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English 1130 - Poetry Quiz


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What are the 3 main types of poetry?
lyric, narrative & dramatic
What is lyric poetry? (Name 1 example).
Short poem expressing thoughts & feelings of a single speaker. They often relate to an incident or to draw a scene. They sound 'lyrical'.

Ex. Emily Dickinson, Elizabeth Barnett Browning
What is closed form poetry? Name 1 example.
A poem that has an established pattern.

Types: sonnet, haiku, limerick, ode, acrostic, dramatic monologue, narrative, ballad
What is open form poetry? What's another name for it? Name 1 example.
Where the poet doesn't have an established pattern in the poem, and is able to write freely. Aka free verse.

Ex. A Mown Lawn - Lydia Davis
Name the types of poetic voice.
1. the poet
2. poetic persona
3. a fictitious character
What is tone & how can it be detected?
Conveys attitude of speaker/poet towards the subject

- can be detected through: style, word choice, or details ...ex. dark tone can be conveyed through diction & imagery
What is narrative poetry? Name 1 example.
Main purpose to tell a story.

Ex. Odysseus (Illiad),
What is dramatic poetry?
Name 1 example.
Poem represents the voice of an imaginary character(s) speaking directly; w/o additional narration by the poet

Ex. My Last Duchess - Robert Browning
Name a poem that uses a poetic persona.
Ex. A Modest Proposal - Johnathan Swift
Note the attributes of Emily Dickinson: I Heard a Fly Buzz - When I Died
. . .
Name attributes of Wallace Stevens - 13 Ways of Looking At a Blackbird
. . .
Name attributes of Theodore Roethke - My Papa's Waltz
. . .
Name attributes of Percy Bysshe Shelley - Ozymandias
. . .
What is denotation?
Literal dictionary meaning of the word.
What is connotation?
The impression of a word that goes beyond its defined meaning.

Ex. Rose - love, romance, passion, beauty,
What is simile?
Comparing two unlike things.

A connective verb can also be used.

Ex. resemble
What is metaphor?
No usage of a connective verb between 2 unlike things. = direct comparison

Ex. Juliet is the sun.
What is personification?
Using human-like attributes to inanimate things.
What is metonymy? Name some examples.
Using closely associated things to stand in for the other

Ex. press - journalist, crown - royalty, White House - president
What is synecdoche? Name some examples.
Using a part of something that represents a whole.

Ex. "All hands on deck", "Nice wheels".
What is a hyperbole?
An exaggeration for an effect.

Ex. Shakespeare's Macbeth - Lady MacBeth: "All the perfumes of Arabia could not sweeten this little hand."
What is an understatement?
Something that is minimized for effect.
What is ambiguity?
A deliberate opening in language where multiple intrepretations are possible
Name some of the types of poetic language.
denotation, connotation, simile, metaphor, personification, metonymy, synecdoche, hyperbole, ambiguity, pun, paraodox, oxymoron, synesthesia, apostrophe, symbol
What is a pun?
A play on words.

Ex. Rose is getting redder by the moment.
What is a paradox?
2 seemingly contradictory statements and yet, at a deeper level, they are true

Ex. Less is more
What is an oxymoron?
Phrase containing 2 contradictory terms.

Ex. bittersweet, jumbo shrimp
What is synesthesia?
A sense analogy. When 1 sense is used in terms of another.

Ex. colour used in sound - loud stink, smells pink!
What is an apostrophe?
Using someone not present or something not ordinarily spoken to is addressed

Ex. speaker talking to someone - dead; Shakespeare's Julius Caesar: Marc Antony speaking to Caesar's corpse
What is a symbol?
Using a concrete thing/image to suggest something abstract

Ex. dove - peace,
Name some attributes of H.D. (Hilda Doolittle)'s Heat.
- apostrophe: wind
- sexual connotations: ripping, ploughing, fertilizing
Name some attributes of William Carlos Williams' This is Just to Say.
- real life: a note stuck to a fridge
- appeals to taste & touch
- domestic scene
- who: you & I (couple)
- giving in to temptation
- apologizing (sense of something wrong)
Name some attributes of T.S. Eliot's Preludes.
- scene: industrial, working class, urban
- depressing imagery

I. establishment of time & personification

II. 9-5 grind; fake act

III. female prostitution imagery

IV. businessman wanting to get ahead
i. infinitely - humanity, some spirituality 2b desired

- contrast: clock time - experience time
- could be context of WWI
What is modernism & when did it approximately take place?
- Defined by rejection of traditional convention

- late 19th century - post WWI (some say even longer to WWII)

Ex. James Joyce, Albert Camus, Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, William Butler Yeats
Name some of the major people that influence the ideas of modernists.
Nietzsche, Darwin, Marx, Fraser, Freud, Einstein, Henri Bergson
What are some of attributes of modernists?
- straying from tradition particularly the Victorian period
- rejection of traditional religion
- often imagery is apocalyptic
- they follow previous thinkers
- many were totaliterians: picking a belief that can withstand chaos
- period of 'isms' & 'manifests'
What is an epiphany?
A 'lightbulb moment'. A revelation.

Ex. James Joyce - Araby
What are some attributes of modernists' style of writing?
- Form is content. (Not only in how it is written but the way it looks too.)

- Usages of irony, detachment, allusions
What are some types of modernists' influences?
- haiku, film
How is the modernist's image?
- using a concrete representation of a sense impression - > abstract idea
What is a rhyme scheme?
A pattern of rhyme identified by using letters at end of lines when rhyme deviates from an established pattern.

Ex. ~
race - A
by - B
place - A
high - B
blue - C
free - D
flew - C
sea - D
What are the types of rhyme?
end/exact rhyme, slant/near rhyme, eye rhyme, internal rhyme, masculine rhyme, feminine rhyme/falling rhyme
What is an end/exact rhyme? Name an example.
Rhyme in which the rhyming words occur at the ends of lines.

My weekend was like any other,
I went to a movie with Mother.
What is a slant/near rhyme? Name an example.
Rhyme in which the final consonant sounds of two (or more) words are the same, but the initial consonants (if there are any) and the vowel sounds are different.

Ex. cup/drop, spring/song, storm/room, soul/oil/foul
What is an eye rhyme? Name an example.
Something that looks like a rhyme but isn't.

Ex. cough ("kof"), enough ("eenuf"), bough ("bow")
What is an internal rhyme? Name an example.
Rhyme in which at least one of the rhyming words is somewhere within a line of poetry; both rhyming words are often in the same line.

Ex. Percy Bysse Shelley - The Cloud

I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers,
From the seas and the streams;
I bear light shade for the leaves when laid
In their noon-day dreams.
From my wings are shaken the dews that waken
The sweet buds every one,
When rocked to rest on their mother's breast,
As she dances about the Sun.
I wield the flail of the lashing hail,
And whiten the green plains under,
And then again I dissolve it in rain,
And laugh as I pass in thunder.
What is a masculine rhyme?
A kind of rhyme where two (or more) words with differing consonant sounds end in identical stressed syllables.

Ex. support, retort, exhort

OR words with final syllables stressed:

What is a feminine/falling rhyme?
A rhyme in which the differing sounds in two (or more) words are followed by stressed rhyming syllables and then by unstressed rhyming syllables. (other than the last)

Ex. revival, arrival, survival

ex. TURtle, FERtile
ex. QUIver, SHiver
Name some of the types of sound devices.
euphony, cacophony, sibilance, assonance, consonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia,
What is an euphony?
Euphonic sounds that are pleasant, pleasing to the ear. Positive.
What is cacophony?
Harsh, plosive sounds.

- ex. usage of hard "G, D, B" sounds
- sometimes discordant
- connnotations: more negative, less pleasant
What is sibilance?
Repeated "S" sounds.

Ex. Slimy snake slithers in.
What is assonance?
Repeated vowel sounds.

Ex. The man in June; holy smoke
What is consonance?
Words having same beginning & ending consonant sounds, but different vowel sounds

Ex. pitter/patter, reader/rider, spoiled/spilled
What is alliteration?
Consonant sounds repeated at the beginning of successive words

Ex. Bill buys bananas.
What is onomatopoeia?
Words that sound like the things they describe.

Ex. buzz, bang
What is rhythm?
Recurrence of stresses & pauses.
What is metre?
Fixed rhythm; stresses & pauses recur at fixed intervals
What is prosody?
Formal analysis of rhythm.
What is end-stopped?
A full stop.

Ex. period, comma at end of line.
What is caesura?
A light but definite pause. Usually after a comma.
What is enjambment?
A run-on line continuing onto the next line (including the meaning); no punctuation

- Fr. for "striding over"
What are the types of rhythm?
Rising rhythm & falling rhythm.
What is rising rhythm?
Moving towards stress; more upbeat sounding
What is falling rhythm?
Moving away from the stress
What is a sonnet?
- Consists of 14 lines.
- Most contain 5 feet & are iambic, uses regular rhyme scheme
What is Petrarchan/Italian sonnet?
- Consists of octave *8* & sestet *6*; division b/w the 2, no couplet at the end
- abba abba cde cde
- octave presents a problem; sestet a possible resolution
- there is usually a 'turn' b/w octave & sestet
- often of 'beloved'
What is a limerick?
An upbeat, humourous rhyme scheme of 5 lines.
What is a haiku?
A closed form lyric; 3 lines - 17 syllables

- not rhymed
- about nature mostly
What is an epic?
A long, narrative poem
- usually patriotic

Ex. The Illiad
What is an ode?
A poem that marks a subject/occasion
- usually serious

Ex. Ode to a Grecian Urn
What is a ballad?
Narrative poem that's intended to be sung.
What is acrostic?
Reads vertically where 1st letters of each word reveals a message or spells something

Ex. I Like You
What is a Shakespearean sonnet?
- Contains 3 quatrains with a final rhyming couplet
- abab cdcd efef gg
- "turn" occurs often in later couplets

- often parodies the Petrarchan ideals
What are the influences of Petrarchan sonnet?
NEO-PLATONISM: outer reflects inner (if pretty outside, moral inside)
- written to an ideal girl; loved from afar (cannot have)

HUMANISM: centralism upon human beings, everything revolves around them,
- development of morals through reason

~ soon 2 became connected = spiritual love (transferal of worship to her)
What were the influences of the 'open form movement'?
1. 19th century: free verse
- break from tradition
- 'anti-close form' movement

2. William Wordsworth
3. Walt Whitman

~ themes: rebellion, self, transcendence, democracy, nature
What are the attributes of free verse?
- establishment of rhythm w/o metrical regularity
- do not use rhyme
- establish line length by 'feel'
- do not use capital letters & punctuation
- use colloquial/vernacular language instead of traditional, advanced Eng.
What are the levels of diction?
vulgate, colloquial, vernacular, general, formal
What are the organizing principles of OPEN FORM POETRY?
enumeration: list-like,

repetition of common themes: self, wandering
- unexpected value of common things
- kinesis (movement

vernacular repetition:
ex. rap slang repeated

cadence: type of rhythm
ex. Whitman uses lines of varying length

strategic use of white space of the page

calculated line breaks
What is a curtal sonnet?
- contains a sestet & quatrain & tail
- a,b,c,a,b,c,d,b,cd,c
- invented by Gerard Manley

ex. Gerard Manley Hopkins - Pied Beauty
What is neo-platonism and how does it relate as a sonnet influence?
It is thought that when somebody is pretty outside, the inner reflects the same thing. (If moral, it sounds on the outside).

- How this relates is that the poet would write to his/her IDEAL girl (that is loved afar & cannot have) to keep her in that 'state'
What is humanism and how does it relate as a sonnet influence?
- It is when everything revolves around humans (centralism)
- can develop own morals through reason

This as well as neo-platonism connected = spiritual love (a transferral of worship upon HER)
What are conceits?
Unlikely things placed together to make a meaning

Ex. John Donne uses flea-sex, God-sex, God-violence
What is vulgate?
Speech that is not affected by schooling
What is colloquial diction?
Language of casual conversation, informal
What is vernacular diction?
Native or indigenous language. (could include certain dialects)
- ordinary everyday language of people
What is general (diction)?
More literate speech.
Ex. in writing
What is formal diction?
Elevated language - usually only written
What is cadence?
Type of rhythm
What is a homage?
Paying tribute.
What is typography?
The arrangement and appearance of printed matter
What is concrete poetry & when did it take place?
Combination of visual art & typed words.
Words themselves become part of the poetry.
Use of space as an element of composition.

Circa '50's.
What is prose?
Ordinary speech or writing without metrical structure.
What is canonization?
Process of making a saint.
What is a poetry slam? Who were some of the influences of this time?
Back & forth 'shutdowns' of each other's poetry.
- combines performance & writing

Origins by Marc Smith of Chicago.
Shane Koyczan - won National in 2000
What are the 4 components of hip hop? And when did it started?
rap, dj, breakdancing, graffiti

- Circa '70s by Blacks & Latinos; NYC
Who are some of the Imagist poets & what were the influences?
Active aroudn 1912-15, HD & William Carlos William were in a group

- haiku & film impacts them
What is a foot?
Unit of meter
- 1 stressed & 1-2 unstressed syllable
What is a meter?
Sustained rhythm
What is an iambic foot?
- most common
- consists of 2 syllablles, 1st is unstressed/quieter than the 2nd

Ex. sug GEST, pre TEND,

Ex. But SOFT, what LIGHT through YON der WIN dow breaks? - Romeo & Juliet
What is a trochaic foot?
Like a backwards iamb
- consists of 2 syllables, 1st which is stressed/louder than 2nd

EX. PROB lem, RA ther, RO bert

Ex. DOU ble DOU ble, TOIL & TROU ble...- MacBeth
What is anapestic foot?
Consists of 3 syllables
- 1st 2 of which are unstressed/quieter than 3rd

EX. in ter RUPT, un der STAND, ap pre HEND
What is dactylic foot?
Like 3 bones in your index finger: long, short, short
- like a waltz
- 3 syllables: 1st - stressed/louder than other 2

Ex. MUR mur ing, RU min ate, AN der son

Ex. PUSS y cat, PUSS y cat, WHERE have you BEEN?
What is spondaic foot?
Like judge pounding a gavel
- 2 STRESSED syllables
- used occasionally

What is a monosyllabic foot?
1 stressed syllable

EX. Bang! Thud! Death! Wow...
What is a monometer?
Line of poetry with one foot.
What is a dimeter?
Line of poetry with 2 feet.
What is a trimeter?
Line of poetry with 3 feet.
What is a tetrameter?
Line of poetry with 4 feet.
What is a pentameter?
Line of poetry with 5 feet.
What is a hexameter?
Line of poetry with 6 feet.
What is a heptameter?
Line of poetry with 7 feet.
What is an octameter?
Line of poetry with 8 feet.

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