy shirts baggy long pants that came down to their ankles, sans-culottes means those who are without knee breeches
a form of tax that was paid with work rather than money, the govt. required peasants to work without pay on govt. roads for a certain amount of days every year
July 14th 1979
the french national holiday, Bastille day, when the 3rd estate stormed the bastille and started the french rev.
the prison that was stormed by the 3rd estate because they needed their gunpowder
Louis XIV
the king of france who had a very lavish life style and put the govt. in deep debt
Old Regime
Old institutions of monarchy and feudalism, it worked for the 1st and 2nd estate because they liked rights and spending money but it did not work for the 3rd estate because they had nothing
Estates General
Nobles that met with the king to decide upon the best thing for the country
Marie Antoinette
Louis Wife who everyone hated because she came from austria and she spent all the governments money on lavish dresses and jewels and expensive things for herself.
National Assembly
the people of the 3rd estate who wanted rights and took it into their own hands. they passed laws and refoms for themselves, and decided to get rid of absolute monarchy and begina rep. govt. first deliberate act of revolution.
Great Fear
a wave of panic created by rumors that the nobles were going to hire bringands to terrorize the peasants, but when nothing happend the peasants started terrorizing the nobles
a person who wanted more and more rights
nobles who had fled during peasant uprising
the machine designed to execute people, it was put to great use during the revolution exocuting hundreds of people every day
a temporary alliance between groups who are usually on different sides
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
a set of revolutionary ideas-rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to opression, justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion
Legislative Assembly
an electded group that took power after the National assembly
Paris Commune
the radical leaders set up a new government with reps from each of paris' 48 sections, it became a dominatnt force in the revolution
Jacobin Club
the most radical political club, its members wanted to remove the king and establish a republic
a frequent speaker of the jacobin club, a leader of the paris commune, had great speechmaking skills to win political leadership
a prominent radical leader, hoped to win fame for his scientific research, edited the friend of the people and called for 5 or 6 hundred heads cut off
began the reign of terror, wanted to build a republic of virtue, and tried to wipe out every trace of nobility and monarchy, formed the comitee of public saftey
Comittee of public safety
decided who should be judged as an enemy of the republic
Reign of Terror
the reign of robespierre where everyone was executed for the stupidest things and everyone was in danger
an executive body of 5 men that were moderates , they gave their troubled country a period of order and found the right general to command Frances armies
a seizure of power
an election where all citizens vote yes or no on and issue
an agreement
Napoleon Bonaparte
corsican general, emperor of france, defeated austria (in italy), defended the palace, was defined as a hero
Napoleonic code
comprehensive code of laws that grew out of the principles of liberty and equality, granted eual rights befor the law, and abolished the 3 estates
napoleons greatet victory-23,000 troops, 87,000 russians and austrians-took 20,000 prisoners and killed, forced austrian empire to make peace
Horation Nelson
Commander of brittish fleet-defeated Napoleon
where napoleons army was defeated, napoleon left so he wouldnt be blamed
all ports on the european continent were closed to british shipping to keep brithish ships form europe
bands of spanish peasant fighters
scorched earth policy
burned growing fields and slaughtere livestock rather than leave tem for the grench-greatly weakened naploleons army
to banish
continental system
rgw blockade used to block ou the british ships form europe, supposed to mke europe more self-sufficient
peninsular war
the war (attacks) of the geurillas on the french armies, lost 300,000 men
Grand Alliance
the alliance between Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden
The hundred days
napoleons last bid for power, the battle at waterloo against the Prussians and British
Industrial Revolution
a period of increased output of goods made by machines and new inventions
the process of developing machine production of goods
the process where wealthy landowners were buying much of the land that the village famres had once worked and then rented the fields to families of tenant farmers who worked the land
crop rotation
the process of rotating crops through different fields to keep the nutrients in the field abunant and to keep the soil fertile
large bulidings that housed many new and large machines
a person who organizes, manages and takes on the risks of a business
John Kay
invented the flying shuttle which was a peice of boatshaped wood on wheels with yarn attached to it used to let a weaver work twice as fast
James Hargreaves
invented the spinning jenny that allowed a spinner to work with six or eight threads at once, and later models let them work with as many as 80 threads at once
Richard Arkwright
invented the water frame which used the waterpower from fast-flowing streams to drive water power
Samuel Crompton
invented the spinning mule, a cross between a water frame and spinning jenny
Edmund Cartwright
invented the power loom which ran by water power and sped up the process of weaving
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin which allowed slaves to pick the seeds out of cotton 10 times as fast than as they would by hand
Cotton gin
the invention that let slaves work 10 times fasster picking out seeds in the cotton and produced 987,000 bales of cotton as opposed to 9,000 bales
James Watt
a scottish scientist who figured out how to make the steam engine better
John McAdam
largely responsible for better roads, built roadbeds with layer of large stones for drainage and tehn put a smooth layer of crushed rock, roads werent as muddy or dusty woth the "macadam" surface
Richard Trevithick
made an engine that was both small and powerful which could carry a cart and the suff inside it on a set of rails, it ran at very high pressure
bulit 20 engines for mine operators in Northern england, he worked on the worlds first railroad line using 4 locomotives that he had designed and built
Samuel Slater
a young british mill worker sho disguised himself as a farmer and went to the U.S where he designed a spinning machine from memory
Moses Brown
began to work or a factory to house Slater's machines, the first factory in the U.S (pawtucket, rhode island)
William Cockerill
a British Carpenter whobegan building cotton-spinning machines in belgium while it was still under french rule, his sons openeed factories that turned out steam engines, locomotives and other machinery
a group of workers in trade or industy who join together to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages
Factory Act of 1833
made it illegal to hire children under 9 years oldand chlildren form 9 to 13 were not to work more than 8 hours a d ay yong people form 14 to 18 could not be reqired to work for more than 12 hours a day
Mines Act of 1842
placed similar limits on the work of children in mining as the factory act did on the work of children in factories
lassiez-faire government
the policy that expected the government to take a hands-offattitude toward thee economic and social conditions
the making of agreements by officials to establish peace
the principle that the rulers that the rulers thrown out of power by napoleon were restored to power
proteting the existin traditional forms of govt
the movement to give more power to elect parliaments
favored drastic and violent change
congress of vienna
called by austria, great britain, prussia and russia to confirm victory over france
great power
Austira, great britain, Prussia, and russia, defeated france and made decisions in secret
dominated the congress, not austrian by birth, rose rapidly with connection to the Hapsburgs, became austrians foreign minister for 39 years, had 3 goals(strenghten surrounding countries, restore a balance of power, restore royal families to the thrones)...he was conservative
German confederation
39 german sates joined together, dominated by austria
Holy Alliance
agreement against liberalism, Alexander I, Francais I and Frederick William III promised to help eachother
Louis XVII
french king, shared power with a chamber of deputies
the belief that a persons greatest loyalty should be nation to state
a group united under its own government
a reaction against the enlightenment with new types of music, and art
Battle of Navarino
British, French and ussian fleet destroyed an ottoman fleet (for the greeks)
a leading romantic poet
early leader of italian nationalism
Young Italy
the nationalist group formed by mazzin, no one older than 40 could join, had 60,000 members at one point
leading figure in Romanticism
Latin America
the ladns south of the U.S where spanish, portugese and french were
wealthy venezuelan creole, generally responsible for sucess of rebels
people born in spain or portugal, top of society
people born in latin america, anscestors came form europe, top of society
common people, mixed europeansand native american
european and african ancestry
political strongmen who ruled as dictators
Toussaint L'Ouverture
ex-slace, drove french forces from an island, taken prisoner and sent to france
San Marin
general, also responsible for the sucess of the rebels, freed the south and took an army to peru to drive oth the spaniards
battle of Ayacueho
defeated spaniards 12/9/1824
Dom Pedro
regent of brazil, emperor, got brazils independance, still only monarchy
leader of a revolt, had a force of 60,000men, declared end to slavery and other reforms
farm worker/ priest, the next leader, was a better general
creole officer, captured and executed morelos, made peace wih guerillas and proclamed mexico independant
Monroe Doctirne
monroe claimed american continents werent going to be colinozed by europe anymore
the revolution by the rulers
charles x
last bourbon king of franc, ignored liberals and radicals and tired to be an absolute monarch
louis phillipe
cousin, sympathetic to liberal reform, would share poer with chamber of deputies, had 2 decadesw of peace
reform bill of 1832
set up new districs for electing member s of parliament
year of revolutions, started in two sicilies followed by 50 more throughout europe
led temporary government, romantic poet, and wanted a republic
wanted political and economical reform
Louis Napoleon
Napoloens nephew, dissolved parliament and was sole ruler of france, became emperor
'the politics of reality' used the word to describe tough, calculating politics in which idealism played no part
a member of prussias landowning nobility
dual monarchy
system of government or austro-hungary
italian nationalist; united northern italy
victor emmanuel II
king of sardinia, but 1st king of Italy
Napoleon III
emperor of france; alliance with cavour
italian nationalist leader of 'red shirts'
prussian prime minister; united germany
free treade area;most all major german states
seven weeks war
war between austria and prussia
Franco-prussian war
final step in german unification
second reich
newly formed german empire
third republic
republican government set up in france

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