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History Final Exam Review


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Protestant Reformation
Begins in 1519; rooted in indulgences; started by Martin Luther
Scientific Revolution
Early 16th century; logic / reason
Polish monk and mathematician (1473-1543) = heliocentrism
Tycho Brahe
Danish Astronomer (1546-1601); strengthens Copernicus' model w/ eliptical orbits
Johannes Kepler
German 1571-1630 assistant to Brahe
Galileo Galilei
1564-1642 Italian = heavenly bodies are not perfect spheres
Robert Boyle
1627-1691 English = uses experimental method and trial-and error in chemistry
Issac Newton
1642-1727 English = law of gravity
Early 18th century - Belief that human reason could discover the laws that governed social behavior. More a frame of mind than a coherent movement
French Enlightenment thinker 1694-1778 - "no opinion is worth burning your neighbor for"
Little Ice Ace
1590-1700; few-degree drop in temp. --> famine
Spanish Inquisition
16th century - Spanish get rid of Jews / Moors / Non-catholics
Church of England
Founded in mid-16th century by Henry VIII after he can't get a divorce w/ Catherine
English Civil War
King Charles I rules for 11 years w/o summoning parliment; 1642 English Civil War Breaks out
Glorious Revolution of 1688
Coup against James II of England in 1688; Bloodless rebellion --> Bill of Rights of 1689
Bill of Rights of 1689
Signed by William and Mary = Successors to James; *starts constitutional track in England*
Exemplified by Louis XIV / Peter the Great = absolute royal power
French Royal Authority
"king's touch" = king believed able to heal w/ a touch
King could overrule parliment just by walking in
Council of Trent
Christian chuch decides on music, baroque art,
lights = make church exciting
30 Years War
early-mid 17th century --> causes decline of Holy Roman Empire
Oliver Cromwell
Leader of English Civil War that beheads Charles I
Balance of Power
Louis XIV defeated in a series of 18th century wars by European temporary alliances
Conclusion 1500-1750 Europe
Age of progress tempered w/ religous persecution, wars
Ming Empire 1500s
Powerful economy (Europeans seeing this are astonished); manufacturing and agriculture prosper, but serious problems develop
Factors of Fall of Ming
Little Ice Age --> famine --> uprisings
Urban Growth --> price inflation
Corruption --> disorder and inefficiency
Fall of Ming
Uprisings / Foreign invasions weaken ming, and Li Zecheng (= rebel leader) takes Bejjing. Manchu then force Li Zicheng out and found Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Manchu dynasty replacing Ming
Ming Emperor (1622-1722) = prosperous period. Repairs infrastructure, encourages trade; open to Western ideas (even considered using Gregorian Calendar)
Yangzhou Massacre
Manchu restore order by first breaking it down; women = objects; harsh discrimination against women
Treaty of Nerchinsk
1689 treaty btwn. Qing and Russia negotiating border along Amur River
Philosopher Kings
Voltaire's description of Chinese Emperors; appealing philosophy to Enlightenment thinkers
British have high demand for tea, angered by Canton System = only trade from Canton
McCartney Mission
late-18th century; McCartney dispatched by British as a "tribute emmisary" wanting increased trade, but China refuses
Princes of Muscovy
Evict Golden Horde in 1478
"Third Rome"
1600s Russia claims to be "3rd rome", but this is greatly exaggerated b/c they are very backward
Mercenary soldiers; sometimes fought for and sometimes against Russian tsars
Time of Troubles
Early 17th century - Swedish and Polish briefly take Moscow; evicted and Mikhail Romanov becomes Tsar
Russian Aristocracy; only 2% of population (rest = serfs)
mid-17th century - early-18th century; lower class transformed into serfs
Peter the Great
-Westernizes (he goes to Europe incognito to bring back technology)
-Authoritarian but no lavish lifestyle
-Brings Russia to Power / now seen as a European nation
Brinton's Spiral
Moderate--> Radical--> Conservative--> Reactionary--> Dictatorship
Estate System
Rigid class structure (like middle ages = can't move up)

1st - Clergy
2nd - Nobility
3rd - Everyone Else (bourgeoise-beggars)!
Working Class (skilled and unskilled)
- now unable to earn a living
- very angry
- tradition of food riots
- ** nothing to lose ** (this is essential to revolution)
Roots of Revolution
- Depleted treasury (from king, wars, only 3rd estate = taxed)
- Wretched conditions of poor / class divisions
Estates General
Called in 1788-89 for first time since 1614 b/c king needs taxes 1st and 2nd estates; vote is 2-1 against taxes (duh)
National Assembly
Third estate declares itself "National Assembly" and intends to force a constitution
Tennis Court Oath
3rd estate locked out so meets on a tennis court and vows to get a constitution
Storming of the Bastille
Crowd attacks the bastille = medieval fortress used as a prison
Declaration of the Rights of Man
National Assembly declares that people are soverign; life/liberty/property
Storming of Versailles
King and Queen are escorted to Paris
Uncompromising Democrats
Moderate Jacobings, also known as 'the mountain' b/c of sitting up top; lead by Maximilien Robespiere
allies w/ working class and forms Committee of Public Safety to run the Reign of Terror
Reaction in the French Revolution
Robebpierre is executed; new executive authority (The Directory) is formed and Napolean Bonaparte siezes power
Napolean Bonaparte
1769-1827; siezes power in 1799;
example of Popular Authoritarianism
Napoleonic Code
Provides Personal Security while denying individual rights (i.e. free speech / expression)
Haitian Independence
1804; Francois Dominique Toussaint(former slave) establishes Haiti as second independence state in Americas (after US)
Congress of Vienna
Reactionary European Congress to attempt to erase memory of French Revolution / Napolean (revolutionary ideas are spreading). They redraw the map of Europe and reset balance of power; install a bourbon on the french throne
Revolutions of 1848
Paris - Lousi Philippe is overthrown and Second French Republic is created
Agricultural Revolution
Revolution in Farming; rich benefit b/c they can afford to risk using new methods; this --> population boom
Great Britan Leads IR
Other countries follow; read Sherman on this
5 roots of innovation
(1) mass production through division of labor
(2) new machines / mechanization
(3) inc. manufacture of iron
(4) steam engine
(5) telegraph
Industrial Revolution
Economic and Social change of the late-18th and 19th centuries, which transformed Great Britain and then other nations from basically agricultural and commercial economies to industrial economies.
Advantages of Mechanization
Production increases while price decreases; Wedgewood = example
New, cheaper refining processes --> "coke" iron = mas iron production. Cheap iron --> mass production of guns, tools, etc.
Steam Engine
Leads to Trains and revolutionizes transportation;. England and other countries become criss-crossed w/ railroads. Start of globalization
Hegelian Thinking
Thesis and Antithesis clash --> synthesis = how history changes
Impact of IR
- Rich grow richer and poor grow poorer
- Environmental Problems (deforestation)
-Growth of towns
-Growth of transportation
IR working conditions
dull, clock-based; accidents are common
revolutionizes communication; moves to post-industrial age (growth of new SERVICE INDUSTRY)
hated machines / wrecked them
Thomas Malthus
Population inc. --> Food supply dec.
wants slow, graduated reform

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